Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA)
  • Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Recent publications
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is an important horticultural commodity all over the world, and its growth can be affected by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). To keep track of plant behaviors, growers are using new technologies. In this paper, aerial images were obtained using a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to gather crop information in a short time giving acceptable accuracy for decision-making in the field. Evaluations were done to check the flight height interference in the image's quality for lettuce mapping, and select the best one to estimate the effect of root-knot nematode incidence on lettuce growth. In a field infested with M. incognita, lettuce seedlings were planted in plots treated with bionematicide and control plots. Aerial images were obtained using low-cost UAV in four flight heights performed for five weeks, along with field measurements. Images were processed and used to calculate vegetation indices (VI) and vegetation cover (VC). After lettuce harvesting, nematode eggs were extracted from plants' roots and quantified. Plots treated with bionematicide showed no difference from the control plots in eggs number and lettuce growth. Differences in VI values between the flight heights were not consistent, suggesting that VI values could be affected by the lack of luminosity calibration in each flight condition. VC values calculated from field data presented strong positive correlations with VI and VC values from UAV image data, indicating that RGB images obtained by UAV can be used in the detection of diseases that affect plant growth, as well as following up harvesting time.
C:N ratios are the most ancillary and available proxy for soil organic matter (SOM) chemical composition and quality in the literature, but there is surprising little information on how it is affected by environmental factors. To address this knowledge gap, we searched the global literature and gathered information from 74 studies conducted between 1980 and 2019, covering 29 countries and a wide range of variation environmental settings. We compiled data on soil organic carbon (SOC), total N (TN) and C:N ratios in bulk soil and, for the first time, within soil particle-size fractions-sand, silt, and clay. Correlation and random forest statistical analyses showed that SOC and TN contents were mostly controlled by macroscale, climatic drivers, namely temperature and precipitation, whereas soil C:N ratios were more responsive to microscale drivers, e.g. soil particle-size distribution. Specifically, C:N ratios in bulk soil were most strongly correlated with sand contents (r = 0.52; p < 0.001), consistent with the high C:N of sand-sized SOM (median 16.7). Otherwise, clay-sized SOM showed much less variation in C:N ratios (5.0-17.6, median 9.6), regardless of sampling depth and land use. Clay C:N ratios were only consistently lower under arid climate types. Silt-sized SOM showed intermediate C:N ratios (median 13.1) relative to sand and clay-sized fractions. Hence, our results suggest a preferential immobilization of N-enriched SOM onto clay-sized particles coupled to a segregation of N-depleted SOM in sand-sized fractions. Although bulk soil C:N increased with sand contents, the accumulation of N-depleted SOM within sand-sized fractions increased with clay content. Overall, by identifying the complementarity of macro-and microscale factors underpinning soil C and N pools and their C:N ratios, our results contribute to reduce the inherent complexity to model SOM cycling across global to local scales.
Most of the Brazilian charcoal is produced in rudimentary kilns without greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) control. The furnace-kiln system, which allows the burning of methane, stands out in this context. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate the carbon balance in the charcoal production with and without the use of the furnace-kiln system. The study was conducted in a farm in Lamim, State of Minas Gerais - Brazil. The average annual carbon increment (AACI) was calculated based on two forest inventories. The GHG emissions related to the eucalyptus forest were calculated based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. The collection and quantification of gases emitted during the wood carbonization were carried out using a gas analyser. The annual carbon balance was calculated using the AACI of the eucalyptus forest, the farm annual emissions, and the charcoal production emissions with and without methane burning. The farm carbon balance without methane burning was 13.9465 MgCO2e ha⁻¹ and with methane burning was 15.9616 MgCO2e ha⁻¹. Thus, the replacement of traditional kilns by the furnace-kiln system was shown to be effective to reduce the emissions established in the Paris Agreement in the Brazilian steel sector.
