The primary process in an electrical arc furnace (EAF) during industrial steelmaking results in tons of black slags which cause pollution to the environment. In this work, the iron oxides of black slags generated in the EAF from the SIDERPERU plant, Peru was reduced via the carbothermal reaction. The reduction of the black slag to α-Fe is demonstrated by X-ray diffraction, Mӧssbauer spectroscopy and magnetometry. However, phases with calcium and silicon persist in the sample after the carbothermal process. The thermodynamic calculations of the most probable reactions sequence were performed to understand the reduction process. The magnetometry measurements confirm the presence of ferromagnetic domains, supporting the success of the reduction of the black slag to α-Fe. The reduced black slags were recycled into a HRB335 steel rod by consolidation and extrusion processes and inspected by X-ray fluorescence.
While there is little doubt that the species is the lowest independent evolutionary unit, understanding the many different species concepts is a difficult task, even for university students. In the present study, we propose a didactic sequence that involves fieldwork, laboratory analyses, experimental cultures, and computational work in an integrated strategy for the comprehension of the phenetic, ecological, biological, and phylogenetic species concepts. This activity is based on the observation of the morphological, ecological, biological, and phylogenetic characteristics of samples of two copepod crustaceans, Acartia tonsa Dana, 1849 and Acartia lilljeborgi Giesbrecht, 1889 (Copepoda, Calanoida). These species were the focus of a simple practical that contributes to the effective comprehension of the four species concepts mentioned above, using straightforward methods that can be standardized easily in the laboratory and classroom. The practical activities developed for the didactic sequence presented here not only made the classes more interesting and motivational, but also contributed to the more effective assimilation of the content, as well as the more effective consolidation of the knowledge presented in the class. It is important to note that these activities can be developed at different educational levels (i.e., undergraduate and graduate students), and can be applied to other types of organism (e.g., amphibians, insects or other copepods), as long as their characteristics are adequate for the systematic exploration of the four species concepts included here.
The steel industry produces large amounts of slag coming from different stages during the steelmaking process every year. Currently, there are numerous attempts to recycle it or to use it in some other industry sectors and to preserve the environment. The characteristics of the slag depends on the steelmaking process and it is crucial to have it before any attempt of recycling. In this work, slag sample produced in the ladle furnace from SIDERPERU steel plant were collected and analyzed by using energy dispersion X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), SQUID magnetometer and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The chemical analysis obtained by EDX and XRF indicate that the main elemental composition of the material is Fe, Ca, Si and Cr. XRD identifies that these elements are in the phases: FeO, Fe3O4, α-Fe2O3, Ca2SiO4, and Ca2,32Mn0,68SiO7. Magnetometry measurements suggest the Verwey transition for magnetite and the Morin transition for hematite are screened by the presence of superparamagnetic phases. The Mössbauer spectrum shows two doublets related to Fe²⁺ and Fe³⁺ ions with hyperfine parameters belonging to that of non-stoichiometric wustite. Also, the presence of hyperfine fields characteristic of the Fe3O4 and Fe2O3 phase identified at room temperature verifies the magnetometry analysis. The analysis of the sample used in this work reveals details connected with the steel fabrication processes and are helpful for posterior recycling attempts.
Every year, the steelmaking industry produces millions of tons of slags resulting in pollution to the environment. Among the waste, secondary metals and scales rich in iron oxides are also thrown away. There is a need to treat the steel waste in a reasonably way to protect the environment and proposing new cheap technologies for producing advanced materials. In this study we report the morphological and structural characterization of waste scales generated during roll milling steel process at JSC “Arcelor Mittal Temirtau”. The raw slag and annealed at 1000 °C were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy adapted with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM- EDX), magnetometry and Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS). Fe and O were detected by EDX as main chemical elements and Si, S, Ca, Mg, C and Al as minimal elemental composition. XDR for the raw sample revealed α-Fe 2 O 3 (hematite) and Fe 3 O 4 (magnetite) as principal and secondary phase, respectively; whereas monophasic α-Fe 2 O 3 is detected for the scales annealed at 1000 °C. Magnetometry measurements show the Verwey transition for the raw sample and the Morin transition for the annealed at 1000 °C; those are fingerprints for the presence of magnetite and hematite, respectively. MS measurements for the raw sample consist of 6 small peaks of absorption and a broad two-lines absorption peak in the central part. The doublets are associated to the hyperfine parameters belonging to wustite. Magnetite is related to the hyperfine parameters for two sextets in octahedral Fe 2.5+ and tetrahedral Fe ³⁺ sites and a small sextet that resembles the Mössbauer parameters of α-Fe 2 O 3 . Only a well crystallized and weakly ferromagnetic sextet confirm the presence of α-Fe 2 O 3 phase for the sample annealed at 1000 °C due to thermal oxidation.
Background We examined the influence of superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) Arg213Gly and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated α-Receptor (PPARα) 7G/C polymorphisms to a single dose of purple grape juice supplementation on time-to-exhaustion running test, redox balance and muscle damage in recreational runners. Methods Forty-seven male recreational runners performed a running test until exhaustion after supplementation with grape juice or a control drink. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), plasma nitrite (NO), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured pre and post exercise. Also, polymorphisms were analyzed in DNA extracted from the oral mucosa. Results Grape juice improved the time-to-exhaustion. When analyzed by genotype, the recreational runners with GG+CG genotypes of the SOD3 gene had greater time-to-exhaustion than the CC genotype, but was no different for the PAPRα gene. A slight difference was noted in TAC, since the CC genotype of the SOD3 gene showed higher TAC values in the post-exercise compared to the baseline and with pre-exercise, but these values did not increase compared to the CG+GG group, respectively. The SOD3 and PPARα genes were similar at all times for the other biochemical variables. Conclusion The ergogenic effect of grape juice was genotype-dependent for SOD3 Arg213Gly. However, biochemical redox balance markers did not explain this difference.
Intelligent Personal Assistants (IPAs), such as Amazon's Alexa, are now widely used for an ample variety of tasks, ranging from personal management to education. These tools have shown considerable promise for student-educator interactions, especially at a distance, a potential that has come to the forefront during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Even so, this potential is still underexploited, even in the current scenario. Alexa's apps are known as skills, which include all the different commands that Alexa is capable of executing. It is important to note, however, that the use of such technology is work-intensive and can be relatively complex. Given this, to facilitate the development of new skills in Alexa, we have developed an online tool that permits the creation of questions and answers, as well as honing the interaction between Alexa and the user. We have named this tool ForAlexa, which has two types of forms, Question-And-Answer (Q&A) and Random-Quote. Both these forms allow the user to build intents (an activity that is invoked by a spoken request from the user), but with slightly different functions. The Q&A form is used to compile answers that Alexa will offer in response to an utterance (question), while the Random-Quote extends the interaction between Alexa and the user, based on the questions asked in the first form. ForAlexa also has a help assistant, as well as a manual, which explains all the steps necessary for the design of an intent. This tool allows educators to develop apps quickly and easily for their classes and this type of app could be an alternative to be used for students with special needs, such as the visually-impaired. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12052-022-00169-z.
O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a determinação das propriedades de dureza, obtidas na liga ASTM 7075, submetida aos tratamentos de solubilização e envelhecimento artificial, com as temperaturas de envelhecimento em 150 °C e 180 °C. O aumento da temperatura visa à redução de tempos de tratamento menores do que os convencionais, permitindo uma maior produção de componentes, a partir desse tratamento. As amostras foram submetidas aos tratamentos térmicos e caracterizadas, antes e depois de cada tratamento, por análise microestrutural, ensaio de dureza e difratometria de raios-X. As amostras envelhecidas artificialmente a 180 °C têm dureza menor do que as envelhecidas a 150 °C. Isso evidencia a importância da distribuição dos precipitados de forma dispersa, contribuindo, mais efetivamente, com as propriedades mecânicas obtidas. Os tempos de envelhecimento, utilizados no estudo, foram de 2, 4, 6 e 8 horas. Esses períodos foram suficientes para atingir o pico de dureza nas curvas de envelhecimento, e as máximas durezas obtidas são compatíveis com as encontradas em outros estudos com esse material. Palavras-chave: ASTM 7075; tratamentos térmicos; envelhecimento.
