The traumatic event produces intolerable excitations to the psychic apparatus that searches to relief them through the production of symptoms. When established, patients with post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and complex post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) may experience flashbacks, somatizations, negative emotions about themselves, and difficulty in social contact. This work seeks to understand how the psychodynamic functioning of women victims of interpersonal and urban violence, diagnosed with these disorders, is organized, identifying traumatic experiences, ways of interpersonal relationships, conflicts and psychic structures and use of defense mechanisms, and for peculiarities that may differentiate these disorders. The qualitative transversal method was used through the content analysis of clinical interviews based on the Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis (OPD-2). The sample of this study consisted of five women with PTSD and five with CPTSD. The following categories were created: reasons for seeking care, symptoms and desire for treatment, traumatic developmental events, and characteristics of the psychic functioning. Early trauma generates psychic organizations with greater disintegration. A new traumatic event destabilizes the psychic organization and intensifies symptoms. Relationships were marked by dependence and isolation. Participants with CPTSD presented tendency to disintegration related to the object relation regulation and the psychic conflict was of Individuation versus Dependence, with more primitive flaws in object representations, existential need for the other and direct discharge of impulses. Participants with PTSD had moderate to low level of object relation integration and the conflict was need to be care of versus self-sufficiency, with self-representations being fragile and with reduced capacity to manage impulses. Thus, it could be observed that OPD-2 is capable of assessing in a broad and deep way patients with traumatic disorders, in addition to identifying essential peculiarities to guide health professionals towards treatment in the search for better quality of life for patients.
Neste trabalho, desenvolveu-se uma espuma de poliuretano com poliol que foi obtida a partir do óleo de linhaça. Para a síntese do poliol, o método de epoxidação e hidroxilação do óleo de linhaça foi utilizado em uma única etapa, a partir do ácido perfórmico, gerado in situ, na relação molar de HCOOOH/H2O2/C=C igual a 3/1,5/1. A caracterização do poliol de óleo de linhaça deu-se através do índice de hidroxila, funcionalidade e espectro infravermelho, mostrando ser adequado para síntese de PU. A espuma PU desenvolvida foi sintetizada na proporção molar [NCO/OH] de 1,5 e caracterizada quanto à densidade, à morfologia, à reatividade e às propriedades mecânicas, apresentando propriedades similares às espumas comerciais semirrígidas. Palavras-chave: síntese polimérica; poliuretano, óleo de linhaça.
O objetivo geral deste estudo é analisar a percepção de dirigentes do conselho de administração de uma cooperativa de crédito do Rio Grande do Sul (RS), acerca das suas competências coletivas de liderança. Tais competências abordam princípios fundamentais do modelo de autogestão e são vistos como essenciais para auxiliar as cooperativas na busca da efetividade de seus líderes. Optou-se por uma abordagem mista, quantitativa e qualitativa. Na primeira etapa, uma pesquisa foi aplicada a cinquenta (50) dirigentes do conselho de administração da cooperativa em questão e, na segunda etapa, foi realizado um grupo focal com quatro dirigentes do conselho de administração, a partir de dimensões pré-estabelecidas. Posteriormente, uma entrevista individual foi realizada com o presidente do conselho de administração da cooperativa investigada, a partir de um roteiro semiestruturado. A etapa qualitativa confirmou a percepção positiva. Entretanto, foi possível destacar lacunas e desafios no exercício da liderança a partir dos dados quantitativos, sendo um dos princípios: ressignificar o papel da liderança. Palavras-chave: liderança coletiva; cooperativa de crédito; autogestão.
The recent paper “Reward is Enough” by Silver, Singh, Precup and Sutton posits that the concept of reward maximisation is sufficient to underpin all intelligence, both natural and artificial, and provides a suitable basis for the creation of artificial general intelligence. We contest the underlying assumption of Silver et al. that such reward can be scalar-valued. In this paper we explain why scalar rewards are insufficient to account for some aspects of both biological and computational intelligence, and argue in favour of explicitly multi-objective models of reward maximisation. Furthermore, we contend that even if scalar reward functions can trigger intelligent behaviour in specific cases, this type of reward is insufficient for the development of human-aligned artificial general intelligence due to unacceptable risks of unsafe or unethical behaviour.
