Coffee plantations installed at high altitudes and near forested areas have been highly infested with Anredera cordifolia. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of different pre- and post-emergence herbicide treatments on A. cordifolia after mechanical mowing. A field experiment was carried out in a coffee plantation with natural infestation of A. cordifolia in a completely randomized design with a split-plot scheme and four replicates, in which the main plot an herbicides application and the subplot was the days after the initial application (DAI). The treatments were as follows: saflufenacil + glyphosate (70 + 960 g a.i. ha⁻¹); chlorimuron + glyphosate (80 + 960 g a.i. ha⁻¹); metsulfuron + glyphosate (6 + 960 g a.i. ha⁻¹); flumioxazin + glyphosate (25 + 960 g a.i. ha⁻¹), and glyphosate (960 g a.i. ha⁻¹); with sequential application of glyphosate (960 g a.i. ha⁻¹); glyphosate + indaziflam (960 + 75 g a.i. ha⁻¹); indaziflam (75 g a.i. ha⁻¹); and a control without herbicide application. Mechanical control, followed by the application of the treatments flumioxazin + glyphosate and metsulfuron + glyphosate in the first application and sequential application of indaziflam, proved to be effective. Control of this weed should be based on the removal of its plant residues from the field to reduce the regrowth and germination of aerial tubers. Key words: coffee growing; herbicide; indaziflam; mignonette vine
Aim The aim of our study was to evaluate the contamination levels of selected pharmaceutically active compounds (PAC) and their potential ecological threat to forested streams. Methods Samples of stream water were collected in the second largest city in Mato Grosso do Sul State in center-west of Brazil. Physicochemical parameters and concentrations of PAC were quantified in samples collected in six field campaigns. Ecological risk assessment (ERA) based on risk quotient (RQ) was performed based on the maximum measured concentration of PAC in water. Results Six pharmaceutical compounds were successfully quantified in the forested streams, namely caffeine, naproxen, diclofenac, estriol, estradiol and ethinylestradiol. From the point of view of ecological risk, ethinylestradiol (22,57), estradiol (1,46), diclofenac (16.99) and caffeine (5.30) can be considered as priorities PAC, as they present moderate to high risks to aquatic organisms and may also cause damage to the food chain. Conclusions This study provides valuable information to emphasize the importance of continuous monitoring of forested streams in the west central region of the country, as well as efforts to control the input of these micropollutants into watercourses.
We investigated two inter-related questions: How is the fruit consumption rate affected by fish assembly and how does an increase in fruit production alter fish composition and richness? To answer these questions, we carried out two complementary experiments in a karst tropical stream, Brazil, South America. First, we measured the fish assemblage composition before, during and after the addition of fruit under fruit producing trees. Added fruit increased differentiation of fish between up-stream and down-stream sites over time. Fish composition under fruit-producing trees was distinct from adjacent sites. Second, we set Inga laurina (Fabaceae) fruits on the stream bottom and measured the consumption time. We also analyzed if the fishes that consumed the fruits differed among 41 sites. Fish assemblage structure partially explained the observed consumption rate for the fish assemblages. Our study provides new information on how fruit input and the location of fruiting trees can induce spatial segregation within freshwater fish communities. Our results can help improving management plans for conservation and restoration of headwater streams, including the locations of riparian fruit trees that provide resources and promote hotspots of ecological interactions for freshwater communities.
The southwest region of the Goiás state, Brazil, is suitable for several agricultural activities, even in more fragile soils such as Typic Quartzipsamments. This study aimed to evaluate the carbon stocks and lability of a Typic Quartzipsamment under land use and management systems in southwestern Goiás. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design and consisted of areas subjected to five land use and management systems [native Cerrado vegetation (Brazilian Savanna), pasture under intensive grazing, pasture under extensive grazing, soybean and maize rotation, and eucalyptus]. Soil samples were collected at the 0-0.1 and 0.1-0.2 m layers. The land use and management systems affected the carbon stocks and quality. In the 0-0.2 m layer, the carbon stocks ranged between 15.9 and 29.2 Mg ha⁻¹. The areas with eucalyptus and under intensive grazing promoted increases in the carbon stocks that ranged between 72 and 84 %, when compared to the areas with Cerrado vegetation and soybean and maize rotation. The carbon contents in the F1, F2 and F4 fractions were higher in the areas with eucalyptus and under intensive grazing. In the 0-0.1 m soil layer, the areas with eucalyptus and under intensive grazing had an increase in the carbon management index by 33 and 36 %, respectively, when compared to the reference area with native Cerrado vegetation. KEYWORDS: Matéria orgânica do solo; qualidade de carbono; índice de manejo de carbono
Serological tests developed for COVID-19 diagnostic are based on antibodies specific for SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Most of the antigens consist of a fragment or a whole amino acid sequence of the nucleocapsid or spike proteins. We evaluated a chimeric recombinant protein as an antigen in an ELISA test, using the most conserved and hydrophilic portions of the S1-subunit of the S and Nucleocapsid (N) proteins. These proteins, individually, indicated a suitable sensitivity of 93.6 and 100% and a specificity of 94.5 and 91.3%, respectively. However, our study with the chimera containing S1 and N proteins of SARS-CoV-2 suggested that the recombinant protein could better balance both the sensitivity (95.7%) and the specificity (95.5%) of the serological assay when comparing with the ELISA test using the antigens N and S1, individually. Accordingly, the chimera showed a high area under the ROC curve of 0.98 (CI 95% 0.958-1). Thus, our chimeric approach could be used to assess the natural exposure against SARS-CoV-2 virus over time, however, other tests will be necessary to better understand the behaviour of the chimera in samples from people with different vaccination doses and/or infected with different variants of the virus.