Global climate change tends to intensify water unavailability, especially in semi-arid regions, directly impacting agricultural production. Cowpea is one of the crops with great socio-economic importance in the Brazilian semi-arid region, cultivated mainly under rainfed farming and considered moderately tolerant to water restriction. This species has physiological and biochemical mechanisms of adaptation to these stress factors, but there is still no clear vision of how these responses can not only allow survival, but also ensure yield advances in the field. Besides acclimation mechanisms, the exogenous application of abiotic (salicylic acid, silicon, proline, methionine, and potassium nitrate) and biotic (rhizobacteria) elicitors is promising in mitigating the effects of water restriction. The present literature review discusses the acclimation mechanisms of cowpea and some cultivation techniques, especially the application of elicitors, which can contribute to maintaining crop yield under different water scenarios. The application of elicitors is an alternative way to increase the sustainability of production in rainfed farming in semi-arid regions. However, the use of eliciting substances in cowpea still needs to be carefully explored, given the difficulties caused by genotypic and edaphoclimatic variability under field conditions.
Lanthanide-doped MgB4O7 is a potential dosimetric material due to its thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) properties. These properties have been largely reported, but there are few theoretical studies dedicated to understanding the materials defects. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that defects are a key issue to understand the luminescence mechanisms. A new set of interatomic potential parameters were obtained reproducing the MgB4O7 structure better than 2% and 4% for oxide precursors. The results showed that the O Frenkel defect is the most probable which can account for the intrinsic blue emission in the undoped material. Also, the extrinsic defect calculations demonstrated two possible doping schemes for lanthanide ions. One lanthanide dopant group prefers the direct substitution at the boron site with a molecular ion of (BO3)−3 moving to balance the strain caused by this substitution. Another prefers a substitution at the magnesium site with an MgB anti-site as the charge compensation defect.
The automatic emotion recognition from facial expressions has become an exceptional tool in research involving human subjects and has made it possible to obtain objective measurements of the emotional state of research subjects. Different software and commercial solutions are offered to perform this task. However, the adaptation to cultural context and the recognition of complex expressions and/or emotions are two of the main challenges faced by these solutions. Here, we describe the construction and validation of a set of facial expression images suitable for training a recognition system. Our datasets consist of images of people with no experience in acting who were recorded with a webcam as they performed a computer-assisted task in a room with a light background and overhead illumination. The six basic emotions and mockery were included and a combination of OpenCV, Dlib and Scikit-learn Python libraries were used to develop a support vector machine classifier. The code is available at GitHub and the images will be provided upon request. Since transcultural facial expressions to evaluate complex emotions and open-source solutions were used in this study, we strongly believe that our dataset will be useful in different research contexts.
Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is an important cash crop for Asia, Africa and tropical America. The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) is a major coconut pest, inflicting heavy damage to fruits, thereby reducing yields and farmers profitability. Previous research has demonstrated that high contents of sesquiterpenes compounds present in the essential oil of Vitex gardneriana Schauer (Lamiaceae) (EOVG) showed high potential to control A. guerreronis. Systems stabilized by surfactants, such as microemulsions (MEs), are promising to carry essential oils due to their solubilization and protection properties, generally allow for greater spreadability, wettability and have thermodynamic stability and lower viscosity. Here, we compared the acaricidal activity of MEs containing EOVG a based cottonseed oil (CO) and mineral oil (MO) as different oily phases. MEs formulations were obtained through the pseudoternary phase diagram using a 1:1 mixture of polysorbate 80: propylene glycol as surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively, and CO and MO as oily phases and water as aqueous phase. The MEs were characterized by polarized light microscopy, dynamic light scattering as well as by rheological behavior. Results based on concentration-mortality bioassays, showed that the toxicity of ME-CO containing EOVG was higher (LC50 = 195 ppm) in comparison with ME-CO without EOVG (LC50 = 669 ppm). Similarly, adding EOVG to ME-MO increased the toxicity further (LC50 = 120 ppm). Moreover, the LC50 of ME with and without EOVG for A. guerreronis was higher than the LC50 determined for the EOVG alone (LC50 = 888 ppm). The MEs containing EOVG in their LC80 and mainly LC50, repelled the mite. Overall, our results indicate that the MEs hold potential for controlling A. guerreronis, especially when EOVG was added with both oil phases.
The increasing pressure on water resources in agricultural areas requires the implementation of innovative tools and solutions to improve irrigation water management. Against that background, this research presents the application of a remote sensing-based methodology for estimating actual evapotranspiration (ETa) based on two-source energy balance model (TSEB) and remote sensing-water balance (RSWB) coupling for sugarcane crop in Brazil using the hybrid model Spatial EvapoTranspiration Modeling Interface (SETMI). Estimated results through SETMI and field data using the eddy covariance system (EC) considering two growing seasons were used to validate the energy balance components and ETa. In addition, the basal crop coefficient as a function of the spectral reflectance (Kcbrf) was developed through the soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) and observed ET. Modeled energy balance components showed a strong correlation to the ground data from EC, with ET presenting R² equal to 0.94 and a Pearson correlation coefficient (ρ) equal to 0.88. Regarding Kcbrf, the Kcb-SAVI relationship for sugarcane presented a high correlation with an R² value of 0.85 and an "ρ" equal to 0.92. On average, considering the whole season, Kcb was equal to 0.75 and 0.73 for the 4th ratoon and 5th ratoon, respectively. Overall, the average Kc throughout the period was 0.73 and 0.70 for the 4th and 5th ratoons respectively, and the maximum Kc of about 1.23 for both growing seasons. On average, accumulated ETa presented 1025 mm resulting in ETa rates of 2.9 mm per day considering the two seasons. Crop water productivity (WP) obtained values similar between the seasons, averaging 12.6, 21.7, and 12.3 kg m⁻³ for WPp+i, WPi and WPET, respectively. The SETMI hybrid model produced suitable estimated daily ETa values over the two growing seasons through remote sensing based on the Kcb-SAVI relationship and good performance of TSEB model during the evaluated growing periods confirming the applicability of the model under tropical conditions in Brazil focusing on improving irrigation management in sugarcane crop.
Background: Data regarding the geographical distribution of cases and risk factors for COVID-19 death in children and adolescents are scarce. We describe the spatial distribution of COVID-19 cases and deaths in paediatric population and their association with social determinants of health in Brazil. Methods: This is a population-based ecological study with a spatial analysis of all cases and deaths due to COVID-19 in Brazil among children and adolescents aged 0-19 years from March 2020 to October 2021. The units of analysis were the 5570 municipalities. Data on COVID-19 cases and deaths, social vulnerability, health inequities, and health system capacity were obtained from publicly available databases. Municipalities were stratified from low to very high COVID-19 incidence and mortality using K-means clustering procedures, and spatial clusters and relative risks were estimated using spatial statistics with Poisson probability models. The relationship between COVID-19 estimates and social determinants of health was explored by using multivariate Beta regression techniques. Findings: A total of 33,991 COVID-19 cases and 2424 deaths among children and adolescents aged 0-19 years were recorded from March 2020 to October 2021. There was a spatial dependence for the crude mortality coefficient per 100,000 population in the paediatric population aged 0-19 years (I Moran 0·10; P < 0·001). Forty municipalities had higher mortality rates, of which 20 were in states from the Northeast region. Seven spatial clusters were identified for COVID-19 mortality, with four clusters in the Northeast region and three in the North region. Municipalities with higher social inequality and vulnerability had higher COVID-19 mortality in the paediatric population. Interpretation: The main clusters of risk for mortality among children and adolescents were identified in municipalities in the North and Northeast regions, which are the regions with the worst socioeconomic indicators and greatest health disparities in the country. Our findings confirmed the higher burden of COVID-19 for Brazilian paediatric population in municipalities with higher social inequality and vulnerability and worse socioeconomic indicators. To reduce the burden of COVID-19 on children, mass immunisation is necessary. Funding: None.
Nd-doped YF3 rod-like particles have been obtained by one-step and fast synthesis using the microwave hydrothermal method. Before the investigation of the particles as luminescent thermometers, the structural and morphological properties were investigated by XRD, XPS, and SEM techniques. The results indicate that the method ensures the reproducibility of the crystalline phase and the rod-like shape of YF3 particles. The optical absorption reveals typical neodymium transitions that occur in the first biological window, important to applications as sensors in bio-tissues. The optical sensing performance was analyzed using the temperature-dependent luminescence intensity ratio (LIR) from two Stark sublevels of ⁴F3/2 level (R1 and R2). The maximum value achieved for the relative sensibility (Sr) was 0.22%K⁻¹ at 303K with repeatability of 99.57%, demonstrating Nd-doped YF3 as a promising contactless luminescent thermometer.
Biochar is a beneficial amendment for fine-textured soils. In addition, the interaction of biochar particles with soil components influences the dynamics of water and ions, which is particularly important to remediate salt-affected soils. We investigated the effect of sugarcane bagasse (SB), orange bagasse (OB), and corncobs (CB) biochar on water movement and ion leaching in clayey soil. Non-amended soil (CT) column and soil amended with gypsum (CTG) served as controls. Water infiltration, water flow rate, cumulative leached cations, anions, and exchangeable cations (Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺, K⁺, and Na⁺) were determined. Biochar increased the water infiltration and water flow rate by 80% and 71%, respectively. The SB and CB treatments increased the ion removal from the soil by 48%, whereas the OB increased the removal by 19%. The OB´s lower surface area and water holding capacity likely influenced its performance. Biochar reduced the Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺ concentration on the soil exchange complex by 44% and 76%, respectively, and increased K⁺ by 233%. However, the most exciting result was the reduction of exchangeable Na⁺, 90% in the SB and CB treatments and 50% in the OB treatment. Considering that a high concentration of Na⁺ on the exchange complex contributes to soil structural degradation, biochar application, especially SB and CB, can potentially improve soil quality and mitigate salt-affected soils.
Primates, represented by 521 species, are distributed across 91 countries primarily in the Neotropic, Afrotropic, and Indo-Malayan realms. Primates inhabit a wide range of habitats and play critical roles in sustaining healthy ecosystems that benefit human and nonhuman communities. Approximately 68% of primate species are threatened with extinction because of global pressures to convert their habitats for agricultural production and the extraction of natural resources. Here, we review the scientific literature and conduct a spatial analysis to assess the significance of Indigenous Peoples' lands in safeguarding primate biodiversity. We found that Indigenous Peoples' lands account for 30% of the primate range, and 71% of primate species inhabit these lands. As their range on these lands increases, primate species are less likely to be classified as threatened or have declining populations. Safeguarding Indigenous Peoples' lands, languages, and cultures represents our greatest chance to prevent the extinction of the world's primates.
Purpose Brands gradually became the core dimension and strategic asset of branding for organizations of all sizes, and today many companies adopt various forms of green marketing activities as part of their strategies. In this sense, this study aimed to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of precision and validity of a scale for brand evaluation equity based on the environmental sustainability of the Amazon in the Brazilian context. Design/methodology/approach The scale was validated by adopting the norms described in the Standards standards. As samples for testing, eight companies from the Amazônia UP program participated in this research, having data interviews applied to 262 potential consumers. discoveries A scale with 23 items was constructed and validated, and after evaluation by the specialists, 22 items were obtained, divided into four dimensions: Quality perception — POQ(5 questions); Strategic Brand Positioning – SBP (10 questions); Willingness to buy — WIB(2 questions) and Innovation in retail — BRI (4 questions). Three items were modified because they presented the CVC at 0.8, being accepted after the adjustments. The instrument items showed good internal consistency (0.877) regarding their domains. As for DIF data, the scale invariably works for older and younger people for almost all items, except item BRI 04. Research limitations/implications This article fills the gap in the literature by developing a scale to assess consumer perception of brand equity and environmental sustainability. However, the findings are limited to the variation in the data collection since, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic period, most participants chose to fill in the scale online. Thus, the scale data are limited by the context in which the research was applied. practical implications The development and subsequent validation of the contextualized psychometric scale fills an important gap in the academic literature, providing a better understanding of the perception of potential consumers about the brand . Sustainable brand equity that generalist scales could not measure. Likewise, the scale provides essential information for brand entrepreneurs who aim to develop their products sustainably, an important tool for managers to test and validate the extent to which new advertising materials demonstrate brand authenticity. Originality/Value The present study contributes to the directional and effective branding of brands related to environmental sustainability, mainly from tropical forests such as the Amazon rainforest. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the instrument developed and validated cross-culturally can be applied to potential consumers aged between 19 and 64 years of both sexes.