Urban forests are responsible for a lot of benefits, and can be used as a tool to ex-situ conservation of native species. Our study investigated a public urban forest aiming to provide subside to management projects in order to allow the accurate fulfillment of social, aesthetic and ecological functions displayed by trees. Our survey was conducted in 6 public squares and 5 gardens in the Jardins neighborhood. We classified the trees according to their phytogeographic origins and seed dispersal habit. The Shannon-Weaver (H') index, Simpson's dominance (D') and Pielou's equability (J) were determined. A total of 507 individuals were sampled, located in 12 botanical families and 29 species, and 13 of them were classified as native and 16 as exotic. The family with higher species richness and number of species was Fabaceae (36%). Regarding the seed dispersal syndrome, the most representative was zoochory (52%). The ecological index showed medium species diversity (H'=2.2284), high dominance (D'=0.7899) and medium number of individuals (J) 0.6552. Although the Jardins neighborhood was planned, the urban forest in this area still needs improvement; such as incentive measures that can promote biodiversity and the application of ex-situ conservation.
Fine roots serve as the primary interface between trees and the soil, and they are dynamic in their response to environmental conditions. Among many functions, they are principle in gathering nutrients and water, and they constitute a major component of the tree. Their overall contribution to soil carbon flux is not well understood, nor is the effect of site and genotype on their dynamics, and these factors are crucial to understanding nutrient cycles and tree growth under variable conditions. This study evaluated how the fine root dynamics of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) might be different between genotypes and on different sites. Three loblolly pine plantations were established, two in 2009 in North Carolina (NC) and Virginia (VA), and one in 2011 in Brazil (BR). Root biomass was estimated with soil cores across the three sites and between two genotypes in 2020. Seasonal and annual fine root production was measured at the NC and VA sites over the 12th growing season using ingrowth cores. The trees in BR that were two years younger were much larger than those in NC and VA and had more fine root biomass at initial sampling than those in NC, despite similar levels of fertility. Meanwhile, fine root production rates decreased with higher rates of aboveground productivity across all measured plots in NC and VA. These results indicate that (1) standing fine root biomass may be related to environmental conditions that are not easily manipulated, which could inform modeling of carbon cycles, and (2) in these intensively managed plots, sufficient resources were available to allow for increased aboveground growth despite lower rates of fine root production, which supports the employment of these intensive silvicultural practices.
Community stability and carrying capacity are essential core concepts in ecology because they reflect the interactions between organisms and their environment and provide clues to predictability. Since caves are considered stable habitats, we used long-term invertebrate monitoring to understand temporal and spatial carrying capacity in a neotropical cave based on species richness and beta diversity. Invertebrates were monitored from the entrance to the inner parts of the cave in plots (25m long each) in five sampling events over 10 years. Overall, 181 species were recorded. Although the turnover in species composition was considered high, the number of species remained almost constant along time, obviously considering the species oscillations between dry and rainy periods. The partitioning of beta diversity showed that in the rainy period and in the inner regions, the species replacement (turnover) was responsible for the differences in species composition over time. The richness stability and the turnover along time seem to indicate a maximum number of species that may coexist in the cave (∼64 species), probably a proxy of environmental carrying capacity. Then, despite the environmental stability of the caves, the permanent absence of light and scarcity of food resources makes these habitats restrictive to colonization, printing an intense temporal turnover in faunal composition, although with constant richness. Hence, at least for the studied cave, it seems that there is a maximum number of species it can shelter, regardless of which taxa.
Agrosilvopastoral systems present high potential as a sustainable agriculture technique, despite the current limiting points in the systems management that must be overcome. A major bottleneck in the implementation of these systems is the damage caused, to forest species, by the application of herbicides for weed control in the crop component. The present study evaluated the selectivity of herbicides in seedlings of two tree species native to the Brazilian Cerrado, Dipteryx alata (Vog.) and Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Griseb.) Altschul, and two eucalyptus clones, E. urograndis and E. urocam. The study was conducted in a greenhouse, with two commonly-used herbicides (glyphosate and mesotrione), in five different doses. The sensitivity of tree species to the herbicides was evaluated through physiological, morphological and visual phyto intoxication characteristics. For glyphosate, the tree species exhibited strong phytotoxicity symptoms from the second day after application, being the symptoms more prominent in the two eucalyptus clones and less in D. alata, which presented higher tolerance to this herbicide. For mesotrione, the four tree species studied showed mild toxicity symptoms, with very little or absent significant impacts in growth and biomass accumulation. The herbicide mesotrione was shown to be selective for the four tree species studied and can be recommended to agroforestry systems in which these species are present. These results based on phytotoxicity grades are reinforced by the biometric and physiological parameters measured.
