Considering the growth of migrations and characteristics that involve the insertion of these people into the new country, especially in the labor market, this paper analyzes how this population gets welcomed and integrated into the educational context of Brazil. This study aimed to verify the process of accepting and integrating Haitian refugee and immigrant students into undergraduate courses of the Brazilian Federal Universities. The research focuses on the country’s southern region, universities that have an agreement with the Sérgio Vieira de Mello Chair (CSVM), and specific selection processes for immigrants and refugees. It questions whether the notices published by universities instituting a unique selection process for refugees and immigrants are sufficient to integrate these students into the educational context. Therefore, through multiple case studies, this qualitative research verified that universities have isolated actions of reception and integration, demonstrating that, however much these students gain access to educational environments, there is still a lack of policies that integrate them. Thus, some actions proposed may become unified among universities. If applied jointly, it will have more strength and guide new efforts, such as the provision of language accessibility programs before the beginning of the school year, activities aimed against xenophobic and discriminatory behaviors, and training on human rights and migrations for university employees. Finally, it presents a research agenda that suggests some points to explore in future studies.
Resumo Diante do crescimento das migrações e das características que envolvem a inserção dessas pessoas no novo país e especialmente no mercado de trabalho, reflete-se sobre como essa população é acolhida e integrada ao contexto educacional do Brasil. Este estudo objetiva verificar o processo de acolhimento e integração dos estudantes refugiados e imigrantes haitianos dos cursos de graduação das universidades federais brasileiras da região Sul do país que possuem convênio com a Cátedra Sérgio Vieira de Mello (CSVM) e processos seletivos específicos para esse grupo, pois se questiona se os editais publicados pelas universidades instituindo um processo seletivo especial para refugiados e imigrantes são suficientes para integrar esses estudantes no contexto educacional. Por meio de um estudo de caso múltiplo, esta pesquisa de cunho qualitativo verificou que as universidades realizam ações isoladas de acolhimento e integração, demonstrando que, por mais que esses estudantes consigam acesso aos ambientes educacionais, ainda faltam políticas que realmente os integrem. Diante disso, foram propostas algumas ações que poderão se tornar unificadas entre as universidades para que, aplicadas de forma conjunta, tenham mais força e orientem novas ações, como a oferta de programas de acessibilidade linguística antes do início do ano letivo e atividades voltadas contra comportamentos xenofóbicos e preconceituosos, bem como capacitação em direitos humanos e migrações para os servidores das universidades. Por fim, apresenta-se uma agenda de pesquisa que sugere alguns pontos que poderão ser explorados em estudos futuros.
In Brazil, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been expanding and urbanizing, mainly in non-endemic areas such as the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Considering that infected dogs are the main reservoirs of VL in urban areas, the present study aimed to evaluate the propagation of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) infection from an unaffected region in transition to a VL transmission area. For this, 1159 and 1087 samples of canine serum from 2015 and 2021, respectively, were analyzed, using the indirect immunofluorescence test. In addition, necropsy reports between 2007 and 2021 were evaluated. The results showed a prevalence of anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies of 7.5% in the samples from 2015, while in 2021 samples, it was 23.5%, with an incidence of 0.4 cases per 100 dogs. It is noteworthy that in 2007, there was no record of CVL as the cause of death in the pathological reports, and in 2021, 41 diagnoses were made with the protozoan being a determinant of the death of the animal. These values indicate an increasing trend in the prevalence and incidence coefficients of CVL. The results of this study allowed us to verify the spread of the disease from an unaffected region to a transmission area of the agent, as well as provide subsidies for health authorities to implement improvements in the CVL control program in the municipality, to mitigate the emergence of human cases of the disease.