The trend of replacing antimicrobials as growth promoters in animal nutrition is growing. Functional oils emerge as an alternative because of their richness in bioactive compounds and bioavailability. The present study aims to evaluate the fatty acid profile, antioxidant capacity, composition of phenolic compounds, and toxic capacity in Wistar rats of pracaxi oil (Pentaclethra macroloba). DDPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power), and ABTS (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid) were performed to assess antioxidant capacity. The composition of phenolic compounds was determined by specific reagents. For the evaluation of subchronic oral toxicity, 40 Wistar albino rats (20 males and 20 females) were randomized into 10 groups with different levels of pracaxi oil administered orally. The doses administered were 0, 300, 600, 1200 and 2400 mg/kg (Group 1 to 5 females and Group 6 to 10 males). The animals were submitted to evaluations described in the OECD manual (Guide 407). The analytical results showed that pracaxi oil has different fatty acids in its chemical composition: oleic, linoleic, arachidic, and behenic acids, which account for more than 90% of its composition. In a smaller percentage, lauric acid (0.17%), myristic (0.09%), palmitic (1.49%), stearic (3.45%), and linolenic acid (1.39%) were also found. According to the results of the antioxidant tests, pracaxi oil has a high antioxidant capacity and is a product with a high presence of phenolic compounds. Regarding the toxicity assessment, there were no alterations in the clinical signs and weight of organs. However, in histology, there were mild alterations of a possible toxic process with the increase in the oil dose. This research is extremely valuable since pracaxi oil is a product with little information about its potential use in animal nutrition.
Entomofauna associated with decaying cadavers may be useful in criminal investigation, either through the development of immature insects of interest or through entomological succession in corpses. These factors may vary if the insects are exposed to toxic substances that can modify the insect's developmental cycle, as well as its own occurrence, which would imply significant changes in the results of any investigation. However, there are few studies on how contamination by toxic compounds can affect the action of insects on carcasses and their consequence for forensic expertise. Therefore, this study aimed to test the hypothesis that the normal visitation of flies and beetles is altered in insecticide-contaminated carcasses. The experiment was carried out in a sugarcane plantation, using pig carcasses contaminated with insecticide and the same number of carcasses without any type of contamination as a control. In all experiments, the contaminated carcasses reached the final phase of decomposition in a longer time than the uncontaminated carcasses of the control group. A total of 2.767 specimens were collected and identified, 2.103 individuals from the order Diptera and 664 from the order Coleoptera. There was a significant geometric regression adjustment during the decomposition phases only for the control group, different from the contaminated carcasses in which this pattern did not occur. Results show that contamination by insecticide alters decomposition time and phase, altering the action of flies and beetles, affecting the abundance, composition of species as well as their activities, which can alter the data used by experts in criminal experts. Keywords: Coleoptera; Diptera; Entomotoxicology; Monoculture; Neonicotinoid; Postmortem Interval
A pesquisa considera o uso de dossiês um estratagema das revistas para ascenderem e se conservarem no campo científico. Por essa direção, o trabalho buscou demonstrar os movimentos que as revistas em Educação da região Centro-Oeste realizaram, sob o enfoque da linha investigatória da História da Educação, ancorada no estudo cientométrico. Neste prisma, a pesquisa mapeou 13 revistas vinculadas aos Programas de Pós-graduação em Educação disponíveis no sistema aberto, onde havia 09 periódicos cujos dossiês se enquadravam na perspectiva aqui proposta. Destes foram encontradas 20 temáticas para análise, recuperando 155 artigos com 222 autores diferentes, entre os quais somente 02 tiveram 03 contribuições frequentes. Quanto às palavras-chaves, foram coletadas 459 menções, cujo termo mais recorrente fora História da Educação, em um total de 21 incidências. Todavia, o estudo revelou que o campo de pesquisa da História da Educação ainda requer maturação devido à alta quantidade de pesquisadores que publicaram somente uma vez nos periódicos avaliados. A pesquisa ainda sinalizou vasta transitoriedade de termos que podem confirmar a perda da totalidade do objeto, mas também pode apontar novos rearranjos os quais o próprio campo de pesquisa propõe.
