Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul
  • Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
Recent publications
Objective To provide guidelines on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in patients with immune-mediated rheumatic diseases (IMRD) to rheumatologists considering specific scenarios of the daily practice based on the shared-making decision (SMD) process. Methods A task force was constituted by 24 rheumatologists (panel members), with clinical and research expertise in immunizations and infectious diseases in immunocompromised patients, endorsed by the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology (BSR), to develop guidelines for COVID-19 vaccination in patients with IMRD. A consensus was built through the Delphi method and involved four rounds of anonymous voting, where five options were used to determine the level of agreement (LOA), based on the Likert Scale: (1) strongly disagree; (2) disagree, (3) neither agree nor disagree (neutral); (4) agree; and (5) strongly agree. Nineteen questions were addressed and discussed via teleconference to formulate the answers. In order to identify the relevant data on COVID-19 vaccines, a search with standardized descriptors and synonyms was performed on September 10th, 2021, of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, and LILACS to identify studies of interest. We used the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale to assess the quality of nonrandomized studies. Results All the nineteen questions-answers (Q&A) were approved by the BSR Task Force with more than 80% of panelists voting options 4—agree—and 5—strongly agree—, and a consensus was reached. These Guidelines were focused in SMD on the most appropriate timing for IMRD patients to get vaccinated to reach the adequate covid-19 vaccination response. Conclusion These guidelines were developed by a BSR Task Force with a high LOA among panelists, based on the literature review of published studies and expert opinion for COVID-19 vaccination in IMRD patients. Noteworthy, in the pandemic period, up to the time of the review and the consensus process for this document, high-quality evidence was scarce. Thus, it is not a substitute for clinical judgment.
Soil health is at the core of the sustainability agenda. As in many agroecosystems in the tropics, soil erosion is a major issue in poorly managed pasturelands. A noteworthy case is located in the Upper Taquari River Basin (UTRB), as part of the Upper Paraguay Basin on the plateau with drainage waters for the Taquari megafan in the Brazilian Pantanal. Here we combine slope (S-factor), erodibility (E-factor), rainfall-rainy day ratio (R-factor), and vegetation and soil indices (C-factor) to locate erosion risk and prioritize eco-engineering interventions via palisades and small dams in UTRB. The method consisted of assessing distinct weights between Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) factors in a GIS platform, providing 35 combinations of classes as low, moderate, high, and very high erosive risk. The validation of the method was based on the ravine and plain ground truths obtained from high-resolution raster data. The best weight of USLE factors aids to locate critical erosive sites and vegetation patterns. Then, erosion risk and interventions were analyzed according to land use and rural property sizes in the government's Rural Environmental Registry (CAR) database. Overall, the natural factors of slope and erodibility in a proportion of 25% and 75% in GIS algebra provided the best mapping accuracy result. About 65% of the UTRB has high or very high erosion risks, and 70% of the available area can be acknowledged as degraded pasturelands. A total of 4744 erosion interventions were recorded, with an accuracy of 65.28% and 61.15% for check dams and palisades interventions, respectively. The number of necessary interventions in areas of native vegetation was almost 50% higher than in pasturelands. Even though micro landowners occupy most of the watershed, large properties have about ten times as many areas at high risk of erosion. The mutual cooperation between properties, independently of size, is supported by governmental public policies like incentives for ecosystem services restoration of critical gullies, with CAR compliance and fiscalization.
The complex landscapes of tropical monsoonal lowlands make water resource estimates difficult, given sparsely distributed monitoring networks. Satellite radiometry has facilitated increased access to environmental data. Here, we use radiometric indices to analyze the Taquari megafan and identify features of the Pantanal subregions that characterize it. Recent periods of strong droughts and floods were selected in the region for statistical analysis using the following radiometric indices: NDWI-Gao, NDWI-McFeeters and MNDWI. The behavior of the NDWI-Gao showed that the Paiaguás and Nhecolândia subregions had similar vegetation moisture values in 2011 and 2012, but surprisingly, the two subregions did not attain maximum values of vegetation moisture higher than values in the Taquari subregion during severe flooding in 2011. The Paiaguás and Nhecolândia subregions were more correlated in terms of vegetation moisture than open water features. The MNDWI analysis of the Taquari subregion, however, revealed the highest levels of liquid water in the vegetation and the highest values for water bodies/courses. The permanently flooded state of the Taquari subregion may explain why the vegetation appears to be moister in the NDWI-Gao. The NDWI-Gao data were consistent for dry vegetation in 2020, recording values of −0.7, while other dry periods such as 2010 and 2013 recorded values of −0.4. The vegetation responded quickly to the alternation of drought/flood cycles, registering high values of liquid water content in the period 2011–2012 and reduced values in 2012–2013.
Software Ecosystems (SECO) depend on platforms that serve as environments for developers interaction. When the organization that owns the platform does not support the synergy between organizational goals and developers' expectations, the SECO may die. The death results in the definitive suspension of vital activities, directly impacting developers, who lose part of the learning and experience gained. Projects that depend on the SECO platform may be discontinued. Ultimately, the responsible corporation loses the resources invested in the development and maintenance of the software and communities. Thus, understanding the signs that may indicate a SECO death is important. In this paper, we report a study conducted on StackOverflow (SO) and GitHub (GH) focusing on Web SECOs: AngularJS, PhantomJS, and Moment.JS. We analyzed metrics based on answer rates, closed issues, and modified files to understand what happens in these SECOs before, during, and after the platform's death. We identified that an SO answer rate below 0.8 is a sign of risk. In GH, the files that involve source code and text are the ones that concentrate on the activities before and during death.
Os efluentes líquidos provenientes do processo de um curtume são potencialmente tóxicos e perigosos para o meio ambiente, portanto precisam ser tratados. O objetivo principal desta revisão foi avaliar se os processos oxidativos avançados são eficientes para tratar o esgoto desse tipo de indústria. Para isso, processos como fenton, eletro-fenton, fotocatálise, foto-fenton, oxidação eletroquímica, ozonização e métodos sonoquímicos foram revisados para compreender a sua utilização e definir de que maneira podem ser melhor utilizados. Assim, os processos oxidativos avançados se apresentam como uma forma promissora para este problema, principalmente quando utilizados de maneira integrada com outros tipos de tratamento, aumentando a eficiência da remoção de poluentes. Palavras-chave: Processos oxidativos avançados. Águas residuárias de curtume. Foto-fenton.
Understanding how streamflow and its components, baseflow and quickflow, vary spatially according to climate and landscape characteristics is fundamental for dealing with different water-related issues. Analytical formulations have been proposed to investigate their long-term behavior and additional influencing factors, suggesting that they are mainly controlled by the aridity index (ϕ). Nevertheless, these studies assume the catchment as a closed water balance system, neglecting inter-catchment groundwater flow (IGF). This simplification makes the analysis of the long-term streamflow components and their main control mechanisms challenging, given that many catchments cannot be considered as closed hydrologic entities. Here, we assessed the controls of the mean-annual streamflow components and their behavior under an open water balance assumption, using observed data of 734 Brazilian catchments with diverse hydroclimatic conditions. Our results indicate that indeed streamflow components are primarily controlled by ϕ at the mean annual timescale. The consideration of an open water-balance significantly improved the performance of aridity-based functional forms to describe streamflow components while also elucidating how catchments’ attributes may influence streamflow behavior. Land cover, groundwater, climate seasonality and topographic attributes appeared as the main control mechanisms besides aridity. Overall, our study provides new insights of the main control mechanism of the streamflow behavior at the long-term scale, while shedding light on the importance of the open water-balance assumption for model development and water resources management.
Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. It is caused by the dengue virus (DENV) that can be classified into 4 different serotypes (DENV-1–4). Early diagnosis and management can reduce morbidity and mortality rates of severe forms of the disease, as well as decrease the risk of larger outbreaks. Hiperendemicity in some regions of the world and the possibility that some people develop a more severe form of disease after a secondary infection caused by antibody-dependent enhancement justify the need to understand more thoroughly the antibody response induced against the virus. Here, we successfully produced a recombinant DENV-2 envelope (E) protein and its domains (EDI/II and EDIII) in two distinct expression systems: the Drosophila S2 insect cell system and the BL21 (DE3) pLySs bacterial system. We then evaluated the reactivity of sera from patients previously infected with DENV to each recombinant protein and to each domain separately. Our results show that the E protein produced in Drosophila S2 cells is recognized more frequently than the protein produced in bacteria. However, the recognition of E protein produced in bacteria correlates better with the DENV-2 sera neutralization capacity. The results described here emphasize the differences observed when antigens produced in bacteria or eukaryotic cells are used and may be useful to gain more insight into the humoral immune responses induced by dengue infection.
Aquatic hyphomycetes are fungi with a fundamental ecological role in forested streams. These organisms are responsible for cycling of nutrients in aquatic environments. However, their structure and composition can be affected when exposed to certain pollutants. Arsenic (As) is a trace element with high toxicity for the aquatic biota. Here we evaluated the effects of different concentrations of Arsenite (AsIII) and Arsenate (AsV) on aquatic hyphomycetes assemblages. To test As toxicity, we conditioned Nectandra megapotamica leaves in a stream and after this period, we incubated leaf discs with stream water and different concentrations of AsIII and AsV. Species richness was negatively affected by both As form. Likewise, the hyphomycetes assemblages presented variation in the composition of species. However, the sporulation rates were not influenced by As. The As showed toxicity on species of hyphomycetes more sensitive, remaining only in species tolerant to its toxicity. In this way, As generated a change in the aquatic hyphomycetes composition. We observed that As had a negative effect on the aquatic hyphomycetes assemblages, regardless of the chemical form. Our results point to the toxicity of this element and its effects on a group that is fundamental to the streams ecosystems functioning.
In recent decades, there have been significant advances in GPS-based fauna monitoring technology, yielding valuable conservation data (Hebblewhite & Haydon, 2010; Bertassoni et al., 2022). This information has helped to clarify previously obscure questions about the ecology, reproduction, animal welfare, movement, and spatial dynamics of a number of species of free-living fauna (Sainsbury et al., 2019; Jorge-Neto et al., 2020). However, few studies have looked at the GPS collar as a means to uncover illegal practices, thus acting as a detection tool. Here, we report on how GPS tracking of a jaguar was used to uncover an environmental crime that resulted in the death of several wild animals due to the use of smuggled pesticides. The Instituto Reprocon studies jaguar reproductive behavior in the Pantanal of Passo do Lontra (19°34′38.2″S 57°01′09.8″W; Corumbá—MS—Brazil) using camera traps and GPS collars. The researchers received a mortality signal from the GPS collar of Sandro, a 4-year-old, 120-kg monitored male jaguar, in May 2021. In June, researchers arrived at the site to evaluate the most recent coordinates sent, and the jaguar male was discovered dead with the GPS collar still in situ (Fig. 1). The pungent smell of putrefaction prompted a further search, and a second jaguar (named Taurus) was discovered dead at approximately 290 meters from Sandro (Fig. 2). Despite the carcasses' decomposition, neither showed any signs of injuries that could have resulted in death. With such a suspicious situation, the hypothesis of death by poisoning was raised, and the researchers abandoned the site for safety reasons. When confronted with a potential crime, it is the responsibility of the researchers to report it to the authorities while avoiding malfeasance. The criminal referral was therefore made to the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (Ibama) and the Brazilian Federal Police. Both organizations acted quickly, dispatching Ibama environmental agents, federal police officers, and crime scene investigators (CSI) to locate the carcasses under the guidance of the researchers (Fig. 3). The researchers analyzed the GPS collar coordinates to determine Sandro's last predation/feeding clusters (accumulations of points in the same place; Fig. 4). The CSI decided to begin the investigation in such cluster, and a bovine carcass (Fig. 5) covered in hundreds of dead flies (Fig. 6) was discovered there. Fourteen American black vultures (Coragyps atratus) and two southern caracaras (Caracara plancus) were discovered dead around it (between 0.5 and 5 m), and a crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) was discovered dead 24 m away (Fig. 7). The jaguars were 85 meters (Taurus) and 366 meters (Sandro) away from the poisoned carcass. The active ingredient carbofuran was suspected to be the poison. This molecule is well-known for the speed with which it causes death and is illegally used in several countries for the poisoning of wild animals (Poledník et al., 2011; Richards, 2011; Ogada, 2014; Botha et al., 2015; Ruiz-Suárez et al., 2015). Carbofuran is also an agricultural insecticide that has been prohibited in Brazil since 2017 due to its toxicity to humans (Brasil, 2017). However, it continues to enter Brazil illegally through border areas (de Moraes, 2021), possibly from Paraguay or Bolivia in this case. During the examination, the CSI collected tissue samples from the carcasses for laboratory analysis. Because all the evidence to date had been circumstantial, the police investigation required confirmation of the poisoning. The results of the analyses were published (INC/DITEC/PF, 2022) in March 2022 by the National Institute of Criminalistics of the Federal Police (Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 15°49′45.5″S 47°55′54.4″W). The presence of the active ingredient carbofuran in the samples confirmed the suspicion of poisoning. This report enabled the police investigation's conclusion to be presented to the Public Prosecutor's Office, allowing the criminal process to proceed. Thereby, satellite monitoring technology has proven to be an invaluable tool in bringing previously unseen crimes to light. The GPS collar proved to be an essential tool, not only for monitoring their occurrence and interactions with other individuals of the same species but also for illegal activity detection. In cases of unintentional poisoning, GPS monitoring can also serve as an additional safeguard for free-living animals: due to GPS monitoring, dead animals can be located and depending upon the level of putrefaction, the cause of death can be detected and addressed. Therefore, it is possible to bring to light crimes that cannot always be proven even when their occurrence is known. Another case is a GPS-monitored male jaguar that was discovered dead after more than a month. Due to the presence of bone lesions compatible with firearm projectiles, it was possible to determine that he had been killed by gunshots, despite a significant level of putrefaction. This kind of diagnosis is crucial because it permits the design of conflict mitigation strategies and actions, as well as the evaluation of problems and the suggestion of solutions. The employment of GPS collar technology as sentinels on target animals such as carnivores should be further investigated, as these species are frequently involved in confrontations regarding domestic animals, and GPS surveillance could help safeguard these populations.
The silage process is an efficient way of storing nutrients for animal nutrition. Our hypothesis was that the Baru pulp can be preserved in the form of silage, regardless of the use of additives to aid the process. Silages of Baru pulp containing different additives were evaluated through in vitro analysis, fermentation parameters, and composition and thermal analysis including differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. The treatments consisted of (1) silage with Baru pulp (BP) in natura without additive; (2) BP in natura with acetic acid; (3) BP in natura with formic acids; and (4) BP in natura added with microbial inoculums in a randomized experimental design with three replications per treatment and analyzed in duplicate. The ensiled material was kept in anaerobic conditions for a period of 30 days. BP before and after the silage process presented averages of 67.31 and 66.24% for in vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD). Microbial inoculant additive was the most effective in reducing pH, followed by acetic acid and formic acid. There were effects of additives on silages for all degradation parameters in ruminal liquid in vitro. It was observed that BP before ensiling had the highest A fraction (7.9 mL gas/100 mg DM), without differing from the silage treated with formic acid (7.1 mL gas/100 mg DM). Similar effects were observed on mass loss (TG) and heat flux (DSC) between the silages. Our findings suggest that Baru pulp with formic acid is more efficient in the conservation and preservation of fermentable carbohydrates as well as in silage production.
This study aims to evaluate the economic impact of poisoning by Brachiaria grass in lambs from birth to weaning (suckling) and from weaning to slaughter (finishing) different levels of energy protein supplementation (EPS). In addition, we estimated the economic efficiency of removing lambs from the pasture as a control measure to minimize the losses caused by Brachi-aria grass poisoning. Seventy lambs were used in the suckling phase, distributed in two nutritional treatments (control and creep feeding). Hospitalization expenses were US$ 1580.80 for the control treatment and US$ 256.16 for the creep feeding treatment. In the finishing phase, 48 lambs were distributed in four nutritional treatments, which consisted of increasing levels of EPS (mineral salt, 0.8, 1.6 and 2.4% of LW). The largest difference in total revenue (US$) was observed between 2.4% of BW EPS and mineral salt (− 2300.28) treatments. Hospitalization expenses were similar between nutritional treatments , being higher in the treatment 1.6% of BW EPS (US$ 578.15). The biggest difference in gross income (US$) observed was between 2.4% of BW EPS and mineral salt (− 1439.43) treatments. The Brachiaria grass poisoning caused economic losses to the sheep farming system, due to the death of lambs, reduced weight gain and lower weights at weaning and in the finishing phase. Brachiaria grass poisoning caused economic damage to the production system. There were direct losses, with the death of the lambs without supplementation, in the suckling and finishing phases. The supplementation increases the performance and reduces the mortality. The supplementation in high levels is efficient in reducing the economic impact of poisoning by Brachiaria grass in both periods of suckling and finishing.
The growth of the world population has led to the expansion of agricultural areas to produce food that meets world demand, making it necessary to increase productivity and maintain environmental sustainability in these areas. Seeking sustainable food production, the agricultural use of soil must be assessed in view of optimal use or land as natural resource, as well as minimize the effects of global warming related to land use and land cover (LULC). We hypothesize that different LULC affects Amazonian soil attributes. In this study, the effect of different LULC in the southern Brazilian Amazon, namely, native forest, pasture, and rice and soybean crops, on the spatial variability of soil fertility and texture was assessed, seeking to obtain information that will guide farmers in the near future to better exploit their areas and contribute to a more sustainable agriculture. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed for the pH, H + Al, Al, Ca, Mg, P, K, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, V, m, organic matter, clay, silt, and sand values from soil samples under different LULC. To verify the data normality, the Shapiro–Wilk test at 5% significance was performed. Outlier analysis using boxplot graphics, principal component analysis (PCA), and cluster analysis was performed. Data were submitted to geostatistical analysis to verify the spatial dependence degree of the variables through semivariograms for interpolated kriging maps. Except for silt, all variables were well represented in the factor map. PCA revealed that the data variability can be explained mainly by pH, V, Ca, K, and Zn values, which are inversely proportional to m, P, and sand. Through geostatistical analysis, spatial dependence ranging from moderate to strong was observed, generating reliability in the prediction of most attributes in pasture, rice, and soybean areas. Yet, a spatial dependence ranging from moderate to strong was found, generating reliability in the prediction of most attributes in pasture, rice, and soybean areas. Our findings reveal a lower fertility and higher acidity in forest areas, whereas crop areas presented the opposite result.
Resumo O presente estudo teórico tem como objetivo apresentar e discutir o conceito de alienação educacional na perspectiva da Teoria da Objetivação (TO), uma teoria de ensino e aprendizagem proposta nos anos 1990. Inspirada no materialismo dialético e na escola de pensamento de Vygotsky, busca romper com as concepções tradicionais e individualistas de ensino adotadas nas escolas. Para compreender o significado de alienação na perspectiva da TO discutem-se os conceitos centrais dessa teoria: saber, conhecimento e aprendizagem. Por meio da atividade, ou labor conjunto, o saber é colocado em movimento e o ser é transformado, superando as situações de alienação. O estudo contribui para a reflexão sobre a alienação educacional que ainda é muito comum no contexto escolar atual e sugere a TO como possibilidade para romper com os modelos racionalistas de educação que a sustentam.
Cheese whey addition to milk is a type of fraud with high prevalence and severe economic effects, resulting in low yield for dairy products, nutritional reduction of milk and milk-derived products, and even some safety concerns. Nevertheless, methods to detect fraudulent addition of cheese whey to milk are expensive and time consuming, and are thus ineffective as screening methods. The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique is a promising alternative to identify this type of fraud because a large number of data are generated, and useful information might be extracted to be used by machine learning models. The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of FTIR with machine learning methods, such as classification tree and multilayer perceptron neural networks to detect the addition of cheese whey to milk. A total of 520 samples of raw milk were added with cheese whey in concentrations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30%; and 65 samples were used as control. The samples were stored at 7, 20, and 30°C for 0, 24, 48, 72, and 168 h, and analyzed using FTIR equipment. Complementary results of 520 samples of authentic raw milk were used. Selected components (fat, protein, casein, lactose, total solids, and solids nonfat) and freezing point (°C) were predicted using FTIR and then used as input features for the machine learning algorithms. Performance metrics included accuracy as high as 96.2% for CART (classification and regression trees) and 97.8% for multilayer perceptron neural networks, with precision, sensitivity, and specificity above 95% for both methods. The use of milk composition and freezing point predicted using FTIR, associated with machine learning techniques, was highly efficient to differentiate authentic milk from samples added with cheese whey. The results indicate that this is a potential method to be used as a high-performance screening process to detected milk adulterated with cheese whey in milk quality laboratories.
Heterogeneous photocatalysis employing semiconductor oxide photocatalysts is a sustainable and promising method for environmental remediation and clean energy generation. In this context, nanostructured photocatalysts, with at least one dimension in the 1‒100 nm size regime, have attracted ever-growing attention due to their unique and often enhanced size-dependent physicochemical properties. While their reduced size ensures enhanced photocatalytic performance, the same makes it difficult and time/energy-demanding to remove/recover such nanostructured photocatalysts from aqueous media. This fundamental limitation has paved the way towards developing supported nanophotocatalysts where the active photocatalytic nanostructures are coated on the surface of polymeric or inorganic support materials, often in a core@shell conformation. This arrangement solves the problem of photocatalysts’ recovery for effective reuse or recycling and leads to improved and desired target properties due to specific photocatalyst-support interactions. While the enhanced physicochemical properties of supported photocatalysts have been widely studied in many target applications, the role of support-photocatalysts interactions in improving these properties remains unexplored. This review article provides an updated viewpoint on the photocatalyst-support interactions and the resulting unique physiochemical properties important for diverse photochemical applications and the design of practical devices. While exploring the properties of supported nanostructured metal oxide/sulfides photocatalysts such as TiO2 and MoS2, we also briefly discuss the common strategies employed to coat the active nanomaterials on the surface of different supports (organic/polymeric, inorganic, active, inert, and magnetic). https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s43630-022-00299-9
The emergence of bacterial resistance has reduced the efficacy of conventional antibiotics. As promising therapeutic candidates to treat infections, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) emerge as an alternative for the control of microorganisms. AMPs have been found in several sources, including animals, plants and fungi, constituting early host defense against pathogens. As a very diverse group, these peptides represent a myriad of structures, which could lead to different mechanisms of action. However, currently, only approximately 2% of known AMP sequences have experimentally solved structures. Therefore, computational structure prediction is essential to improve our understanding of AMP structural diversity, origins and interactions with their targets. Hence, this chapter will focus on computational strategies that have been applied to predict AMP three-dimensional structure and how they have helped to expand our knowledge of the AMP structural universe, structure–function relationships and the development of more potent AMPs.
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3,211 members
Marcia S.C. Melhem
  • Faculty of Medicine
Haroon Rashid
  • Departamento de Química (DQI)
Jamal Rafique
  • Institute of Chemistry
Adilson Beatriz
  • Institute of Chemistry
Dênis de Lima
  • Instituto de Química (INQUI)
Av. Costa e Silva, s/n, 79070-900, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
Head of institution
Marcelo Augusto Santos Turine