Alien species can modify ecosystem functions and ecological processes in natural communities, and potentially become invasive. In the Brazilian Pampean grasslands, reports of changes in land use and invasions of alien plant species are becoming more frequent. This study aimed to investigate species composition and phylogenetic relationships between native and alien plants across four sites of Brazilian Pampean grasslands under distinct land uses (NOM: no agricultural management; GRZ: grazed pastures; AGR: agrarian crops; ROAD: roadside). The phylogenetic relationship between native and alien species was analyzed at two scales: inter-site (large scale) and intra-site (small scale). We found inter-site differences in phylogenetic diversity. Overall, across all sites we found random phylogenetic relationships among alien and native species. In the most disturbed site (ROAD) we found significant phylogenetic clustering among all species (alien and natives), while at the small scale, clustering was only found among natives. We conclude that clustering of phylogenetic relationships among alien and native species is only evident at small sampling scales in environments subject to high levels of disturbance (i.e., road sides) in the studied Pampean Grasslands, suggesting that environmental filtering plays an important role in local community assembly. Keywords : disturbance, land use, phylogenetic pattern, plant invasion, native communities
Recently, patients with glycogen storage disease (GSD) have been described as having gut dysbiosis, lower fecal pH, and an imbalance in SCFAs due to an increase in acetate and propionate levels. Here, we report the fecal measurement of bacterial-related metabolites formic, acetic, lactic, propionic, and succinic acid, a key metabolite of both host and microbiota, on a previously described cohort of 24 patients (GSD Ia = 15, GSD Ib = 5, 1 GSD III = 1 and GSD IX = 3) and 16 healthy controls, with similar sex and age, using the high-performance liquid chromatography technique. The succinic acid levels were higher in the GSD patients than in the controls (patients = 38.02; controls = 27.53; p = 0.045), without differences between the groups for other metabolites. Fecal pH present inverse correlation with lactic acid (R = −0.54; p = 0.0085), while OTUs were inversely correlated with both lactic (R = −0.46; p = 0.026) and formic (R = −0.54; p = 0.026) acids. Using two distinct metrics of diversity, borderline significance was obtained for propionic acid, affecting the microbial structure on Euclidean basis in 8% (r2 = 0.081; p = 0.079), and for lactic acid, affecting 6% of microbial structure using Bray–Curtis distance (r2 = 0.065; p = 0.060). No correlation was found between SCFAs and total carbohydrate consumption among the participants or uncooked cornstarch consumption among the patients.
O processo educacional, ao longo dos anos, submeteu-se a várias alterações em sua estrutura, adaptando-se ao desenvolvimento humano e à sociedade moderna. O aprendizado por meio do lúdico proporciona ao discente maior envolvimento e prazer ao realizar as atividades em sala de aula. Identifica-se a importância do lúdico no desenvolvimento da criança, do adolescente, do adulto e do idoso, sem haver restrições de idade ou etnia. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo relatar as atividades e os resultados obtidos com a realização de gincanas de solos na Universidade Federal do Pampa (UNIPAMPA). As gincanas educativas foram realizadas com discentes do componente curricular de Solos, dos cursos de Engenharia Florestal e Gestão Ambiental, da UNIPAMPA. As gincanas tiveram como temas os conteúdos desenvolvidos na disciplina, com o intuito de oportunizar maior entendimento e interesse acerca desses conteúdos, integridade social e prazer nos estudos. As tarefas realizadas nas gincanas foram jogo da memória, mímica com desenho, cruzadinha, qual é o solo e torta na cara. O uso do lúdico no componente curricular Solos apresentou um elevado grau de satisfação, cooperação e recepção entre os discentes.
Embora em expansão, a pesquisa linguística empírica da língua portuguesa ainda está longe de alcançar todo o seu potencial. Acreditamos que isso possa se dever, em parte, pelo desconhecimento de alguns investigadores de recursos já disponíveis gratuitamente. Neste artigo, apresentamos algumas ferramentas da Linguística de Corpus e um corpus de escrita acadêmica em português (CoPEP), e como eles podem ser utilizados para explorar o fenômeno do desfocamento do agente em artigos acadêmicos publicados no Brasil e em Portugal. Para isso, utilizamos recursos já existentes para anotar e disponibilizar de forma gratuita e online o CoPEP, um corpus de extrema utilidade para investigações linguísticas acerca do português acadêmico.
Landfills are one of the alternatives used for solid urban waste disposal; however, improperly operated landfills can generate severe environmental issues. Thus, the current study aims to analyze probable groundwater contamination deriving from landfill operations in northwest in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. A chemical analysis applied to the quality of water deriving from monitoring wells in association with a geophysical survey (DC-resistivity method) was carried out along the landfill area of interest (8 measured profiles). Data results, analysis, and interpretation of water quality parameters and resistivity detected values (ranges) applying geophysics allowed identifying a contamination zone in the lowest topographic elevations of the investigated site. Water quality parameters alterations were also detected (i.e., nitrate and sulfate) with values of 1590 mg L−1, and outlined resistivity zones with values lower than 30 Ω m were observed along with all measured profiles. Pseudo-section resistivity profiles and observed anomalies also made it possible to detect and delineate subsurface flow directions associated with the measured electrical resistivity values and ranges for soil and rocks. Observed changes in water quality parameters analyzed in the investigated site, as well as geophysics results and integration with water quality data, allowed seeing the incidence of contaminated zones and the formation of a temporary non-continuous suspended aquifer in it, although its clayish soil acted as a near-surface barrier.