The transformation of forests into agricultural and livestock systems negatively affects the ecological dynamics and the ecosystem services provided by different groups of insects, including dung beetles, which stand out for their importance in recycling livestock dung. Since the 1980s, farmers in different regions of the world have been using Ivermectin to control parasites that affect cattle. The main route of elimination of this molecule and its metabolites is through manure, which affects the richness, abundance, and biomass of dung beetles when they use dung from treated animals. To quantify this effect, we carried out an experimental design in the field in the Colombian Caribbean, where nine cattle farms were evaluated, of which three were taken for each of the different cattle management practices most used in the region: (i) Ivermectin not applied, (ii) two doses of Ivermectin at 1% applied per year and (iii) two doses of Ivermectin at 3.15% applied per year. To assess the richness, abundance, biomass, and functional groups of dung beetles, during the dry and wet seasons, 30 pitfall traps were baited on each farm with fresh cattle manure with the same management doses described above. A total of 25,441 individuals belonging to 19 genera and 30 species were collected. The richness, abundance, and biomass of beetle assemblages decreased along the gradient represented by management without using Ivermectin and management where Ivermectin was used. Paracoprid beetles were the functional group that was most negatively affected in cattle farms with Ivermectin use. In cattle farms where Ivermectin was not used, there was a greater diversity and higher functional structure of dung beetle assemblages than in those where this veterinary medicinal product was used. Using Ivermectin generates short- and long-term effects on the richness, abundance, biomass, and functional groups of dung beetles in livestock systems in the Colombian Caribbean. Therefore, we suggest using integrated treatment management to prevent the recycling fauna from being affected.
Key message Both Croton species survive flooding for a considerable period, changing primary and secondary metabolism; C. urucurana is more tolerant than C. floribundus. Native tropical species with a wide distribution are subject to environmental heterogeneity. Croton floribundus and C. urucurana, for example, occur in different forest formations, such as semideciduous seasonal forest and riparian forests, in well-drained or flooded soils. To explain possible adaptive strategies that allow this congeneric pair to occupy areas subject to flooding, we studied the effects of different times of exposure to flooding on species survival and metabolism and the potential for post-flood recovery. Unlike C. urucurana, the plants of C. floribundus survived flooding for only 60 days and the post-flood period; they did not survive flooding for 90 days. In both species, flooding reduced CO2 absorption rate, stomatal conductance, Rubisco carboxylation efficiency, photochemical efficiency of the photosystem II, and shoot and root biomass; however, there was a recovery of these parameters in post-flooding. Additionally, the flooding of Croton plants increased the content of alkaloids, total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, antioxidant activity, proline, and the activity of the enzymes guaiacol peroxide and superoxide dismutase. These responses were also observed in the post-flooding period. Thus, we conclude that C. floribundus is more sensitive to flooding compared to its congeneric pair. We also conclude that the mechanisms of adaptation to flooding are related to the phenotypic plasticity of both species, including the formation of hypertrophied stem lenticels and adventitious roots, changes in primary and secondary metabolism, and production of protective molecules such as proline.
The use of bacterial inoculants is an attractive alternative that could reduce the consumption of chemical fertilizers in crops. In the production system of quality coffee seedlings, it is essential to achieve an adequate balance of nutrients that allows for healthy plants that are resistant to subsequent handling. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of Rhizobium sp. inoculation on the growth, nutrition and quality of coffee seedlings cultivated with different doses of phosphoric fertilization. Inoculation tests were carried out under nursery conditions using Coffea arabica L. cv. “Isla 5–15” and Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner cv. “Robusta” seeds inoculated with the Rhizobium sp. Rpr2 strain. Sixty days after sowing, the hypocotyldonal graft was performed, and the resulting plants were also treated with the bacterial inoculant. Plants were then planted in substrate with different doses of phosphorus (P): 25, 50, 75 and 100%. At seven months of cultivation, variables of growth (plant height, stem diameter, number of leaf pairs, main root length, root volume, dry mass of the aerial part, root and total), phosphoric nutrition (leaf and root P contents) and posture quality index were evaluated. The inoculation stimulated the aerial part (37%), root growth (34%), the quality index of the grafted postures (30%), and phosphorus absorption (42%) and allowed a decrease from 25 to 75% of the mineral fertilizer. For the first time in Cuba, the benefits of rhizobial inoculation on the nutrition and quality of coffee seedlings were demonstrated. The inoculation of grafted coffee seedlings with Rhizobium sp. Rpr2 through the inoculation method proposed in this study can be recommended as a new easy, cost-effective and efficient inoculation approach to obtain additional benefits for coffee growth, improving the absorption of nutritive elements and the quality characteristics of the coffee seedlings.
