A R T I C L E I N F O Keywords: renewable-based microgrid High-voltage DC bus Air-cooled PE fuel cell Multi-stack architecture Isolated power converter Virtual instrument Real-time control and monitoring A B S T R A C T Currently, there is a growing interest in increasing the power range of air-cooled fuel cells (ACFCs), as they are cheaper, easier to use and maintain than water-cooled fuel cells (WCFCs). However, air-cooled stacks are only available up to medium power (<10 kW). Therefore, a good solution may be the development of ACFCs consisting of several stacks until the required power output is reached. This is the concept of air-cooled multi-stack fuel cell (AC-MSFC). The objective of this work is to develop a turnkey solution for the integration of AC-MSFCs in renewable microgrids, specifically those with high-voltage DC (HVDC) bus. This is challenging because the AC-MSFCs must operate in the microgrid as a single ACFC with adjustable power, depending on the number of stacks in operation. To achieve this, the necessary power converter (ACFCs operate at low voltages, so high conversion rates are required) and control loops must be developed. Unlike most designs in the literature, the proposed solution is compact, forming a system (AC-MSFCS) with a single input (hydrogen) and a single output (high voltage regulated power or voltage) that can be easily integrated into any microgrid and easily scalable depending on the power required. The developed AC-MSFCS integrates stacks, balance of plant, data acquisition and instrumentation, power converters and local controllers. In addition, a virtual instrument (VI) has been developed which, connected to the energy management system (EMS) of the microgrid, allows monitoring of the entire AC-MSFCS (operating temperature, purging, cell voltage monitoring for degradation evaluation, stacks operating point control and alarm and event management), as well as serving as a user interface. This allows the EMS to know the degradation of each stack and to carry out energy distribution strategies or specific maintenance actions, which improves efficiency, lifespan and, of course, saves costs. The experimental results have been excellent in terms of the correct operation of the developed AC-MSFCS. Likewise, the accumulated degradation of the stacks was quantified, showing cells with a degradation of >80%. The excellent electrical and thermal performance of the developed power converter was also validated, which allowed the correct and efficient supply of regulated power (average efficiency above 90%) to the HVDC bus, according to the power setpoint defined by the EMS of the microgrid.
This work explores the feasibility of using waste cooking oils (WCO) as eco-lubricants. Five WCO from different food facilities were studied. Three of them were fractionated into both lighter and heavier fractions by molecular distillation. A comprehensive chemical characterization (fatty acids distribution, polar compounds and acidity) was carried out on all WCOs and their fractions, which led to set relationships with the oils’ properties (such as viscosity index, low temperature viscous flow behavior, oxidation resistance, etc.). It is worth mentioning the high viscosity index values found in waste cooking oils with both low total polar compounds and acidity level, as well as the benefit which acidity had on their fluidity at low temperature and their lubricity. Moreover, it was also noteworthy that the lighter fractions, merely constituted by free fatty acids (FFA), presented an improved oxidative resistance. The largest OOT enhancement, 12.4%, was found for the light fraction of a non-segregated oil. Moreover, a better thermal stability was shown by the heavier fractions. Finally, both fractions exhibited enhanced friction-reducing capability as compared to their parent WCO. The light fractions from a non-segregated oil, a fast food restaurant oil and a deep-fried food establishment oil yielded wear reductions of 11.7%, 44.3% and 36.8%, respectively. Therefore, molecular distillation has been proved to be a key strategy to obtain more efficient liquid eco-lubricants.