Gradients in biodiversity are often considered a result of environmental variables like temperature, precipitation, ecological disturbance regimes, and species coexistence. This study aimed at investigating the genetic diversity and structure of natural populations of Eugenia uniflora growing in two different biomes in southern Brazil (Atlantic Forest and Pampa biomes), as well as in the transition zone between them. A novel set of 11 SSR loci from E. uniflora was validated and employed to test the hypothesis that the allelic composition of the populations changes gradually along the environmental gradient sampled, with a characteristic genetic structure within each biome and an intermediary allelic composition in the transition zone. The results revealed high polymorphism of the validated markers and significant genetic structure of the different populations. The main source of genetic variation observed is the individual samples, but there was a considerable amount of variation among populations, and regions. We suggested that the genetic structure of the studied populations presents distinct patterns which may be related to adaptation to local environmental conditions, or at least related to the transition among them. Our study provides evidence that even environments neglected regarding the information on their biodiversity and the transition zones may hold important levels of genetic diversity. Thus, the distribution of genetic diversity should be interpreted in the light of the life traits of the species and the local environment since valuable diversity may be found both in a hotspot of diversity and in neglected forest formations.
Biodegradable polymeric nanocapsules (NC) present incredible characteristics as drug nanocarriers that optimize drug targeting. However, However, a more detailed isolated effect of polymer-based nanoparticles as drug carriers is required. This work aimed to evaluate the per se effect of blank-NC (NC-B) with different surface characteristics both in vitro and in vivo toxicity. NC1-B (Polysorbate 80 coated poly(ɛ-caprolactone) NC), NC2-B (polyethylene glycol 6000 coated poly(ɛ-caprolactone) NC), NC3-B (chitosan-coated poly(ɛ-caprolactone) NC) and NC4-B (Eudragit® RS100 NC) were prepared by nanoprecipitation method. Formulations were characterized by particle size, zeta potential, and pH. The in vitro cytotoxicity tests against tumor cell lines were performed (HepG2 and MCF-7). Antiviral activity was evaluated by MTT in Vero cells infected with HSV-1 (KOS strain). In vivo evaluation was performed in apomorphine-induced stereotypy in Wistar rats and locomotor activity distance, head movements, and rearing behavior were measured. NC1-B, NC2-B, NC3-B, and NC4-B had a diameter under 350 nm. The pH and zeta potential of formulations varied according to their coating. For in vitro evaluation of antitumor activity and antiviral activity, one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences in cell viability. In vivo tests showed low neurological effects. In conclusion, different surface characteristics of NC-B did not demonstrate toxicity against the evaluated cell lines HepG2 and MCF-7, antiviral effect against HSV-1, and the neurological effects in a stereotyping model were low and may be attributed to the per se effect of NC-B.
Lake and lagoon sediments are important recorders of the Earth's magnetic field variations. However, the Southern Hemisphere, particularly the South American continent, contributes only a small fraction of the global paleosecular variation (PSV) and relative paleointensity data, which hinders a better understanding of the global PSV. Moreover, the scarcity of information on the geomagnetic field in South Brazil for the past few millennia impedes, for example, a detailed analysis of the evolution of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA), which encompasses the weakest geomagnetic field on the Earth's surface. Here, we present high-resolution paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data of two cores collected at the lagoon of Lagoa dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Sediment cores from Lagoa dos Patos represent the period from ~4541 to 3320 cal years BP. Rock magnetic results show the remanent magnetization resides in pseudo single-domain (PSD) magnetite and/or titanomagnetite. Magnetization inclinations and declinations were isolated after alternating field demagnetization (AFD) and principal component analysis (PCA). Mean inclinations are −39,6° and − 38,4° for cores PT-04 and PT-06, respectively. Relative paleointensity results are compatible with geomagnetic field models, implying very promising results in the reconstruction of a reference curve for the region. As there is no PSV and relative paleointensity data for this region in this period, this study helps to elucidate the past field and the presence of SAMA in South America.