Freshwater ecosystems have been increasingly threatened due to the impacts of climate change. Fishes have shifted their geographic distribution in response to these environmental changes. By forecasting biodiversity changes, we may provide knowledge for more effective conservation actions. Here, our aim is to assess the alpha and beta spatio-temporal patterns in the climate change context of freshwater fishes in the Brazilian portion of the Upper Paraguay River Basin (UPRB). We use ecological niche models which correlate fish occurrence with environmental variables such as BIO 2, BIO 5, BIO 7, BIO 12, BIO 13, BIO 14, elevation, and stream order. Then, we predicted species distribution current and future and evaluated both the alpha and beta diversity pattern changes over time. Overall, our modeling had good predictive performance (mean ± SD, AUC 0.8 ± 0.04; TSS 0.5 ± 0.08). The future projections reveal a progressive reduction in the species number over time, with alpha diversity decreasing 85%, together with the reduction forecast between 13 and 74% of gamma diversity until the end of the century. The loss of freshwater fishes can result in an ecosystem imbalance because different ecosystem services play in the aquatic environment. Yet it is expected that turnover contributes to promoting future temporal beta diversity in the UPRB. Our results provide at a spatial large scale the impact of climate change on fish diversity, indicating directions to protect ecosystems and socioeconomic processes dependent on fish diversity.
The Bioceanic Corridor is an international land route under implementation, which aims to connect the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, in Brazil, to the ports of Northern Chile. This new route could shorten the transport time between South America and Asia by approximately two weeks. This paper's purpose is to contextualize, map, identify, and analyze the effects of this new logistics network designed by the Bioceanic Route over the Local Productive Arrangements (LPA) in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. To achieve these goals, a spatial econometric methodology was adopted to determine the State's productive concentration. The results indicate that this route will bring many development opportunities. However, for that to happen, favorable policies are essential and must be developed to facilitate an integration that allows for competitiveness in the State's economic activities. However, mere unplanned integration will potentially only lead to the reinforcement of already existing regional inequalities in the State.
Abstract Background Detrusor underactivity is a disease that can cause chronic urinary tract infection, urinary tract infection, urinary retention and kidney failure and has no effective treatment in traditional medicine. The present research evaluated the effects of cell therapy with adipose tissue-derived stem cells on the treatment of detrusor underactivity in men. Methods Nine male patients diagnosed with a clinical and urodynamic diagnosis of detrusor underactivity were evaluated and underwent two transplants via cystourethroscopy, with 2 × 106 cells/transplant, performed by intravesical injection at five points on the bladder body above the vesical trigone. Results Cell therapy increased the maximum flow from 7.22 ± 1.58 to 13.56 ± 1.17, increased the mean flow from 3.44 ± 0.74 to 5.89 ± 0.45, increased the urinated volume from 183.67 ± 49.28 to 304.78 ± 40.42 and reduced the residual volume in the uroflowmetry exam from 420.00 ± 191.41 to 118.33 ± 85.51; all of these changes were significant (p
Here, we report the use of fluorescence spectroscopy for the identification of lubricant oils used in reciprocating compressors, and the use of silica gel as an adsorbent to capture lubricant oil vapors. The silica gel was tested for adsorption of lubricant oil vapors, by heating the samples at 200°C, the emission spectrum of the lubricant oils is observed on the silica gel layer, over 20 min of heating. The spectrum of the lubricant oils over the silica gel layer presents a redshift, an indication of the degradation effect. In order to investigate this effect on the optical properties, we conducted an experiment by heating the samples at (130 ± 4) °C, and collected at different times. The MID-infrared absorption of the samples presents bands of oxygen-containing groups at 1010 and 1050 cm-1, and NIR infrared absorption measurements at 3444 cm-1 show an increase in the hydroperoxide band during the degradation time. These two results indicate that the oxidation process is associated with the observed redshift of the absorption and emission bands in lubricant oils and over the adsorbent layer.