Trace elements such as cadmium, arsenic, zinc or selenium increase or decrease risk of a wide range of human diseases. Their levels in toenails may provide a measure of mid-term intake of trace elements for studies in humans. However, in biologically and clinically aggressive diseases as pancreatic cancer, the progression of the disease could modify such concentrations and produce reverse causation bias. The aim was to analyze the influence of specific time intervals between several clinical events and the collection of toenails upon concentrations of trace elements in patients with pancreatic cancer. Subjects were 118 incident cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma prospectively recruited in eastern Spain. Toenails were collected at cancer diagnosis, and soon thereafter interviews were conducted. Information on cancer signs and symptoms was obtained from medical records and patient interviews. Levels of 12 trace elements were determined in toenail samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. General linear models adjusting for potential confounders were applied to analyze relations between log concentrations of trace elements and the time intervals, including the interval from first symptom of cancer to toenail collection (iST). Toenail concentrations of the 12 trace elements were weakly or not influenced by the progression of the disease or the diagnostic procedures. Concentrations of aluminum were slightly higher in subjects with a longer iST (age, sex and stage adjusted geometric means: 11.44 vs. 7.75 µg/g for iST > 120 days vs. ≤ 40 days). There was a weak inverse relation of iST with concentrations of zinc and selenium (maximum differences of about 20 and 0.08 µg/g, respectively). Conclusions: concentrations of the trace elements were weakly or not influenced by the development of the disease before toenail collection. Only concentrations of aluminum increased slightly with increasing iST, whereas levels of zinc and selenium decreased weakly. Even in an aggressive disease as pancreatic cancer, toenail concentrations of trace elements may provide a valid measure of mid-term intake of trace elements, unaffected by clinical events and disease progression. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12403-021-00436-2.
One of the keystones of tribological studies is the energetical approach to the lubrication process. In the particular case of lubricating greases, part of the lubrication process's energy dissipates due to a shear-induced structural rearrangement of the 3D network of the thickening agent dispersed in the base oil. This fact confers them a particular consistency, mechanical stability, rheological and tribological behaviour. In this research work, we investigate the mechanical structural degradation induced by shear stress applied in rheological tests (rotational and oscillation mode) and the influence of thickener (type and composition) and base oil on both the degradation process and the expended mechanical energies. For this purpose, lithium, calcium and polyurea-based greases of NLGI grade 2 were used. These greases have been manufactured with a different base oil (mineral, synthetic and vegetable oils) and kinematic viscosity of 48 or 240 mm²/s. Some biogenic greases were also included in this research. The optical microscopy analysis revealed thickener particles-based agglomerates with different shapes and sizes that reduced notably, if not almost completely destroyed, after stress. Due to the thickener particles-based agglomerates distribution, significant differences in the shear-induced frictional energy inside the bulk grease during the shear process were detected. The size of agglomerates depended on both the thickener content and the base oil viscosity and not the type of base oil.
Circadian nutritional behaviors, defined by the daily eating/fasting cycle, have been linked with breast cancer. This study aimed to further disentangle the association of nighttime fasting duration and time of breakfast with breast cancer risk. We analyzed data from 1,181 breast cancer cases and 1,326 population controls from the Spanish multicase-control study (MCC-Spain), 2008–2013. We collected circadian nutritional behaviors at mid-age via a telephonic interview. We applied logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of nighttime fasting duration and time of breakfast with breast cancer risk in all women and stratified by menopausal status. Models were adjusted for age, center, education, family history of breast cancer, age at menarche, number of children, breastfeeding, age at first child, body mass index (BMI), contraceptive use, and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). A later time of breakfast was associated with a non-significant increased risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.95–1.16, per hour increase). This association was stronger among premenopausal women, among whom each hour later, the time of breakfast was associated with an 18% increase in breast cancer risk (OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.01–1.40). The association was not observed in postmenopausal women. We did not observe an association between nighttime fasting duration and breast cancer risk after adjusting for the time of breakfast. In this study, late breakfast was associated with increased breast cancer risk, especially among premenopausal women, compared with early breakfast. Aside from nutritional quality, circadian nutritional behaviors should be further studied in relation to cancer.
Water‐based hydrogen production is currently an attractive research field, as it provides a greener method to produce hydrogen than existing alternatives. Green hydrogen is expected to progressively replace fossil fuels, which are highly harmful environmentally. This paper presents a critical analysis over time of the main water splitting technologies currently in use for sustainable hydrogen production. As a result of the critical analysis, all the studied techniques have been ordered chronologically in the way that it is possible to understand how new materials have driven to new techniques, more efficient and less expensive. This allows having a complete vision of these technologies. A high level of maturity has been reached in electrolysis, while other techniques still have a long way to go, although many improvements and relevant advancements have been made over the years. The paper offers a global and comparative vision of each technology. From this, it is possible to identify the different paths where efforts are needed to make water‐based hydrogen production a mature, stable and efficient technology. Critical analysis over time of hydrogen production techniques based on water splitting. Chronological revision about photolysis, thermolysis and electrolysis. Historical achievements and current advances are presented. Technical comparison of water splitting‐based hydrogen production alternatives. Qualitative discussion over advantages and disadvantages of water splitting techniques.