Ontogeny, temporal strategies and the reproductive cycle are basic aspects of a species' life history and can provide us with information about the current status and future trends of a population. Here, we present data on reproductive biology, influence of environmental factors on male and female reproductive parameters and intra- and interspecific comparisons regarding these parameters, as well as unpublished data on age at sexual maturity and longevity of the syntopic and phylogenetically close frogs Physalaemus cuvieri – dog frog –, Physalaemus riograndensis – Rio Grande frog – and Pseudopaludicola falcipes – Hensel's swamp frog –, in southern Brazil. Accordingly, we used morphoanatomical and histological analyses, whose results were associated with climatological environmental variables (temperature, rainfall, relative humidity and photoperiod). Our results indicate that although they are phylogenetically close and that they co-occur in reproductive environments, the species differ in terms of reproductive cycle and in how environmental variables affect reproductive parameters between the sexes: photoperiod was the most important environmental factor for males and females of P. falcipes, while air humidity was more important for P. cuvieri. The age aspects also varied between the species, where sexual maturity was reached later in the Physalaemus species and the greatest longevity recorded for P. cuvieri. In addition, we found that there was intersexual and interspecific variation in the patterns measured, reflecting intrinsic differences in reproductive strategies and modes. Such studies are of paramount importance, as they serve as a basis for further research, in addition to allowing comparisons and/or possible generalizations about the evolutionary meaning of reproductive strategies.
We evaluated, for the first time, the effects of long-acting injectable progesterone (iP4) for estrus induction in ewes during non-breeding season. To evaluate the serum P4 curve induced by the application of iP4 in sheep and the effect of its use prior to the cyclicity induction protocol, for Experiment 1, 39 ewes were allocated into three groups: no-treatment, control (n=14); 37.5 mg of iP4 im (iP4 37.5, n=13), and 75 mg of iP4 im (iP4 75, n=12). Progesterone (P4) dosage in a subset of animals (5 per group) showed the highest progesterone level at 48h and reduction to basal levels 10 days after injection, when all females received an intravaginal device (IVD) containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) that remained for 11 days. At withdrawal the animals received 400 IU of eCG im, and rams remained for three days with ewes. On days 6 and 12 after IVD removal, blood samples were collected from a subset (n=5 per group) of ewes that manifested estrous. iP4 75 group had lower luteal P4 concentration, and lower conception rate (35 days after mating) when compared to the other groups. To evaluate the possibility of replacing IVD with iP4, on experiment 2, 36 ewes were allocated into two treatments: control (n=10), IVD for nine days and 300 IU of eCG at withdrawal; and iP4 75 (n=26) 75 mg of iP4 im and, after 9 (n=13) or 10 (n=13) days, animals were injected with 300 IU of eCG. Estrus manifestation and conception rates were lower in groups treated with iP4. Eleven days after estrus, 93.3% of a subset of animals (5 from control and 10 from iP4 75) exhibited P4 concentrations above 1ng/mL, indicating ovulations. In conclusion, the injection of 75 mg of long acting iP4 maintained levels above 1 ng/mL for at least 7 days, and negatively affected P4 luteal concentration and conception rate after a subsequent cyclicity induction protocol. Treatment with 75 mg of iP4 associated to eCG is suitable for inducing ovulations, although inhibits estrus manifestation.
This study aimed to evaluate the potential for lowering blood pressure and beneficial effects on mesenteric resistance arteries (MRA) and conductance vessels (aorta) produced by dietary supplementation of an egg white hydrolysate (EWH) in rats with severe hypertension induced by deoxycorticosterone plus salt treatment (DOCA-salt), as well as the underlying mechanisms involved. The DOCA-salt model presented higher blood pressure, which was significantly reduced by EWH. The impaired acetylcholine-induced relaxation and eNOS expression observed in MRA and aorta from DOCA-salt rats was ameliorated by EWH. This effect on vessels (MRA and aorta) was related to the antioxidant effect of EWH, since hydrolysate intake prevented the NF-κB/TNFα inflammatory pathway and NADPH oxidase-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, as well as the mitochondrial source of ROS in MRA. At the plasma level, EWH blocked the higher ROS and MDA generation by DOCA-salt treatment, without altering the antioxidant marker. In conclusion, EWH demonstrated an antihypertensive effect in a model of severe hypertension. This effect could be related to its endothelium-dependent vasodilator properties mediated by an ameliorated vessel’s redox imbalance and inflammatory state.
The addition of micronized yerba mate (MYM) in panga fish burgers was evaluated on physicochemical, technological, and shelf life characteristics during frozen storage for 180 days. Fish burgers were formulated with 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% MYM. Dry matter and fat (P < 0.05) altered between MYM formulations. Crude protein, ash, cooking yield, and moisture retention were not affected by the incorporation of MYM. Fish burger with 0.5% MYM showed the lowest shrinkage. Peroxide formation was not inhibit by the incorporation of MYM. However, TBARS values decreased for formulations with 1.0% and 1.5% MYM. The pH value remained below 6.0 in formulation containing 1.5% MYM. TVB‐N decreased only in the formulation with 2.0% MYM after 30 days of frozen storage. In conclusion, the addition of 1.5% MYM demonstrated greater efficiency to ensure nutritional quality and oxidative stability in panga fish burgers.
Objectives: To analyze the access to the Psychosocial Care Network for rural residents with problems related to alcohol abuse and other drugs. Methods: Qualitative research, based on the Empowerment Evaluation framework. Data collection took place from March to December 2017 and was carried out through triangulation of qualitative methods with 42 Psychosocial Care Network workers in a municipality in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data analysis was performed by thematic analysis. Results: The challenges of access are identified due to cultural issues and the lack of resources to structure the network in its connection with rural territories. Support strategies for access include articulation with other services through matrix support. Conclusions: The access to the network is precarious for prevention and continuity of care. It is suggested a greater articulation of the network with the rural teams and an investment in the structure of the network.
The advance of agriculture under livestock production areas in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) has been leading the breeding herds to areas of lower quality. Consequently, the rearing and fattening management of these herds has been carried out in pasture areas in succession to soybean crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate, through a simulation model using electronic spreadsheets, the economic viability of three production scenarios with or without the sale of calves acquired in the off-season, after grazing in ryegrass pasture, in winter, in an area of crop integration livestock in the municipality of Dom Pedrito, RS. The evaluated scenarios were: i) SA (ryegrass and soybean): ryegrass pasture in winter and soybean crop in summer; ii) ASConf (ryegrass, soybeans and confinement): ryegrass pasture in winter and soybean farming and summer confinement; and iii) ASud (ryegrass and soy/sudan): ryegrass pasture in winter and part of the area with soybeans and another part with Sudan grass. It was evident that, in this simulation, high investments do not necessarily generate greater profitability. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a technical and careful analysis to define in which situation each methodology should be applied, considering the market behavior and the availability of financial capital.
Puma yagouaroundi is a wild felid with wide distribution on the American continent. This paper aims to describe the origin and motor distribution of the nerves of the brachial plexus of P. yagouaroundi and compare the findings with the available descriptions for the Carnivora order. Fourteen brachial plexuses of specimens collected dead on highways were dissected (five males and two females). In most cases (57%), the brachial plexus originated from the ventral spinal branches of C5, C6, C7, C8 and T1. The C7 branch was the one that most contributed to the formation of the plexus nerves (57.7%). Among all dissected nerves, 23.6% were unisegmental and 76.4% plurisegmental. The radial nerve was the thickest and innervated the largest number of muscles, while the caudal pectoral nerve showed the most varied formation. Intraspecific polymorphisms occurred in the plexus, although the distribution of the nerves to the muscles had an evident constancy among the individuals. Due to the similarities, locoregional blocking techniques may consider the same anatomical landmarks stipulated for domestic cats. Comparison with the descriptions of other carnivorans allows speculating a polymorphism at the plexus origin, in contrast to the conservative innervation of the muscles in the order Carnivora.
Olive pomace (OP) is a recognized cheap and abundant source of nutrients and gelling material. This study explored for the first time a total substitution of wheat flour by a mix of pulp‐enriched flour derived from OP (OPF) with corn flour (CF) and/or rice flour (RF) for obtaining gluten‐free (GF) cakes. OPF markedly increased lipid (9.37‐9.85 %) and fiber (1.82‐3.16 %) contents of GF cakes, which showed to have bioactivity in terms of total phenolic content (12.5‐19.5 mg GAE/g) and antiradical activity (62.3‐90.1 %). Xanthan gum (XG) addition (0.25 % w/w) to GF cakes improved crumb structure, color and helped to reduce crumb hardiness. A simplex centroid mixture design indicated interactions between OPF, CF, and RF affecting the firmness of GF cakes (1.97‐7.48 N). Overall, F2 and F3 led to the best formulations with OPF, as this highly valuable and functional ingredient when associated with XG technologically improved GF cake formulations.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.
Rector Building, 97650000, Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Head of institution
Roberlaine Ribeiro Jorge