The aging process is used to increase the value of cachaça and other beverages. During its contact with wood, reactions occur that are responsible for the extraction and formation of new compounds that give a different color and aroma to the beverage. Oak is the most widely used wood for aging; however, this is not a native wood in Brazil, and it is expensive. Oak barrels can go through a charring process during their production that facilitates the extraction of compounds by the beverage. The objective of this work was to determine the physicochemical profile, quantify the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and determine the phenolic composition of cachaça aged in oak barrels with different levels of charring (no charring, weak, medium, and intense charring). Four barrels were purchased from a cooperage, and samples of cachaça were stored for a period of 1 year. The physicochemical profile of the beverage was within the legal limits with the exception of the cask 3: medium charring (RY3), a sample for which the concentration of aldehydes was above the legal limit (30.41 mg 100 mL⁻¹ a.a.). The highest concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were found in samples stored in barrels with medium and strong charring so the formation of these compounds is associated with the heat treatments. The concentration of phenolics in the beverage stored in barrels that suffered intense charring was not greater than that observed for cachaça stored in barrels that suffered medium charring.
Soil compaction caused by intense machine traffic is a challenge in the sugarcane production system, but its implications can be mitigated by the higher content of soil organic matter and plant root growth provided by conservation management practices (i.e., no-tillage). Thus, we aim to study the impacts of tillage systems on the soil physical attributes, root system and yield of sugarcane propagated by pre-sprouted seedlings. Sugarcane was cultivated under four tillage systems: conventional tillage with harrow (CT); conventional tillage with harrow and subsoiling (CTS), minimum tillage with Rip Strip® equipment (MT) and no-tillage on soybean residue (NT). Soil parameters (soil bulk density, porosity and organic carbon contents) in the 0–60 cm layer, root system (root area and root dry biomass) in the 0–100 cm layer and sugarcane yield were evaluated from 2017 to 2019 during the cane-plant and first-ratoon cane cycles. The no-tillage system showed the highest yields of stalks, biomass and root area of sugarcane even with the highest values of soil penetration resistance and soil bulk density between the rows. The system with Rip Strip® presented the lowest yields of sugarcane stalks. No-tillage had the highest organic carbon content in the topsoil compared to the other tillage systems. The sugarcane yield showed a positive linear relationship with root biomass accumulated in 0–100 cm soil layer. Sugarcane cultivation under no-tillage system provided gains of 15 Mg ha⁻¹ in productivity and higher root dry biomass of the cane-plant cycle in the 0–20 cm soil layer. It also preserves the physical attributes of the soil, increases the soil organic carbon content and favours the increase in the yield and root biomass of sugarcane in both cane-plant and first ratoon cane.
Some growth data in aquaculture have peculiar characteristics that generate consequences in the analysis and modeling. They are usually incomplete or limited, as classified in this article. This means data are restricted to a few observations and often are limited to observations below the curve’s inflection point due to economic interests in farm settings, or due to limitation of physical space in controlled research laboratories, for example. This possibly causes under and/or overestimation in the inference of nonlinear models. Through shrimp growth simulations from the Michaelis–Menten curve, the limited data were synthesized with threshold observation up to the first 7, 13, 18, 36, and 82 weeks. Seven sigmoid growth functions (Logistic, Gompertz, von Bertalanffy, Richard, Weibull, Morgan–Mercer–Flodin, and the own Michaelis–Menten growth) were fitted to respective limited data, in order to assess the research hypothesis. Taking the scenarios with incompleteness in the first 7, 13 and 18 weeks, the parameters of all growth curves modeled under a frequentist approach were underestimated. Thus, we propose a correction for this possible problem through a hierarchical Bayesian approach. Real data from shrimp farming in northeastern Brazil were used to compare it with the traditional frequentist approach employed. The sensitivity in detecting outstanding treatment (pond or batch level hierarchy) can make the new method a powerful management tool in animal production, and also in trials designed for scientific research.