The aim of this study was to measure and analyse the association of emotional burnout and resilience with the psychological distress of students who finished their nursing studies after the peak of the COVID‐19 pandemic. The mental health of nursing students was affected during the pandemic, and resilience seems to counteract the negative effects. This is a cross‐sectional study. The data (quantitative) were gathered at the beginning of the second term of the academic year 2020/2021. The study was carried out in the Spanish university context. Self‐reported measures were gathered using three one‐dimensional, valid, and reliable scales: the Psychological Distress Scale (K‐10), the Emotional Burnout Scale (EBS), and the short version of the Connor‐Davidson Resilience Scale (CD‐RISC10). A total of 393 students of different Spanish universities participated in this study. A valid linear regression model was obtained, which allowed verifying that psychological distress is explained, with 37% variance, by emotional burnout and resilience. The total score in emotional burnout has more relevance than the total score in resilience, and the latter has a negative tendency. Facing the factors that generate emotional burnout in students in the academic scope and promoting resilience in them are fundamental aspects that contribute to their psychological well‐being. The reflection should be extended to clinical practices. Universities are urged to think about last‐year students, their experiences, perceptions, and feelings, to determine how their susceptibility to emotional burnout and psychological distress can be minimized in their future clinical practices. Strategies to promote their resilience should also be studied.
Yellow pigment content is one of the main traits considered for grain quality in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.). The yellow color is mostly determined by carotenoid pigments, lutein being the most abundant in wheat endosperm, although zeaxanthin, α-carotene and β-carotene are present in minor quantities. Due to the importance of carotenoids in human health and grain quality, modifying the carotenoid content and profile has been a classic target. Landraces are then a potential source for the variability needed for wheat breeding. In this work, 158 accessions of the Spanish durum wheat collection were characterized for carotenoid content and profile and genotyped using the DArTSeq platform for association analysis. A total of 28 marker-trait associations were identified and their co-location with previously described QTLs and candidate genes was studied. The results obtained confirm the importance of the widely described QTL in 7B and validate the QTL regions recently identified by haplotype analysis for the semolina pigment. Additionally, copies of the Zds and Psy genes on chromosomes 7B and 5B, respectively, may have a putative role in determining zeaxanthin content. Finally, genes for the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPPI) carotenoid precursor pathways were revealed as additional sources of untapped variation for carotenoid improvement.
At the beginning of the 20th century Crocidura cantabra was described based on one specimen from Basque Provinces, North of Spain. Later, some authors considered it a junior synonym of Crocidura suaveolens , without any data to support this statement, so the eight existing specimens were registered as records of that species. Our objective was to clarify the taxonomic status of C. cantabra . Since DNA could not be obtained from the existing specimens and the coloration was originally poorly described, an attempt was made to make an assignment based on the original biometric data of two individuals, the only ones identified by Cabrera for which there is biometric information: the holotype and a specimen from Colindres, Cantabria. The body measurements were surely altered by conservation techniques, rendering any identification uncertain, whereas the skull biometry assigns the specimens to C. russula . We propose that C. cantabra should be treated as junior synonym of Crocidura russula .
YouTube is currently becoming one of the main international platforms for amateur creators attempting to attract followers through a multiplicity of audiovisual content and engagement strategies based on search and algorithmic recommendation systems. In many cases, this environment, and especially its users, try to adapt to a celebrity network pattern on the basis of the construction of seemingly authentic and close relationships, leading to relevant phenomena such as parenting vlogs. This kind of content is focused on the presence of intimate moments that reflect the daily life of influencers or micro-influencers, capturing large numbers of followers, as well as important communication and information strategies. From this perspective, and through a quantitative content analysis of 1,034 videos and more than 900 viewing hours on two very popular YouTube family influencer channels, this study explores the degree of intimacy portrayed in their video content as performative strategies that configure the profiles' post through interactions with followers, brands, and self-promotion. The results suggest that the degree of intimacy shown in this content becomes a performative process for these family youtubers, whereby the more intimate the exposure, the more popular the information offered to the user. In short, this type of content prioritizes the routines of the youtubers, who include their closest family members and friends as a means of attracting attention, while dedicating their time to interacting with brands (advertising) and recording, editing, and submitting a vast amount of personal and private information on the platform (dissemination) in a sort of promotional-private performativity.
This study examined the relationship between extracurricular physical activity (PA) levels and students’ motivational and emotional experience during physical education (PE) classes and how this psychological experience can predict the intention to be physically active. The sample consisted of 811 Spanish secondary education students (371 boys and 440 girls) aged between 11 and 17 years (M = 13.15, SD = 1.16). Students completed questionnaires about their PA levels, their intention to be physically active, and their motivational and emotional experience during PE classes. A cluster analysis was used to classify the students according to their level of extracurricular PA. Based on a regression analysis, the variables enjoyment, pride, hopelessness, competence, satisfaction, and autonomous motivation played the highest role, predicting the intention to be physically active in the future. Statistical differences were found among the different PA profiles in these variables during the PE classes (MANCOVA). In conclusion, hours of PA outside school have a high relationship with the students’ emotional and motivational experience in their PE classes, which is related with the intention to practise PA in the future. A series of strategies have been proposed at both the institutional level and the teacher level to improve the PE psychological experience of those students who practise less extracurricular PA.
This work focuses on the structural features and physicochemical properties of different Kraft lignins and how they can influence the electrospinning process to obtain nanostructures. Structural features of Kraft lignins were characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Size Exclusion Chromatography, Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and thermal analysis, whereas chemical composition was analyzed by standard method. The addition of cellulose acetate (CA) improves the electrospinning process of Kraft lignins (KL). Thus, solutions of KL/CA at 30 wt% with a KL:CA weight ratio of 70:30 were prepared and then physicochemical and rheologically characterized. The morphology of electrospun nanostructures depends on the intrinsic properties of the solutions and the chemical structure and composition of Kraft lignins. Then, surface tension, electrical conductivity and viscosity of eucalypt/CA and poplar/CA solutions were suitable to obtain electrospun nanostructures based on uniform cross-linked nanofibers with a few beaded fibers. It could be related with the higher purity and higher linear structure, phenolic content and S/G ratios of lignin samples. However, the higher values of electrical conductivity and viscosity of OTP/CA solutions resulted in electrospun nanostructure with micro-sized particles connected by thin fibers, due to a lower purity, S/G ratio and phenolic content and higher branched structure in OTP lignin.
Close to the city of Huelva, SW Spain, and near the Atlantic Ocean, there is a phosphogypsum (PG) stack that accumulates 100 Mt of wastes and extends over 1000 ha. The stack lies directly over estuarine unconsolidated sediments with no protective layer in between. Here, we evaluate for the first time the structural stability of the PG stack, monitoring the deformation suffered by the salt-marsh basement. Through the web-based Geohazard Exploitation Platform (GEP) of the European Space Agency (ESA), a specific differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) algorithm known as Parallel Small Baseline Subset (P-SBAS) has been used to process 279 ESA Sentinel-1 images acquired between October 2016 and June 2021. Resulting displacement maps and time-series curves reveal vertical displacements of up to 16 cm/year. This vertical motion has been associated to subsidence. In parallel with subsidence, horizontal movements > 2.5 cm/year have been also accounted and linked to talus destabilization. The analysis also demonstrates that the Huelva PG stack is vulnerable to adverse weather condition. The present study demonstrates that the InSAR-based methods are effective tools for monitoring the stability and ground motion of large waste stockpiles.