The present study describes the morphology of the antennal sensilla of adults of Gymnetis holosericea (Voet, 1779) and Gymnetis rufilateris (Illiger, 1800). The adults of Gymnetis spp. were sexed and antenna of males and females were dissected. Both species have sensilla chaetica, trichodea, placodea (type I and II), coeloconica (type I and II), and ampullacea (or pore). Females of G. holosericea have a total of about 19,995 sensilla and males have about 23,273 sensilla, and females of G. rufilateris have about 16,633 sensilla and males have about 21,184 sensilla. Sensilla placodea are the predominant type of sensilla in males and females of G. holosericea and G. rufilateris. Keywords: Chemical communication; Flower chafers; Gymnetini; Neotropical; Pheromones
The use of biostimulants in coffee seedlings can promote gains in their growth and quality. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the growth and quality characteristics of Coffea arabica seedlings under the effect of the nicotinamide and Azospirillum brasilense application. The experimental design was randomized blocks with treatments arranged in a 5 × 2 factorial scheme, with four replicates. The treatments resulted from the use of five doses of nicotinamide (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 mg L⁻¹ of water) combined with the absence and presence of Azospirillum brasilense applied to Coffea arabica seedlings from Catuaí Vermelho 144 cultivar. Plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, shoot dry mass, root dry mass, plant height:stem diameter ratio, shoot:root dry mass ratio, plant height:shoot dry mass ratio, and Dickson quality index were evaluated. The combined or isolated use of A. brasilense and nicotinamide, up to a dose of 33.5 mg L⁻¹, increased the biometric characteristics and dry mass accumulation. However, using nicotinamide doses between 30 and 61.8 g L⁻¹ increased the quality of Coffea arabica seedlings. The synergistic effect of the use of A. brasilense and nicotinamide was verified for the growth and quality of Coffea arabica seedlings. Key words: Coffea arabica L.; diazotrophic bacteria; vitamin B3; niacin
The development of multimetric indices (MMIs) to measure the biotic condition of aquatic habitats is based on metrics derived from biological assemblages. Considering fish assemblages, the inconsistencies in metrics responses outside of the places where they were developed limit MMI transferability and applicability to other locations, requiring local calibration. The factors behind the low transferability of these MMIs are still poorly understood. We investigated how environmental dissimilarity and spatial distance influence the transferability of metrics generated from local stream fish assemblages to other regions. We also tested whether functional and taxonomic metrics respond differently to the spatial distance. We used data from 239 fish assemblages from streams distributed across the upper Parana basin and characterized each site according to the level of anthropogenic disturbance at the landscape scale using an Anthropogenic Pressure Index (API). We divided the upper Parana basin into sub-basins and used two of them to create template response models of the metrics in relation to the API. We used these response models to predict the responses outside the template sub-basins. Our response variable representing a metric of transferability was the absolute difference between metric's predicted and observed value for each site (prediction error). We thus modeled the prediction error in relation to the predictor variables that were i) the environmental dissimilarity between each site with the average of the sites from template sub-basins (climatic, topographic and soil type variables) and ii) the spatial distance (overland and watercourse distance) between each site and the center of the template sub-basin. We found that errors in metric predictions were associated with both environmental dissimilarity and spatial distance. Furthermore, functional and taxonomic metrics responded equally to spatial distance. These results indicate the need for local calibration of metrics when developing MMIs, especially if the protocols already available come from distant and environmentally dissimilar places.
Abstract This study aimed to determine whether the addition of a microencapsulated herbal blend (MHB) based on thymol, carvacrol, and cinnamaldehyde in dairy sheep feed would improve production efficiency, milk quality, and animal health. Thirty lactating Lacaune ewes were divided into three groups: Control (T0), 150 mg blend/kg of feed (T150), and 250 mg blend/kg of feed (T250). Milk was measured before the beginning of the experiment (d 0), at the end of the adaptation period (d 15), and during the experiment (d 20). In milk samples, was measured the composition, somatic cell count (SCC), reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipoperoxidation (LPO), and total antioxidant capacity. The MHB improved the milk production (only T150 vs. T0 sheep on d 20), productive efficiency and feed efficiency, and reduced the milk SCC (only T250 vs. T0 sheep, on d 20), ROS and tended to reduce the milk levels of LPO (only T250 vs. T0 sheep on d 20). Also, MHB reduced the blood levels of neutrophils and ROS (only T250 vs. T0 sheep on d 20) and increased total protein and globulin levels. Thus, a microencapsulated blend of thymol, carvacrol, and cinnamaldehyde improved the productive performance and milk quality of sheep.
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Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil