Studies on the breeding of vulnerable and endangered bird species are hindered by low numbers of individuals, inaccessible location of nests, unfavourable environmental conditions, and complex behavioural patterns. In addition, intraspecific variation may emerge only following long-term, systematic observations of little-known patterns and processes. Here, data collected over 30 years were used to determine growth model of hyacinth macaw ( Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus ) chicks in the Pantanal biome of Brazil. During this period, the speed of growth and body mass of chicks varied widely. Four growth models were tested: logistic, Gompertz, Richards, and cubic polynomial. They were fitted using three biometric measurements: body mass, total length, and tail length. The best-fitting growth curves were identified using Akaike’s information criterion. The best models were the cubic polynomial for body mass, Richards for total length, and Gompertz for tail length. We confirmed the occurrence of dwarf individuals, whose body mass, total length, and tail length were 20%, 22%, and 70% smaller, respectively, than in the overall population. The dwarfs remain small in size after having fledged and are easily identified as adults. We discuss the importance of long-term studies to identify windows of opportunity for further research that will help in the conservation of endangered macaw species.
Advancing functional ecology depends fundamentally on the availability of data on reproductive traits, including those from tropical plants, which have been historically underrepresented in global trait databases. While some valuable databases have been recently created, they are mainly restricted to temperate areas and vegetative traits such as leaf and wood traits. Here, we present Rock n' Seeds, a database of seed functional traits and germination experiments from the Brazilian rock outcrop vegetation, recognized as outstanding centers of diversity and endemism. Data were compiled through a systematic literature search, resulting in 103 publications from which seed functional traits were extracted. The database includes information for sixteen functional traits for 383 taxa from 148 genera, 50 families and 25 orders. These sixteen traits include two dispersal, six production, four morphological, two biophysical and two germination traits; the major axes of the seed ecological spectrum. The database also provides the raw data for 48 germination experiments for a total of 10,187 records for 281 taxa are also provided. Germination experiments in the database assessed the effect of a wide range of abiotic and biotic factors on germination and different dormancy-breaking treatments. Notably, 8,255 of these records include daily germination counts. This input will facilitate synthesizing germination data and using this database for a myriad of ecological questions. Given the variety of seed traits and the extensive germination information made available by this database, we expect it to be a valuable resource advancing comparative functional ecology and guiding seed-based restoration and biodiversity conservation in tropical megadiverse ecosystems. There are no copyright restrictions on the data; please cite this paper when using the current data in publications and the authors would appreciate notification of how the data are used in the publications.
Gonorrhea is the second most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection on the planet and is caused by a Gram-negative cocco, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Currently, the preferred regimen for the management of this disease in Brazil is a combination of antimicrobials, in this case, ceftriaxone and azithromycin. However, over time, the gonococcus developed a decrease in susceptibility to the regimen used, which resulted in frank resistance to antimicrobials, progressively reducing the therapeutic options available. Thus, the study presented here aims to analyze and discuss the current scenario of resistance of N. gonorrhoeae to the antimicrobials used to date, to encourage discussion on the subject in the academic environment. For this purpose, 47 articles indexed in the Bireme, PubMed, Scielo and UpToDate platforms were selected.
Peer-review optimizes the quality of research articles; however, new strategies need to be implemented to enhance peer-review capacity. This report comprises the peer-review process of a medical student–led journal editorial board, detailing its challenges and the students’ role. The peer education approach conducted a capacity-building activity, developing guidelines, and practicing critical appraisal and constructive feedback in manners that classroom research training cannot. Understandings of an effective peer-review brought to discussion from standardization and blinding to ethical and scientific competencies essential in researchers. All parties, including students, should be allowed to extend their capabilities to enhance scholarly publishing.
Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known to stimulate the biocontrol of phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi, induce plant growth, and increase the yield of important economic crops. In this study, we evaluated in vivo, the ability of Bacillus strains to control soybean white mold disease and promote the growth of soybean plants under greenhouse conditions. Initially, 27 Bacillus strains were analyzed by PCR for the presence of genes encoding antimicrobial molecules, followed by in vitro tests of the positive strains against four phytopathogenic fungi, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, and Colletotrichum truncatum. The bacterial strains that returned positive results for antimicrobial genes were evaluated in vivo for their growth promoting capacity in soybean cultivars Potencia RR and M6210 IPRO, and white mold control in soybean plants. The results showed that eight strains presented the genes bamD, ituD, and fenF, while the bacAB gene was observed in 16 of all tested Bacillus strains. The greenhouse experiment showed that the inoculation of the strain VBN02 was the best treatment for increasing fresh shoot biomass of the soybean M6210 IPRO and Potencia RR cultivar in the single inoculation in relation to the control (111.9% and 103.57%, respectively). Co-inoculation of soybean inoculant and VBE01 was the superior treatment for increasing fresh shoot and root mass in both the cultivars. Two other strains, VBE05 and VBE01, reduced the disease progression of white mold by 39.1% and 37.5%, respectively. In conclusion, our results showed that the Bacillus strains have potential for biocontrol of white mold and for promoting the growth of soybean plants.
Purpose: To evaluate and describe the effect of electrophysical resources laser therapy (LLLT), intravascular laser blood irradiation (ILIB), and cryotherapy on the healing process of neurotendinous injury, as well as possible systemic changes, in the experimental model of type 1 diabetes associated with kidney injury. Methods: The animals were randomized into four groups: G1) healthy control with untreated injury; G2) healthy control with injury and treatment; G3) disease control with untreated lesion; G4) disease with injury and treatment. Furthermore, the treated groups were divided into three, according to the type of treatment. All animals were induced to neurotendinous injury and treated according to the therapeutic protocols. Healing and inflammation were analyzed by semiquantitative histopathological study. Results: It was observed in sick animals treated with cryotherapy and ILIB reduction of inflammatory exudate, presence of fibroblasts and organization of collagen, when compared to the effects of LLLT. Moreover, there was reduction in glycemic levels in the group treated with ILIB. Conclusions: Cryotherapy promoted reduction in inflammatory exudate and organization of collagen fibers, in addition to the absence of signs of tissue necrosis, in the groups treated with and without the disease. ILIB therapy showed the same findings associated with significant reduction in glycemic levels in the group of diseased animals. The application of LLLT showed increased inflammatory exudate, low organization of collagen fibers and low sign of tissue degeneration and necrosis. This study in a model of associated diseases (diabetes and kidney disease) whose effects of electrophysical resources studied after neurotendinous injury allows us to verify histopathological variables suggestive of patients with the same comorbidities.
The use of natural products obtained from plants, for example, invasive plants, offers a variety of allelochemicals with fungicidal potential. With this in perspective, the objective was to evaluate the fungicidal potential of ethanolic extracts of Cerrado plants on Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. The ethanolic hydroalcoholic extract of the 12 plants identified as invaders in the Brazilian Cerrado was prepared (Anacardium humile Saint Hill; Baccharis dracunculifolia DC.; Cenchrus echinatus L; Commelina erecta L.; Erigeron bonariensis L.; Digitaria horizontalis Willd.; Digitaria insularis L.; Porophyllum ruderale Jacq. Cass; Richardia brasiliensis Gomes; Sida rhombifolia L.; Turnera ulmifolia L.; Smilax fluminensis Steud)) and phytochemical screening and determination of total phenols and flavonoids were performed. To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity, the hydroalcoholic solutions at concentrations of 800, 1200, 1600, 2000, and 2400 µL 100 mL-1 were separately incorporated into BDA agar and poured into Petri dishes, followed by the mycelium disk of the fungus. As a control, two solutions were prepared, one ethanolic solution added to the BDA medium (2400 µg 100 mL-1) and the other with BDA medium only. They were poured into Petri dishes, followed by a 0.5 cm diameter disk of mycelium of the fungus, incubated (23±2 ºC), with a 24-hour photoperiod. Among the constituents found in the plants, 75% are phenolic compounds, 58.3% are cardiotonic heterosides, 50% are steroids, 33.3% are flavonoids, 16.7% are anthraquinones, and 8.3% are alkaloids, saponins, and reducing sugars. Out of the 12 species, only the extracts of C. erecta and R. brasiliensis were active for M. phaseolina and R. solani. Thus, it is concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. erecta has the fungicidal potential to control diseases caused by fungi that are soil inhabitants. Of the other species, A. humille, B. dracuncufolia, D. insulares, C. erecta, D. insulares, P. ruderale, and R. brasiliensis have natural fungitoxic potential because they stand out in the content of polyphenols efficient in reducing the mycelial growth of M. phaseolina and R. solani.
The consumption of local food products is a trend in several countries. Governments have developed strategies to stimulate the production and consumption of local food products, which in turn might empower the local economy. This study aimed to identify the importance of local food products attributes in Brazil. An online survey was conducted, and a dual-response Best-worst scaling method was applied to sample of 205 Brazilian consumers. Results of the Hierarchical Bayes analyses showed that the order from the most to the least important attributes were: (1) Healthiness, (2) Safety, (3) Animal welfare, (4) Environmental impact, (5) Support of the local economy, (6) Taste, (7) Price, (8) Availability, (9) Traceability, (10) Place of origin, (11) Convenience. Based on the results, managerial implications are presented.
Este artigo tem por objetivo analisar o processo de evolução recente dos empregos e da renda no mercado de trabalho agrícola no município de Sinop. Utilizou-se como método de pesquisa a revisão bibliográfica. Empregou-se a estatística descritiva para se analisarem as variáveis por meio do modelo de regressão linear múltipla, sendo a variável dependente (salário) e independentes (escolaridade, gênero e setor econômico), através de análise empírica, dados combinados por meio de série temporal de 2006 a 2017. Com esse estudo chega-se ao resultado que demonstra que houve uma evolução no mercado de trabalho, a forma que se deu a composição de renda e, através dos modelos aplicados como desigualdades salariais em relação as variáveis independentes que são demonstradas. Palavras-Chave: Mato Grosso. Agropecuária. Mercado de trabalho rural.
The Amazon forest has the highest biodiversity on earth. However, information on Amazonian vertebrate diversity is still deficient and scattered across the published, peer‐reviewed and grey literature and in unpublished raw data. Camera traps are an effective non‐invasive method of surveying vertebrates, applicable to different scales of time and space. In this study, we organized and standardized camera trap records from different Amazon regions to compile the most extensive dataset of inventories of mammal, bird and reptile species ever assembled for the area. The complete dataset comprises 154,123 records of 317 species (185 birds, 119 mammals and 13 reptiles) gathered from surveys from the Amazonian portion of eight countries (Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela). The most frequently recorded species per taxa were: mammals ‐ Cuniculus paca (11,907 records); birds ‐ Pauxi tuberosa (3,713 records); and reptiles ‐ Tupinambis teguixin (716 records). The information detailed in this data paper opens‐up opportunities for new ecological studies at different spatial and temporal scales, allowing for a more accurate evaluation of the effects of habitat loss, fragmentation, climate change and other human‐mediated defaunation processes in one of the most important and threatened tropical environments in the world. The dataset is not copyright restricted; please cite this data‐paper when using its data in publications and we also request that researchers and educators inform us of how they are using this data.
Electrocution is a theme that has been rarely reported for large macaws. The objective of this study was to analyze mortality of macaws due to electrocution in an urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul. Between 2011 and 2020, 59 macaws were registered as having died through electrocution, and these were from two species: Ara ararauna (Linnaeus, 1758) and Ara chloropterus (Gray, 1859). A. ararauna had the largest number of deaths registered (48), and A. chloropterus had 11 individuals. Electrocution was shown to be an important factor for the loss of large macaws in this urban environment. Body size, wingspan, and behavior of the macaws, as well as location and proximity of food resources and nests to electrical structures, were shown to increase the probability of electrocution. These results demonstrate the need to develop mitigation measures to reconcile the sustainable development of a medium-sized city such as Campo Grande with biodiversity conservation.
1. The Pantanal is the largest wetland in the world and a World Heritage Site. During 2019-2020, the Pantanal has experienced the most severe burning in its history, with vast destroyed areas of vegetation and killed wildlife. Since the long-term damage caused by fire to the Pantanal is still unknown, understanding how the biodiversity responds to post-fire disturbance over a short-term is an important step for conservation initiatives. 2. The authors studied the effects of fire on dung beetle communities, a recognised bioindicator group, in the Brazilian Pantanal. For this, the authors assessed the patterns of taxonomic and functional diversity between unburned and burned sites (16 months post-fire). 3. The authors found that taxonomic and functional diversity of dung beetles were similar between unburned and burned grasslands, but with a distinct taxonomic composition post-fire. The functional traits composition was similar between unburned and burned sites, demonstrating that this metric is less sensitive to fire effects in the Brazilian Pantanal. 4. The study's results provide evidence that dung beetles exhibit high resistance to the occurrence of fire and fast recovery from its consequences. Thus, due to its ecological functions (secondary seed dispersion, nutrient cycling and others), these insects may assist ecological restoration of burned sites, being useful tools in restoration approaches for areas of the Pantanal that have been affected by fire. 5. Finally, combining traditional taxonomic community attributes with functional diversity measurements provides a more comprehensive picture of responses of dung beetle communities, post-fire, over a short-term in the Brazilian Pantanal.
Information and communication technologies have spread worldwide and are increasingly present in almost every aspect of human life, including health. The issue of information quality has assumed great importance amid the widespread dissemination of false knowledge, especially in a pandemic. We evaluated the quality of information on Covid-19 websites of four Health Secretariats in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from July to August 2020. This participatory evaluation employed five criteria, following the international literature, namely: Technical, Interactivity, Comprehensiveness, Readability, and Accuracy, subdivided into 46 indicators. The results of the evaluated websites point to a low level of compliance with the indicators and criteria adopted and fail to disclose the primary scientific evidence on the topic, available on the Ministry of Health’s website. The high circulation of fake news has marked the Covid-19 pandemic. In this context, Health Secretariats’ pages should display quality and intelligible information about the disease. Only then will they offer reliable informational content based on scientific evidence, contributing to the fight against fake news and its adverse impacts. KEYWORDS Internet; Evaluation studies as topic; Coronavirus infections; Online access to information; Quality of health information
Crambe ( Crambe abyssinica Hochst) is an oilseed crop domesticated in the Mediterranean region and has become increasingly important worldwide. Crambe is now considered an alternative to bioenergy crops and oleochemicals, because of its acclimatisation capacity under inhospitable conditions. Despite the interest in the agronomical characteristics and applications of this crop, investigations on crambe are still scarce and have only focused on production, without taking into account the phenological stages of this species. Thus, a single criterion to quantify the species’ phenology can be a useful tool for both researchers and growers. In the present study, a proposed scale of the phenological growth stages of crambe under the BBCH ( Biologische Bundesanstalt Bundessortenamt und Chemische Industrie ) coding system was applied. Growth stages were described using the one- and two-digit decimal coding of the BBCH system and corresponded to, Stage 0: germination; Stage 1: leaf development; Stage 2: lateral sprout formation; Stage 5: inflorescence emergence; Stage 6: flowering; Stage 7: fruit formation; Stage 8: fruit maturation; Stage 9: senescence. Growth stages 3 and 4 (main stem elongation and development of collectable vegetative parts, respectively) were omitted. Figures were included to illustrate the most pertinent stages, and vegetal growth was represented by means of a technical botanical illustration. The BBCH system was efficacious in providing crambe Phenological data, allowing for better growing management practices amid varying climatic conditions, as well as contributing to the standardisation of research methods with this species.
The aim of the study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of leaves ethanol extract from Smilax fluminensis on murine melanoma. The extract was performed by ethylic alcohol and submitted to classical chemical analysis. Cytotoxicity test were performed on neoplastic cells, where antitumor activity was expressed in GI50 (concentration that inhibits 50% of cell growth) and the determination of selectivity index using a normal cell line. In addition, BALB/c mice models were used to evaluate the in vivo antitumor activity of extract in two different concentrations against B16-F10 melanoma cells. The tumor inhibition ratio was determined and the histopathological analyses of nodules and liver were compared. The chemical analysis indicated a major presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Cytotoxicity test results that S. fluminensis extract was active in B16-F10 line (GI50: 4.37 µg/mL), being the extract considered a promising antineoplastic agent. In the experimental model, the inhibition percentage of tumoral growth was between 78.77 and 83.49%. Histopathology analysis of nodules showed necrotic cells reduction, adipocytes presence, melanin deposition, vascularization, and inflammatory process in a concentration-dependent manner. On the liver, the animals treated with the extract on both concentrations showed normal hepatic organization, normal hepatocytes, and absence of inflammatory focus. The results indicate that S. fluminensis extract demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity, reducing the tumoral growth in B16-F10 and could therefore be a promising antineoplastic agent.
Brazil is a powerhouse in terms of water resources, which are instrumental to the country’s transition to sustainability. However, to realize this potential, substantial management and conservation hurdles must first be overcome. We propose a novel strategy for the use, management, and conservation of Brazilian water resources. Our approach recognizes the spatial heterogeneity of water abundance and is based on a multisectoral perspective, including energy, food, sanitation, and environmental conservation. The main recommendations are to adopt low-cost local and subnational solutions and to design policy mixes, both based on the logic of the nexus water-food-energy-ecosystem. We offer as examples programs that 1) increase cistern infrastructure in drylands, 2) use constructed wetlands to improve sewage treatment in small cities and vulnerable areas, 3) turn the focus of conservation to aquatic ecosystems, 4) stimulate the adoption of small hydrokinetic turbines for energy generation in sparsely populated river-abundant regions, such as the Amazon Region, 5) diversify the matrix of renewable energy sources by combining hydropower with biomass and wind energy generation, and 6) mixes policies by integrating multiple sectors to improve regulation, use and management of water resources, such as the Brazilian “Water for All” Program. By following these recommendations, Brazil would align itself with the goals established in international agreements and would turn its abundance of water resources into development opportunities.
With this article, we seek to comprehend how four Elementary School teachers who work with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) learners construe the term inclusion, and to analyse teaching practices in their mathematics lessons. The methodology was case study, and data collection was carried out through structured interviews that were audiorecorded. In this study, the concept of inclusion appears as both process and product. Our proposal has been based on the transcription of the interviews and discourse analysis to investigate the epistemological convictions and the teaching actions initiated by the teachers in their classrooms with ASD students. The results enabled us to conclude that even if on different levels, all of the teachers have expectations related to the learning of their students and believe in their potential, irrespective of the particular characteristics of individual learners.
Background Low back pain (LBP) is a common complaint among children and adolescents and can negatively impact their physical and mental health. Although previous studies investigating the incidence of low back pain (LBP) in children and adolescents have been performed in high income countries, it is unclear whether countries such as Brazil would show similar incidence rates. Objective To determine the incidence and to identify predictors of new episodes of LBP in high school students. Methods This is a 1-year longitudinal study of high school students from public schools in the city of Bauru, Sao Paulo. Collected clinical data were: demographic and socioeconomic factors, information on the use of electronic devices, mental health status (the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires), level of habitual physical activity (Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire), and incidence of LBP (measured with question about LBP in the past 12 months and the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire). Descriptive analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed. Results The cumulative incidence of new LBP episodes for the total cohort of 757 high school students was 18.9% (95% CI: 16.2, 21.8). The cumulative incidence was 14.8% (95% CI: 11.7, 18.5) for male students and 24.1% (95% CI: 19.8, 29.9) for female students. Being a female student (OR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.23, 2.59), sitting posture while using tablet (OR = 4.34; 95% CI: 1.19, 16.60), daily time spent on tablet (OR = 3.21; 95% CI: 1.41, 7.30), daily time spent on mobile phone (OR =1.49; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.00), lying posture while using mobile phone (OR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.12), and mental health status (OR = 2.81; 95% CI: 1.76, 4.48) were identified as predictor variables. Conclusion Our findings showed that one in five high school students reported having a LBP episode over the last year. The predictors found to be associated with low back pain include those related to sex, time and posture while using electronic devices, and mental health status.
Objetivo: conhecer a visão da família de pacientes com câncer acompanhados por uma equipe de consultoria, a respeito dos cuidados paliativos em hospital. Método: estudo qualitativo e descritivo realizado com dez familiares de pacientes com câncer em cuidados paliativos acompanhados por uma equipe de consultoria em cuidados paliativos intra-hospitalar de um hospital de ensino. A coleta de dados ocorreu no período de novembro de 2017 a janeiro de 2018, por meio de entrevista semiestruturada. Os dados foram analisados seguindo a proposta de análise temática de Braun e Clarke. Resultados: a maioria dos participantes demonstrou ter alguma aproximação ou vivencia do conceito de cuidados paliativos. Após o reconhecimento da doença como incurável, os participantes pareciam reconhecer a exposição a tratamentos antineoplásicos e a medidas invasivas como possíveis fontes de sofrimento para seu familiar. Para os familiares e pacientes com câncer, é esperado que a abordagem paliativa seja capaz de possibilitar qualidade de vida, integrando a essa concepção o alívio dos sintomas físicos e emocionais. Conclusão: as visões atribuídas à abordagem paliativa hospitalar demonstram a necessidade do respeito às particularidades dos indivíduos, para a desconstrução da ótica biomédica.
Background Thoracic spine pain (TSP) is relatively common in children and adolescents. Aims To determine the prevalence of TSP in adolescents and analyze its association with sociodemographic characteristics, use of electronic devices, physical activity, and mental health. Design Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Setting A high school in Bauru City, São Paulo, Brazil. Participants/Subjects In total, 1,628 students aged 14-18 years. Methods Participants were selected by cluster sampling in two stages, and data were collected via face-to-face interviews. Data regarding the following were collected: (1) sociodemographic aspects; (2) use of electronic devices; (3) regular physical activity level; (4) mental health; and (5) TSP. Results The prevalence of TSP was 51.5% (95% confidence interval, 49.1-53.9) and the variables associated with TSP were female participant sex (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.96; 1.61-2.38), use of computers for >3 hours per day (PR = 1.29; 1.01-1.66), use of computers >3 times per week (PR = 1.35; 1.03-1.75), use of cell phones in a semi-lying position (PR = 1.37; 1.11-1.69), use of cell phones for >3 hours per day (PR = 1.44; 1.12-1.85), use of tablets in the sitting position (PR = 1.47; 1.07-2.01), and presence of mental health problems (PR = 2.10; 1.63–2.70). Physical activity was a protective factor (PR = 0.84; 0.73-0.96). Conclusions There is a high prevalence of TSP in adolescents, with a marked association with female participant sex, use of electronic devices, and presence of mental health problems Physical activity is a protective factor. Understanding the relationship between risk factors and adolescent spinal pain may be important in both the prevention and treatment of spinal pain in this age group.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.