Sapwood characteristics, such as sapwood area as well as thermal and hydraulic conductivity, are linked to species-specific hydraulic function and resource allocation to water transport tissues (xylem). These characteristics are often unknown and thus a major source of uncertainty in sap flow data processing and transpiration estimates because bulk rather than species-specific values are usually applied. Here, we analyzed the sapwood characteristics of fifteen common tree species in eastern North America from different taxonomic (i.e., angiosperms and gymnosperms) and xylem porosity groups (i.e., tracheid-bearing, diffuse- or ring-porous species) and we assessed how uncertainties in sapwood characteristics involved in sap flow calculations are propagated in tree water use estimates. We quantified their sapwood area changes with stem diameter (allometric scaling) and thermal conductivity. We combined these measurements with species-specific values of wood density and hydraulic conductivity found in the literature and assessed the role of wood anatomy in orchestrating their covariation. Using an example sap flow dataset from tree species with different xylem porosity, we assessed the sensitivity of tree water use estimates to sapwood characteristics and their interactions. Angiosperms (ring- and diffuse-porous species), with specialized vessels for water transport, showed a steeper relationship (scaling) between tree stem diameter and sapwood area in comparison to gymnosperms (tracheid-bearing species). Gymnosperms (angiosperms) were characterized by lower (higher) wood density and higher (lower) sapwood moisture content, resulting in non-significant differences in sapwood thermal conductivity between taxonomic and xylem porosity groups. Clustering of species sapwood characteristics based on taxonomic or xylem porosity groups and constraining these parameters could facilitate more accurate sap flow calculations and tree water use estimates. When combined with an increasing number of sap flow observations, these findings should improve tree- and landscape-level transpiration estimates, leading to more robust partitioning of terrestrial water fluxes.
Background: Assistive technologies (ATs) are resources to promote the independence and participation of people with a disability. The use of standardized tools, based on outcome measures, is essential for guaranteeing high-quality rates. The Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with AT-2.0 (QUEST) is a scale to assess the satisfaction of people using any AT. Objectives: To translate and culturally validate the QUEST-2.0 for the Spanish population (QUEST 2.0-ES). Methods: A validation cross-design and descriptive study. The test-retest reliability, validity, and internal consistency of QUEST 2.0-ES were studied. It was divided into two phases: Sample 1 was formed by 26 persons; in sample 2, 30 persons participated. The conditions included neurological conditions, amputations, rare diseases, and deafness. Results: Thirty-five men and 21 women participated in total. The majority of AT used were those for mobility. QUEST 2.0-ES analysis showed internal consistency values between the test (α = 0.87) and retest versions (α = 0.89). The internal consistency was high for AT (test, α = 0.83; retest, α = 0.87) and Service (test, α = 0.80; retest, α = 0.80). The temporal reliability (1-2 weeks) for test-retest was 0.88. Conclusion: QUEST 2.0-ES showed good psychometric properties in terms of validity and test-retest reliability, and it is a good tool to assess the user's satisfaction with ATs and services.
This work focuses on the improvement of the electrospinnability of low-sulfonate lignin (LSL)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solutions by the addition of surfactants (SDS, CTAB and Tween-20) as well as on the ability of resulting nanofibers to structure castor oil. Solutions with two LSL/PVP weight ratios (70:30 and 90:10) in DMF were prepared by adding variable surfactant concentrations (0–1 wt.%), and physicochemically characterized. Electrical conductivity, surface tension and rheological measurements were performed. Variations of these physicochemical properties were explained on the basis of surfactant-polymer interactions. The addition of surfactants to LSL/PVP solutions improves electrospinnability, producing more compact and uniform fiber mats in 70:30 LSL/PVP systems, generally reducing the average diameter of the nanofibers and the number of beads. In contrast, nanofiber mats were not obtained with 90:10 LSL/PVP solutions, but different nanostructures composed of particle clusters. Dispersions of nanofiber mats obtained by electrospinning from 70:30 LSL/PVP solutions in castor oil were able to generate physically stable strong oleogels. In general, linear viscoelastic functions of oleogels increased with surfactant concentration. In addition, these oleogels exhibited excellent lubrication performance in a tribological contact, with extremely low values of the friction coefficient and wear diameters, which may lead to potential applications as lubricants.
Game-based learning is increasing in nursing education. Also, the assessment of the utility of the escape room game is growing. To explore nursing students' opinion about the escape room as an evaluation game, a qualitative observational study with nursing students was carried out. An ad hoc questionnaire with open questions was sent after the game learning experience. The escape room included knowledge and techniques from different specialties. The escape room learning game was a positive experience for the students. The main highlighted characteristics were fun, dynamic, and motivating way to study and learn. Other interesting variables were: "Working as a team and under pressure" (It's a group activity in which everyone must work together. It is a good challenge to learn how to work in urgent situations) and "Different way to assess students´ learning" (In this type of game, I can show more things and not only theoretical knowledge). Game-based learning is increasing in nursing education, as well as the assessment of the utility of the escape room game. Using an escape room for assessing nursing students' knowledge is a positive experience. This learning experience can be also used with nurses in different specialties to promote teamwork and working under pressure.
The clinical and economic relevance of the clinical laboratories procedures in Andalusia (Spain) have led the Regional Department of Health to focus attention on their improvement. A unified laboratory protocol was implemented that consisted of the unification of criteria in the handling and processing of samples, and report of results. The objective of this study is to describe the degree of compliance with the clinical laboratory protocol in the preanalytical phase, which includes the analytical request and up to the delivery in the laboratory, as well as the influencing factors. Cross-sectional descriptive study with a sample of 214 healthcare professionals involved in the preanalytical phase of laboratory procedures in primary care. A self-reported questionnaire with 11 items was used for data collection. Each item was assessed separately with a scale from 0 to 10. A 5 points score was considered as the cutoff point. Descriptive analysis was conducted and Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine differences between subgroups. Internal consistency of the questionnaire was considered. The best rated item was verifying the correspondence between the request form and identity of the patient. Each item scored from 3 to 10, and the mean for each item ranged from 6.40 (standard deviation = 3.06) to 8.57 (standard deviation = 2.00). Values above or equal to 8 were obtained, for 63.6% of them. Statistically significant differences between accredited and nonaccredited centres were found. Differences were not noteworthy regarding centres with a teaching activity or those without it. All the items were measured separately. The compliance with the protocol was adequate among primary healthcare professionals, who have a strategic position in the sample collection and its transport during the preanalytical phase. Being so, standardisation should be a priority to reduce errors and improve clinical safety and results.
Plant communities can undergo drastic changes in their composition if the ecosystem is severely altered by human actions or climate change. These changes endanger any vulnerable species, mainly if it lives in a small area, as is the case of Picris willkommii (Schultz Bip.) Nyman. Therefore, it is essential to know how an ecosystem alteration could affect the seasonal pattern of the life cycle, seed production, germination time, as well as both plant emergence and development. During three consecutive years, the growth phenology and seed morpho-physiological traits of Picris willkommii were assessed, as well as the environmental factors that affect them (light, temperature, substrate). Under natural conditions, germination is in early autumn (15–25 °C air temperature), flowering is in spring, and seed maturation in late spring. The species produces two types of seeds differentiated in the degree of dormancy and other morpho–physiological traits, which contributes to the dispersal and spreading capacity; it prefers fine-textured limestone substrates with high N and P availability; it does not tolerate frosts below −5 °C; and it is able to acclimatize to changing environmental conditions, but there is a risk of being replaced by other more aggressive species. All of this is useful for species conservation programs.
Rare earth elements (REEs) or lanthanides are often found together in nature, and they are used in multiple anthropogenic activities from green energy and medical technologies to telecommunications and defense systems. However, the current understanding on the concentration and behavior of REEs in oceans and marine organisms is limited, and no regulatory information or limits have been settled. Here, we present a review of the concentrations of lanthanides in marine waters and biota. REEs reach aquatic ecosystems mainly by continental contributions, and the maximum reported concentrations of REEs are found on the platform surface near the coast due to their continental origin. For coastal waters, we find maximum REE levels in the surface water that decrease with depth until a certain stability. Their concentrations diminish as they move toward the open ocean, where concentrations tend to increase vertically with depth in the water column. Only cerium (Ce) showed different patterns from other REEs caused by Ce different redox states: III and IV, reflecting the oxidation of dissolved Ce (III) to particulate Ce (IV) when reacting with the O 2 to form CeO 2 . In seawater, heavy REEs tend to remain in solution forming complexes usually unavailable for organisms, while light REEs are most likely to be assimilated by them, posing potential biological implications. Bioaccumulation of REEs decreases as marine trophic level increases, showing a trophic dilution pattern. Generally, higher concentrations are found in organisms such as phytoplankton, zooplankton, and algae species, while the lowest concentrations are found in mollusks, corals, and fish species. According to the current trend in the REE industry, the increasing anthropogenic emissions are a fact; therefore, more studies will be needed regarding their fractionation, the transformation processes with which they become bioavailable, and their pathways in marine systems.
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