Conversational agents are used to communicating with humans in a friendly manner. To achieve the highest level of performance, agents need to respond assertively and fastly. Transformer architectures are shown to produce excellent performances on recent tasks; however, for tasks involving conversational agents, they may have a lower speed performance. The main goal of this study is to evaluate and propose a HoPE (Healthcare Obstetric in PrEgnancy) model that is tailored to pregnancy data. We carried out a dataset extraction and construction process based on collections of health documents related to breastfeeding, childcare, pregnant care, nutrition, risks, vaccines, exams, and physical exercises. We evaluated two pre-trained models in the Portuguese language for the conversational agent architecture proposal and chose the one with the best performance to compose the HoPE architecture. The BERTimbau model, which has been trained on data augmentation strategies, proves to be able to retrieve information quickly and most accurately than others. For the fine-tuning process, we achieved a Spearman correlation of 95.55 on BERTimbau augmented with a few pairs (1.500 pairs). The HoPE model architecture achieved an F1-Score of 0.89, outperforming other combinations tested in this study. We will evaluate this approach for clinical studies in future studies.
Along with escalating environmental problems, the role of technologies in mitigating those problems has also increased. Researchers have been studying the adoption of sustainable technologies, and the number of articles on the topic has grown in recent years. The current study presents a weight and meta-analysis that synthesizes and combines previous literature on sustainable technologies adoption, evaluating the state of the art and providing a comprehensive picture of the phenomena. Using 44 articles and 48 datasets, the results demonstrate that attitude, benefits, personal norms, incentives, and perceived behavioral control are the best predictors of the behavioral intention of sustainable technologies adoption. Moreover, journal ranking, innovation, individualism, and long-term orientation, as cultural moderators, as well as electricity access and renewable energy, as energy efficiency indicators, were found to moderate subjective norms and behavioral intention. The findings of this study are relevant for future research support.
Temporary ponds contribute to the maintenance of freshwater biodiversity. Biotic and abi�otic predictors are known to infuence community assembly patterns in ponds, but the magnitude of these efects on diferent facets of diversity remains poorly investigated. We evaluated the infuence of diferent ecological predictors (climatic and local environmental descriptors, and reproductive modes) on the taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity of anuran tadpoles in 10 temporary ponds in southern Brazil. We hypothesize that: (i) tadpole diversity will be afected by ecological predictors, particularly climate, known to infuence the diver�sity of anuran reproductive modes; (ii) congruent responses by the three facets of diversity to the environmental predictors. We used structural equation models to reveal the pathways by which each eco�logical predictor afected tadpole diversity. Models explained over 85% of the variation in tadpole diversity. Water depth and dissolved oxygen positively infuenced all dimensions of tadpole diversity, while pond area, air humidity, evaporation, and maximum and minimum air temperature negatively afected all facets of diversity. The foam nest strategy positively infuenced phylogenetic diversity. Environmental fltering seems to be the driver behind the assembly patterns of tadpole communities in these temporary ponds, acting mostly through climate and pond area. The reproductive mode of leptodactylids contributes to the resilience of the communities during the dry phase of the ponds. Finally, the congruent responses of the three components of diversity to the environmental gradients reinforce the idea that tadpole communities are not randomly structured.