Resistance training (RT) is a widely practiced type of training and the number of adherents of this type of physical exercise is increasing each year. Among the most sought objectives of those who initiate RT is muscle hypertrophy, although success in this process depends on a well-designed protocol and good manipulation of training variables. The present study aims to analyze, through a systematic review, the impact of the RT variables (such as intensity, volume, recovery interval, execution speed, and concentric muscle failure) relevant to muscle hypertrophy and if there is an ideal range for each training variable. The research was carried out in the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Scielo databases, from 2000 to 2020, using the terms “resistance training” and “hypertrophy” and “intensity” or “volume” or “recovery interval” or “execution speed” or “muscular failure”. Twenty-three articles were included in the review. The PEDro scale was used to analyze the selected articles quality. It was concluded that the variables intensity and volume must be carefully analyzed in a training program. The other variables, despite of not having a direct impact on hypertrophy, affect the intensity and volume, and must be manipulated according to what is intended with the others.
Seasonal and annual changes in stubble characteristics can affect the regrowth of warm‐season perennial grasses. Understanding these changes and their effects on forage accumulation rate (FAR) can improve defoliation management. Our objective was to describe and relate variations in stubble characteristics with FAR during regrowth of four palisadegrasses [Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. Ex A. Rich.) Stapf. syn. Urochloa brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) R.D. Webster], genotypes Marandu, Xaraés, Arapoty and Capiporã, and one signalgrass [Brachiaria decumbens (Stapf.) syn. Urochloa decumbens (Stapf) R.D. Webster] cv. Basilisk, in southeastern Brazil. Plots were harvested at 15‐cm stubble height every 28 d during the warm season and 42 d during the cool season of years 2005–2006 and 2007–2008. Stubble mass was ∼1070 kg DM ha−1 greater in the cool than warm season, while FAR was less in the cool season. Arapoty and Basilisk showed generally less FAR (∼45 kg d−1) and stubble leaf, stem, dead material, and total mass during the warm season compared with more productive grasses Capiporã and Xaraés (∼63 kg d−1). Leaf and canopy photosynthesis varied over seasons and years, but they were similar among grasses despite differences in stubble characteristics and FAR. Marandu accumulated more leaf in the stubble than other grasses, resulting in greater residual leaf area index, but it did not increase FAR. Under less favorable growth conditions, grasses increased stubble herbage mass (SHM). More productive grasses generally present greater SHM and leaf mass, indicating that stubble characteristics play an important role in the regrowth of brachiariagrasses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved Stubble characteristics play an important role in the regrowth of brachiariagrasses. Grasses increased stubble herbage mass and reduced forage accumulation rate during the cool season. Marandu palisadegrass had greater stubble leaf mass, but similar accumulation rate to less productive grasses. Capiporã and Xaraés palisadegrasses had greater stubble herbage mass and forage accumulation rate.
In ecology, dealing with sample design is a constant challenge, especially in interaction networks, where most studies suffer from undersampling. Different sampling methods are used in interaction networks, from continuous observations over time to observations at the peak of flowering of plants. However, species richness and abundance vary crucially over time. Therefore, there is significant uncertainty about how far we are from complete sampling. This study used data from a biweekly sampling of insect-plant interactions in a highly diverse biome over an entire year to quantify this uncertainty by identifying the required effort to achieve sampling completeness. We also extended this investigation to each of the four seasons. We used accumulation curves based on abundance data to estimate the sampling deficiency. In addition, we fit nonlinear models to estimate the sampling effort required to achieve completeness based on six network-level metrics. Subsequently, we sought to identify the factors responsible for the difference in sampling completeness. We found that the sampling effort carried out was sufficient to record most animals and blooming plants throughout all seasons. As for interactions, a substantial increase in sampling effort would be required to achieve sampling completeness, especially in fall and spring. Furthermore, we have seen that the dissimilarity of interactions between seasons is the main factor that influences the completeness of the sampling. Finally, we observed that the main factor influencing the dissimilarity of interactions was the links turnover and that such alterations possibly occur due to changes in species composition, especially of plants Implications for insect conservation Our results show that the sampling effort to be carried out in each season is different, due to the interactions dissimilarity between seasons. In this sense, it is important to carry out studies with interaction networks covering the different seasons of the year, in order to understand the effects of seasonality on plant-floral visitor interactions and the role of temporal dynamics of interactions in the conservation of species in highly diverse tropical areas.