The study by Ubuane et al1 is interesting and highly relevant for clinicians and researchers. This is a cross‐sectional study that established reference values and equations to predict the maximum walked distance in the six‐minute walk test (6MWT) for healthy Nigerian children aged 6 to 11 years This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the concentration of iodine in drinking water in the same or different seasons of the year in Brazilian macroregions. Method. Water samples were collected from the Basic Health Units of eight municipalities that make up the different Brazilian macroregions and the Federal District. Sample collection took place in the summer, autumn, winter, and spring seasons. The spectrophotometric method with “leuco crystal violet” was used to determine the concentration of iodine in the water. Descriptive statistics on the data were performed. To verify if there was a difference in the concentration of iodine in the water between the climatic seasons of the year in the same place and between the same seasons in different locations, the Mann–Whitney or Kruskal–Wallis test was used and a p < 0.05 value was considered significant. Results. Among the climatic seasons throughout the year in the same location, there was a difference in the concentration of iodine in the water in the municipality of Pinhais, state of Paraná/South macroregion, between autumn and summer ( p = 0.041 ) and winter and summer seasons ( p = 0.003 ). There was a difference in the concentration of iodine in the water in the summer season between the Midwest and South macroregions; Northeast and Midwest, Southeast and South; North and Midwest, Southeast and South ( p < 0.05 ). In the autumn season, there was a difference in the concentration of iodine in the water between the Midwest and South macroregions; Northeast and Midwest, Southeast and South; North and Midwest, Northeast and South ( p < 0.05 ). In the winter season, there was a difference in the concentration of iodine in the water between the Southeast and Midwest and Southeast and South macroregions ( p < 0.05 ). In the spring season, there was a difference in the concentration of iodine in the water between the Southeast and Midwest and Southeast and South macroregions ( p < 0.05 ). Conclusion. There were differences in the iodine concentrations in drinking water in different locations in Brazil, when analyzed in the same seasons, and in the municipality of Pinhais between the autumn and summer and winter and summer seasons. Thus, it is suggested to monitor the iodine concentrations in water, considering the differences in climate, characteristics of each region, and soils throughout the Brazilian territory, since the deficiency or excess of iodine can bring risks to the health of the population.
Hyptis martiusii Benth. also known as "cidreira brava", has some activities verified in the literature, such as antiulcerogenic, antimicrobial and antiedematogenic. This study aimed to verify the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effect of the leaves essential oil. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of OEHM (100 mg/kg/p.o.), models paw edema induced by dextran and histamine, peritonitis and vascular permeability were used. Regarding the anti-nociceptive activity of the OEHM, abdominal contortion tests by acetic acid, formalin, hot plate (50.75 and 100 mg/kg/p.o.), open field and mechanical plantar hyper-nociception (100 mg/ kg/p.o.) were carried out. OEHM (100 mg/kg) showed anti-inflammatory activity, being able to remarkably deducing the paw edema induced by dextran and histamine, the total number of cell leukocytes/neutrophils in peritonitis, and exudate in vascular permeability. In antinociceptive activity, the OEHM did not promote significant effect in central nervous system in the open field assay, remarkably reduced abdominal contortions (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg), the time in the formalin assay and the mechanical hyper-nociception (100 mg/kg); however, only doses between 75 and 100 mg/kg were capable of ameliorating the reponse latency time. Regarding the probable mechanism of action, the antinociceptive activity includes the participation in the activation of opioid, TRPV1, and α2-noradrenergic systems. In short, data obtained here reveal that OEHM has anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity, implying that its action may be involved in the mechanism of inhibition or liberation of pro-inflammatory mediators involved in pain and inflammation.
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