O artigo discute como o chamado design especulativo pode ser vinculado à extrapolação tecnocientífica, uma importante característica do gênero da ficção científica, para cotejar e prototipar cenários potenciais e modelos imaginados, porém viáveis, de futuro. O trabalho sublinha importantes nuances entre diferentes abordagens ao design especulativo, considerando a especificidade de seus pressupostos epistemológicos. A discussão é entremeada por um estudo de caso: Daleko (2020), um projeto desenvolvido no programa Terraforming, do Strelka Institute. Este projeto consiste em um conjunto de nove fábulas de ficção científica aproximando os temas da gestão de resíduos, infraestrutura tecnológica e governança ambiental. Os contos discutem a concepção problemática do lixo como uma forma de exterioridade, ao mesmo tempo em que imaginam possíveis alternativas futuras para a gestão de resíduos a partir de uma perspectiva tecnopolítica mais abrangente. Após analisar a abordagem de Daleko, o artigo discute as implicações do design especulativo em contextos educacionais, como um modo de estimular designers em formação e pesquisadores oriundos de outras disciplinas a questionar como as práticas de suas áreas podem ser relacionadas ao impacto antropogênico no ambiente, de modo mais abrangente, e qual o seu papel no planejamento de infraestruturas tecnológicas mais viáveis para o ambiente natural e a biodiversidade atual.
Background The Sense of Coherence (SOC) construct has been used worldwide in oral health research, but rigorous factor analyses of the scale are scarce. We aim to test the dimensional structure of the Brazilian short version of the SOC scale with 13 items. Methods This study is a secondary analysis of four independent cross-sectional Brazilian studies on oral health, using the 13-items SOC scale. Sample 1 was conducted on 1760 mothers and 1771 adolescents. Sample 2 comprised 1100 adults. Sample 3 had 720 adults and older individuals. Sample 4 comprised 664 adolescent students. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted on sample 1 to compare two models: 3-factor versus 1-factor. Because they were refuted, Exploratory Factor Analysis was implemented in samples 2 and 3. Modified models were tested in sample 4 using CFA. All analyses were conducted with MPlus version 7.11. Results CFA of sample 1 resulted in an unacceptable fit (RMSEA = 0.12;CFI = 0.78; TLI = 0.73; and WRMR = 3.28) for 1-factor model and 3-factor (RMSEA = 0.10; CFI = 0.87; TLI = 0.84; and WRMR = 2.50). The EFA on samples 2 and 3 showed, respectively, two eigenvalues greater than 1 (4.11 and 1.56) and (4.32 and 1.42), but the scale items soc1, soc2 and soc3 formed an uninterpretable second factor. Another CFA, using sample 4, showed acceptable model fit after removing those three items and also soc11 (RMSEA = 0.05; CFI = 0.98; TLI = 0.99; and WRMR = 0.71). Conclusion The results indicate that the SOC-13 scale needs further adjustments. The one-factor model with nine items showed a good statistical fit, but the implications of excluding items should be further investigated, considering the scale's content validity, cross-cultural adaptation and theoretical background.
The evolution of parallel architectures points to dynamic environments where the number of available resources or configurations may vary during the execution of applications. This can be easily observed in grids and clouds, but can also be explored in clusters and multiprocessor architectures. Over more than two decades, several research initiatives have explored this characteristic by parallel applications, enabling the development of adaptive applications that can reconfigure the number of processes/threads and their allocation to processors to cope with varying workloads and changes in the availability of resources in the system. Despite the long history of development of solutions for adaptability for parallel architectures, there is no literature reviewing these efforts. In this context, the goal of this paper is to present the state of-the-art on adaptability from resource and application perspectives, ranging from shared memory architectures, clusters, and grids, to virtualized resources in cloud and fog computing in the last twenty years (2002-2022). A comprehensive analysis of the leading research initiatives in the field of adaptive parallel applications can provide the reader with an understanding of the essential concepts of development in this area.
In Petroleum Geology, to assess the hydrocarbon generation potential in source rocks involves the determination of the kerogen type by some destructive method. The usage of such methods is a bottleneck in the process because it is time-consuming, requires specialized tools and personnel, and ends up destroying the rock sample, so it is not possible to do any posterior analysis. This study presents an alternative method for determination of the kerogen type that is fast and non-destructive using hyperspectral data and machine learning techniques. The method is validated using five distinct supervised learning algorithms that were applied to spectral data collected in rock samples from Taubaté Basin, Brazil, of an outcrop whose rocks have a wide range of hydrocarbon generation potential. Cores and samples were collected from the outcrop and had their kerogen type determined by geochemical analyses performed in the laboratory. The robustness of the method is evaluated in two distinct experiments. In the first one, the hyperspectral dataset was collected using a non-imaging spectroradiometer; in the second one, the method uses non-imaging hyperspectral data as training and is tested in hyperspectral images collected. In both experiments, the method was able to establish a relationship between selected spectral features and the kerogen type of the source rocks sampled. The results obtained in this paper are prospective for non-destructive classification of kerogen type (and, consequently, the hydrocarbon generation potential), since most of the models generated achieved accuracy above 0.8 in the validation step and 0.75 in the test step.