Reforestation with species of the Eucalyptus genus provides the main biomass source for energy purposes in Brazil. However, the country’s northern region lacks such crops to meet the demand of the second-largest national steel pole. The species is a promising source of biomass, as it is native to the region and grows at high rates. Thus, this research aimed to evaluate the effect of planting spacing (4.5, 6.0, 7.5, 9.0, 10.5, and 12 m2 per plant), tree age (87 and 102 months) and stem forking on dendrometric variables and wood basic density of T. vulgaris trees from a trial plantation located in Eastern Amazonia. The commercial volume, basic density, form factor, and dry wood mass of trees were determined. The forked trees had a higher volume (0.2492 m3) and dry wood mass (112.88 kg) than non-forked trees (average volume of 0.1573 m3 and 73.66 kg of dry wood mass). At 87 months, wood basic density was found higher in wide spacings (9 and 12 m2 plant− 1). At 87 months, the non-forked and forked trees presented basic densities of 0.505 and 0.474 g cm− 3, respectively. The forked trees at 102 months spaced by 9 m2 had a basic density > 0.500 g cm− 3, a desirable parameter for charcoal production. Thus, this study confirmed the relevance of planting spacing, age, and stem type on the basic density of T. vulgaris, supporting future studies to define the best silvicultural practices and decision-making on the species by forest companies located in Amazonia.
The Riverine Barrier Hypothesis (RBH) predicts that tropical rivers can be effective barriers to species dispersion, affecting different scales of biological organization, from genes to assemblages. We disentangled the latitudinal from the river presence effect to test the hypothesis that the Doce river mouth acted as a geographical, historical barrier for insects through North and South directions of the Brazilian coast, affecting the current community structure. We sampled dung beetle communities. In 16 Coastal Sand-dune Forest (“Restinga”) patches, across the Doce River Basin in the Brazilian coastline, nine through the South and seven through the North direction of the Doce River's mouth. We analyzed the relationship between the community composition and richness relative to the river (North and South regions) and latitude using linear modeling over a distance matrix (DistLM) approach. The latitude explained 17.74% of the total variation in dung beetle species composition, and the regional position relative to Doce River's mouth exhibited a significant effect (Pseudo F = 2.8479; p = 0.005) only after removing the latitudinal effect, here representing the habitat filtering. Both variables explained together with a total of 32.52% of the variability in dung beetles composition at coastal sand dune forests. The geographical position alone explained 48% of the richness difference between the North and South regions of the Doce River's mouth (Pseudo F = 16.534; p < 0.01). Meanwhile, the latitudinal position of the sites exhibited no significant relationship with species richness. Our findings highlight the role of Doce River as a biogeographical filter in the Doce river basin, while it represents the primary determinant of geographical segregation of the two key-species central to the dung beetle community structure.
Passiflora mucronata Lam. offers a reservoir for the control of fusariosis in passion fruit. Fusariosis, a fungal disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. passiflorae and species of the Fusarium solani complex, can dramatically reduce productivity and lead to premature death of infected plants. This study aimed to assess the resistance of ten P. mucronata genotypes (G1 to G10) to F. oxysporum f. sp. passiflorae and F. solani isolates. Plants grown for 45 days in autoclaved soil, were inoculated with i) two separate F. oxysporum f. sp. passiflorae isolates, ii) a mixture of three F. oxysporum f. sp. passiflorae isolates, iii) two separate F. solani isolates, and iv) a mixture of seven F. solani isolates. The roots were immersed in a spore suspension for 60 min and plantlets were grown for 90 days. Inoculated plants of G2 and G5 exhibited the same growth and accumulation of shoot and root dry matter as non-inoculated plants, 100% survival, and no internal or external tissue damage, suggesting immunity to fusariosis. Genotype G9 grew normally in a disease-prone environment, suggesting horizontal resistance. These genotypes can be used as rootstocks for breeding of commercial passion fruit varieties, as they can be classified resistant to F. oxysporum f. sp. passiflorae and F. solani isolates.
