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- SourceAvailable from: Leonie Sarubbo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The development of less toxic, biodegradable, surfactants, such as biosurfactants, is a key strategy for acquiring environmentally friendly compounds. The aim of the present study was to employ an optimised medium containing 9% ground nut oil refinery residue and 9% corn steep liquor for the production of a biosurfactant by Candida sphaerica. Fermentation was carried out at 28 °C and 200 rpm for 144 h. Biosurfactant yield was 9 g/l. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension of the medium to 25 mN/m, with a critical micelle concentration of 0.025%. The product demonstrated stability with regard to surface tension reduction and emulsification in a range of temperatures (5–120 °C) and pH values (2–12) as well as tolerance to high concentrations of NaCl (2–10%). Hydrophobicity tests indicate two possible insoluble substrate uptake mechanisms: direct interfacial uptake and biosurfactant-mediated transfer (cell contact with emulsified or solubilised hydrocarbons). The biosurfactant was characterised as an anionic glycolipid consisting of 70% lipids and 15% carbohydrates and demonstrated no toxicity to the microcrustacean Artemia salina or the vegetables Brassica oleracea, Solanum gilo, Lactuca sativa L. and Brassica oleracea L. The biosurfactant recovered 95% of motor oil adsorbed to a sand sample, demonstrating considerable potential for use in bioremediation processes, especially in the petroleum industry.
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ABSTRACT: A new strain of Serratia marcescens UCP1459 isolated from a semi-arid soil produced the natural red pigment prodigiosin, characterized by an uncommon pyrrolylpyrromethane skeleton. Prodigiosin is a promising drug due to its reported antifungal, immunosuppressive and anti-proliferative activities. The objective of this work was to indentify a suitable medium to simultaneously enhance S. marcescens growth and pigment production using renewable resources obtained from industrial wastes. S. marcescens produced the highest level of prodigiosin (49.5 g/L) at 48 h of cultivation using 6% "manipueira" (cassava wastewater) supplemented with mannitol (2%) at pH 7 and 28 °C. Carbohydrates in "manipueira" and mannitol play a role in the enhanced cell growth and prodigiosin production. The purified pigment extracted from the biomass was analyzed by mass spectrophotometry and showed the expected molecular weight of 324 Da corresponding to prodigiosin. In conclusion, we have successfully designed a new, economically feasible medium supporting enhanced S. marcescens growth and a high yield production of prodigiosin.
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ABSTRACT: Mental health is a state of well-being, in which the individual is aware of its capacities, capable of coping with the ordinary stress of everyday life, of working productively and of functioning in society. The purpose of the present work is a quantitative analysis of the prevalence of psychic disorders, using references such as sex, age, kind of disorder and care delivered to the carriers. Social assistants of three psychiatric hospitals of the Metropolitan Region of Recife - the Psychiatric Hospital Ulysses Pernambucano, the Nucleus for Psychosocial Care of Pernambuco (NAPPE) and the Hospital Colony Alcides Codeceira - answered an adapted version of the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). The results showed a higher incidence of disorders in women in the age group between 41 and 60 years. Schizophrenia was the most frequently observed kind of mental disorder. Among the different treatments offered were drug therapy and individual and group therapy, the latter showing better results.
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