Early Pleistocene Marine Isotope Stage (MIS)‐31 (1.081–1.062 Ma) is a unique interval of extreme global warming, including evidence of a West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) collapse. Here we present a new 1,000‐year resolution, spanning 1.110–1.030 Ma, diatom‐based reconstruction of primary productivity, relative sea surface temperature changes, sea‐ice proximity/open ocean conditions and diatom species absolute abundances during MIS‐31, from the Scotia Sea (59°S) using deep‐sea sediments collected during International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 382. The lower Jaramillo magnetic reversal (base of C1r.1n, 1.071 Ma) provides a robust and independent time‐stratigraphic marker to correlate records from other drill cores in the Antarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean (AZSO). An increase in open ocean species Fragilariopsis kerguelensis in early MIS‐31 at 53°S (Ocean Drilling Program Site 1,094) correlates with increased obliquity forcing, whereas at 59°S (IODP Site U1537; this study) three progressively increasing, successive peaks in the relative abundance of F. kerguelensis correlate with Southern Hemisphere‐phased precession pacing. These observations reveal a complex pattern of ocean temperature change and sustained sea surface temperature increase lasting longer than a precession cycle within the Atlantic sector of the AZSO. Timing of an inferred WAIS collapse is consistent with delayed warmth (possibly driven by sea‐ice dynamics) in the southern AZSO, supporting models that indicate WAIS sensitivity to local sub‐ice shelf melting. Anthropogenically enhanced impingement of relatively warm water beneath the ice shelves today highlights the importance of understanding dynamic responses of the WAIS during MIS‐31, a warmer than Holocene interglacial.
Calcareous nannofossil distribution, environmental magnetism, and geochemical data provide stratigraphic evidence concerning the paleoceanographic changes across the lower/middle Albian and the Oceanic Anoxic Event 1b (OAE1b, Kilian Level) at South Atlantic Ocean. In this study, we analyzed samples from the sedimentary records at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 364, Kwanza Basin, Angola. This section is associated with the initial phases of evolution of the South Atlantic Ocean, characterized by the deposition of extensive evaporite layers under restricted marine conditions, which were preserved in many sedimentary basins of the Brazilian and African continental margins. The open marine conditions that followed this period are recorded in the sequences of limestones interbedded with organic matter-rich black shales. In the Kwanza Basin, Site 364 contains a well-preserved sedimentary record of these post-salt sequences. In this study, we address the Lower Cretaceous sedimentary records at Site 364 from a paleoceanographic perspective, investigating the influence of OAE1b and local paleoenvironmental conditions. Our data analysis indicates a progressive reduction in hypersaline conditions during the lower/middle Albian. In these conditions, five paleoceanographic intervals (PIs) were described, which show different evidence of dysoxia/anoxia and salinity fluctuations, euxinic intervals, surface-water temperature changes, and hydrothermal activity signals, as well as possible ocean acidification episodes. These paleoceanographic conditions at Site 364 are associated with a stratified thermocline composed of warm surface-water from the North Atlantic (Western Tethys) and cool deep-water incursions from the Austral Atlantic, which strongly affected the composition of the calcareous nannofossil assemblages. We propose that the lower/middle Albian paleogeographic and paleoceanographic conditions observed in the Kwanza Basin were likely related not only to local events linked to the early development of the South Atlantic, but also to the OAE1b - Kilian Level recognized in several basins from around the world.