Cattle parasitic otitis caused by the nematode Rhabditis spp. is a serious health problem in Brazil, a situation which is confounded by lack of effective control measures. In vitro studies associating biological and chemical control as an alternative method showed promising results. The objective was to evaluate the combined use of Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001), 10% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and 1.9% ivermectin for the in vivo control of Rhabditis spp., in naturally infected Gyr cattle. For this purpose, 48 animals, whose infection in both ears was diagnosed, were randomly assigned to 6 groups: group 1 (ivermectin 1.9%); group 2 (10% DMSO); group 3 (AC001); group 4 (ivermectin 1.9% + 10% DMSO w/v); group 5 (1.9% ivermectin + AC001 w/v); group 6 (10% DMSO + AC001 v/v). The treatments were performed in a single dose, in the right ears, with the left ears remaining untreated, as a control group. There was a significant reduction (p < 0.01) in the number of nematodes in the treated groups in relation to the control, with the following best efficacies: groups 1 and 2, 47% and 52.9%, respectively, 7 days after treatment; groups 3, 4, and 5, 47.8%, 48.6% and 36.7%, respectively, 14 days post-treatment; group 6, 38.4%, 21 days post-treatment. It was concluded that the combination of chemical compounds and D. flagrans in a single application was effective for the in vivo control of Rhabditis spp. in naturally infected cattle.
Background Gonipterus platensis Marelli (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the main defoliating beetle of Eucalyptus L’Hér. (Myrtaceae) plants worldwide. The suitability of Eucalyptus to this pest varies among host plant genotypes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development, reproduction, and survival of G. platensis on Eucalyptus species and hybrids to assess their suitability to this insect pest in Brazil. Methods The survival, development, and reproduction parameters were evaluated with G. platensis feeding leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill., Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake and on the hybrids of E. grandis × E. urophylla ‘H13’ and ‘VR3748’ in the laboratory. Results The duration of the larval stage of G. platensis was shorter on E. urophylla. The pupal stage and the period from larva to adult were equally shorter on E. urophylla and E. camaldulensis . The viability of instars of this insect was low on both E. grandis and E. camaldulensis . The complete lifespan, oviposition period and reproduction parameters of G. platensis were greater on E. urophylla , lower on E. camaldulensis and E. grandis , and intermediate on both hybrids tested. Synthesis Eucalyptus urophylla is the most suitable host for G. platensis survival, development, and reproduction, while E. grandis and E. camaldulensis are the least suitable.
The present study aimed to evaluate the potential of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSF-CWs) with different arrangements of baffles inside and cultivated with fountain grass (Pennisetum setaceum) in the removal of microcontaminants from wastewater from a university campus. The HSSF-CWs were made of fiberglass with three different configurations: CW-A without baffles; CW-B with baffles fixed to the sides; and the CW-C with baffles fixed above and below the reactor. It was analyzed the contaminants ibuprofen (IBU), acetaminophen (PAR), 4-octylphenol (4OC), caffeine (CAF), 4-nonylphenol (4NP), naproxen (NPX), bisphenol-A (BPA), diclofenac (DCF), estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), ethinylestradiol (EE2), and estriol (E3) by pre-concentration using Strata SAX cartridge and determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Microcontaminants were monitored monthly between November/2018 and April/2019. Among the twelve microcontaminants evaluated, the endocrine disrupters 4NP and EE2 were not identified in any of the samples. In the affluent, the average concentrations ranged from 87.3 to 2559.2 ng L⁻¹ for pharmaceuticals, 584.6 to 1658.3 ng L⁻¹ for caffeine, and 49.1 to 584 ng L⁻¹ for endocrine disruptors. The CWs with different baffle arrangements were efficient in removing the organic pollutants evaluated. Caffeine stimulant was the contaminant that presented the highest removal, followed by pharmaceuticals, and endocrine disruptors. Considering the risks related to the presence of these contaminants in wastewater, the results from this work represent an important contribution for studies related with the microcontaminants removal in HSSF-CW.
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Antonio Chalfun-Junior
  • Departamento de Biologia
Roberto Braga
  • Departamento de Engenharia
Vania Helena Techio
  • Departamento de Biologia
Sandro Silva
  • Departamento de Educação Física
Filippe Elias de Freitas Soares
  • Departamento de Química
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