Objective: To analyze the relationship between musculoskeletal pain and sociodemographic and labor variables of nurses in the hospital setting. Method: Cross-sectional, descriptive research, carried out from December/2019 to March/2020, with 83 nurses from a philanthropic hospital. Sociodemographic, labor, pain-related characteristics were assessed and analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: 75.9% had pain, tingling and numbness in the last year. Most affected regions: neck, upper back, and shoulders; 36% rated their pain as moderate and 14.6% severe; Nurses who work 8 hours a day, 40/44 hours a week and work at night, assessed their pain with greater intensity; there was a correlation between pain intensity and daily working hours (p = 0.046) and work shift (p = 0.029). Conclusion: Nurses feel musculoskeletal pain in several anatomical regions and its intensity is related to the training time and acting in nursing, shift and weekly workload.
Background: Cardiac rehabilitation with aerobic exercises is the first strategy for nonpharmacological treatment in the postoperative period of individuals undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) to improve functional capacity and vascular health. However, other exercise modalities remain uncertain regarding the same benefits. Objectives: Evaluation of the effect of different modalities of exercise, such as early cardiac rehabilitation on subjects submitted to CABG in the six-minute walk test (6-MWT) and on the percentage of flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery. Methods: A randomized clinical trial in which 15 patients (62.7 ± 6.7 years) who underwent CABG were randomly assigned to the following groups: isometric (IG, Handgrip Jamar®), ventilatory muscle training (VG, PowerBreathe®) and control (CG, conventional respiratory and motor physiotherapy). All patients were attended to physically twice a day (20 min/session) for a consecutive week after the CABG (hospital admission). Functional capacity was assessed by 6-MWT and endothelial function was assessed through the technique of FMD, before and after (~7 days) admission to CABG. The doppler ultrasound videos were analyzed by Cardiovascular Suite® software (Quipu, Pisa, Italy) to measure %FMD. Statistics: Generalized estimation equation, followed by Bonferroni post hoc (p < 0.05). Results: Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (SBP/DBP/MAP, respectively) were 133, 76 and 95 mmHg. The groups presented walking meters (m) distance before and after intervention of: IGbasal 357.80 ± 47.15 m vs. IGpost 306.20 ± 61.63 m, p = 0.401 (+51 m); VGbasal 261.50 ± 19.91 m vs. VGpost 300.75 ± 26.29 m, p = 0.052 (+39 m); CG basal 487.83 ± 83.23 m vs. CGpost 318.00 ± 31.08, p = 0.006 (-169 m). %FMD before and after intervention was IGbasal 10.4 ± 4.8% vs. IGpost 2.8 ± 2.5%, p = 0.152; VGbasal 9.8 ± 5.1% vs. VGpost 11.0 ± 6.1%, p = 0.825; CGbasal 9.2 ± 15.8% vs. CGpost 2.7 ± 2.6%, p = 0.710 and resting mean basal blood flow was IGbasal 162.0 ± 55.0 mL/min vs. IGpost 129.9 ± 63.7 mL/min, p = 0.662; VGbasal 83.74 ± 12.4 mL/min vs. VGpost 58.7 ± 17.1 mL/min, p = 0.041; CGbasal 375.6 ± 183.7 mL/min vs. CGpost 192.8 ± 115.0 mL/min, p = 0.459. Conclusions: Ventilatory muscle training for early cardiac rehabilitation improved acute functional capacity and modulated mean flow of individuals undergoing CABG.
We report K–Pg-age deposits in Baja California, Mexico, consisting of terrestrial and shallow-marine materials re-sedimented onto the continental slope, including corals, gastropods, bivalves, shocked quartz grains, an andesitic tuff with a SHRIMP U–Pb age (66.12 ± 0.65 Ma) indistinguishable from that of the K–Pg boundary, and charred tree trunks. The overlying mudstones show an iridium anomaly and fungal and fern spores spikes. We interpret these heterogeneous deposits as a direct result of the Chicxulub impact and a mega-tsunami in response to seismically-induced landsliding. The tsunami backwash carried the megaflora offshore in high-density flows, remobilizing shallow-marine fauna and sediment en route. Charring of the trees at temperatures up to > 1000 °C took place in the interval between impact and arrival of the tsunami, which on the basis of seismic velocities and historic analogues amounted to only tens of minutes at most. This constrains the timing and causes of fires and the minimum distance from the impact site over which fires may be ignited.
Objective To investigate the association between multimorbidity and sleep medication use in women. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted on women (20–69 years) in Southern Brazil. Sleep medications were identified using the Therapeutic and Chemical Anatomical Classification. Multimorbidity was operationalized according to two cutoff points: diagnosis of either two or more or three or more chronic conditions and presence or absence of obesity. Explanatory variables included sociodemographic, behavioral, and health factors including obesity and common mental disorders (CMD) (assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 for CMD). Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were estimated with Poisson regression with robust variance using various adjustment models. Results In a sample of 1128 women, the prevalence of sleep medications was 14.3% (95%CI 12.2–16.3). After adjustments, the association between multimorbidity and sleep medication use yielded the following PR: multimorbidity ≥ 2:1.78 (95%CI, 1.23–2.56) and multimorbidity ≥ 3:1.90 (95%CI, 1.36–2.68). When obesity was included in the model, the effect was in the same direction but smaller, indicating that the presence of multimorbidity had an independent effect on the use of sleep medications, even after adjusting for CMD. Conclusion The presence of multimorbidity increased the probability of using sleep medications by approximately 80%, regardless of the observed cutoff point, inclusion of obesity in multimorbidity, and adjustment for CMD. Specific aspects of some chronic conditions may interfere with sleep quality, predisposing women to begin use of these medications at early ages and, consequently, to continue their use throughout later life.
Objective: To present the Brazilian panorama of the training of nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: a cross-sectional study, carried out with 335 coordinators of undergraduate courses in Nursing and online data collection, between November 2020 and March 2021. Results: All Brazilian states were represented. Of Higher Education Institutions, 52.5% adopted remote learning within 10 days after determining social distancing and 23% after 100 days; 73.4% kept the students in a mandatory curricular internship. Practical classes had a reduction in the number of students per group (46.0%). Most faculty and students were contaminated by SARS-CoV-2 and showed worsening in mental health. Conclusions: The study identified heterogeneity in the resumption of activities, through remote teaching, which mostly occurred synchronously. There was a resumption of curricular internships and practical classes in health services, with a limitation on the number of students per field.
B2B technology-enabled services, such as telecommunications, depend on buyers' internal practices to manage resources within their branch facilities. This paper introduces the concept of B2B buyer operational capability (B2B-BOC) as the bundle of facility-level practices (strategic emphasis, employee training, infrastructure management, and security) that, together with supplier information quality, are necessary for continuous technology-enabled service delivery (service continuity). We use survey data from 300 buyers in Brazil to test our hypothesis. Results show that (i) B2B-BOC completely mediates the effect of supplier information quality on service continuity and that (ii) B2B-BOC varies significantly among facilities of the same buyer.
This case-control study investigated factors associated with death among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in the city of Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil. Sociodemographic, parental and reproductive characteristics, exposure to HIV, laboratory markers and adherence to treatmen were variables examined. The cases were selected among WLHIV who were followed up by health care services for the vertical transmission of HIV (VT) and who died between the years of 2007 and 2017. The controls were the WLHIV who did not die. Sixty-six cases and 264 controls were included. Conditional Logistic Regression was conducted to estimate the Crude and Adjusted Odds Ratio. A conceptual block model was considered for the multivariate analysis. In addition to multiple pregnancies and worse immunological characteristics, WLHIV between 18 and 29 years of age (OR = 25.72; 95% CI: 4.45-148.42), drug users (OR = 7.09; 95% CI: 1.24-40.23) and who were not followed up during prenatal care (OR = 8.43; 95% CI: 1.58-44.87) were more likely to die. Conclusion: Young WLHIV and those with greater social vulnerability have a greater chance of death, and it is essential that health care and treatment strategies consider actions for the prevention of deaths taking into account the multiple vulnerabilities of these women.
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