Universidad de Bogotá Jorge Tadeo Lozano
Recent publications
Colombia, like many other low and middle-income countries, faces an electricity access deficit. Even where access is available, many off-grid communities are only provided with a few hours of service, typically using diesel, which is expensive and polluting. Using a system dynamics model, this paper investigates how a sustainable and durable electricity supply can be provided in off-grid communities in Colombia. The scenarios examined draw on two government funds that have been established to: deliver the infrastructure and provide subsidies for electricity supply. The results demonstrate that a transition from diesel to renewables is not only possible but also economically viable and desirable. The simulations also show that in order to make the best use of limited government funding for electrification, the transition from diesel to renewables should begin as soon as possible and be accompanied by a zero-diesel policy by 2040. Furthermore, the model highlights that electricity systems should be designed to enable gradual growth in demand – driven by socio-economic development and productive uses. Given the imperative to provide a sustainable and durable electricity supply to off-grid communities, this paper provides insights into how this can be achieved while delivering clear benefits for users, utilities and the government.
Anthocyanins are present in blackberries and can be used in the food industry as visual indicators that allow understanding the color variations related to the quality of a food. The purpose of this study was evaluated castilla blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth) and wild blackberry (Rubus adenotrichos) were assessed considering the type of raw material; fresh and lyophilized (22°C, 4.3 mbar, 7 days), pretreatment with microwaves (2450 MHz, 30s) and extraction method; conventional and assisted by ultrasound (300 W, 10 min) in the extraction of monomeric anthocyanins. The lyophilized raw material, the use of microwaves and ultrasound-assisted extraction extract more anthocyanins. The extracts changed color accordingly to pH, presenting colorations from red to green.
Corruption and organized crime are social problems that affect different communities around the world, involving public and private organizations in diverse sectors and activities. However, these problems are global phenomena that transcend economic, cultural, and social borders, especially, when corrupt individuals use the global financial system to protect their illegal money. This paper aims to evaluate the money laundering mechanism in financial networks, studying the structure of some suspicious money laundering groups, and how they could be detected by the use of topological and geometrical considerations that avoid the need of possibly non-available (or restricted) information.
Background Colombia’s universal health coverage programme has enrolled 98% of the population, thereby improving financial protection and health outcomes. The right to participate in the organisation of healthcare is enshrined in the 1991 Colombian Constitution. One participatory mechanism is the legal and regulatory provision that citizens can form user associations. This study examines the functionality of health insurance user associations and their influence on citizen empowerment and health insurance responsiveness. Methods The mixed methods study includes document review (n=72), a survey of beneficiaries (n=1311), a survey of user associations members (n=27), as well as interviews (n=19), focus group discussions (n=6) and stakeholder consultations (n=6) with user association members, government officials, and representatives from insurers, the pharmaceutical industry, and patient associations. Analysis used a content–process–context framework to understand how user associations are designed to work according to policy content, how they actually work in terms of coverage, public awareness, membership, and effectiveness, and contextual influences. Findings Colombia’s user associations have a mandate to represent citizens’ interests, enable participation in insurer decision-making, ‘defend users’ and oversee quality services. Insurers are mandated to ensure their enrollees create user associations, but are not required to provide resources to support their work. Thus, we found that user associations had been formed throughout the country, but the public was widely unaware of their existence. Many associations were weak, passive or entirely inactive. Limited market competition and toothless policies about user associations made insurers indifferent to community involvement. Conclusion Currently, the initiative suffers from low awareness and low participation levels that can hardly lead to empowered enrollees and more responsive health insurance programmes. Yet, most stakeholders value the space to participate and still see potential in the initiative. This warrants a range of policy recommendations to strengthen user associations and truly enable them to effect change.
Leaders are themselves key actors in international relations; in recent years, Hugo Chávez and Pope Francis have had an expressive impact beyond their respective traditional influence areas. Why do such leaders display this kind of popularity? More importantly, how do political elites perceive them? This paper aims to identify, employing evidence from eighteen Latin American parliaments, what drives political elite evaluations of a variety of notorious leaders in the last decade. To determine which factors are behind their evaluations, we rely on a friend-foe approach of politics, as measured by the ideological distance between the legislator her/himself and the leader. The results point that this friend-foe logic is the main predictor when it comes to the evaluation of elites by elites in the international arena.
La productividad, como expresión de calidad, es una variable latente, compleja y dinámica, lo que representa un desafío para las funciones sustantivas de investigación y docencia en el nivel superior. Es así como, el objetivo de este artículo es analizar la dinámica de la influencia de políticas laborales colombianas de trabajo a distancia en la productividad total del profesorado de educación superior. A partir de una metodología mixta se formularon hipótesis dinámicas mediante un diagrama de bucle causal y se simularon escenarios con un diagrama de Stock and Flow de la Dinámica de Sistemas en una mirada de la productividad total en el largo plazo. El análisis global de las simulaciones mostró que existe un incremento en la productividad total del profesorado cuando se incrementan las horas en teletrabajo suplementario en investigación. No se evidenció sensibilidad en la productividad en docencia ante la hibridación de asignaturas. Con base en el análisis aquí realizado se propuso que, a futuro, tanto las políticas públicas y privadas, como las decisiones orientadas a incrementar la productividad total de los profesores de nivel superior contemplen de manera amplia elementos de bienestar, además de la estimación de todas las tareas y productos a cargo del profesorado.
The Periodic Table (PT) is perhaps the most famous and widespread icon of chemistry. It orders chemical elements by their nuclear charge and groups them into families according to their similarity. Such arrangement was built using data about formulae of few compounds available in 19th century. Since then, the number of compounds has grown exponentially during the 20th and 21st centuries, and new types of compounds have been obtained that were unknown to pioneers, rising the question about the validity and generality of the PT. Can these patterns be extracted from current data or are they constrained to a particular chemical domain? To answer this question we conducted a Big Data exploration of chemical similarity using formulae of compounds reported since around 1800. We found that the similarities between elements of the same family are resilient to attacks and are ubiquitous along chemical contexts. We also found that PT groups approach true equivalence classes, being the most symmetrical and transitive on our data. These features point to an underlying structure in the PT ruling the similarity between elements, which agrees with its fundamental nature. Time analysis revealed that since around 1980 all similarity relations are waning by an increasing production of unique formulae on almost all elements, leading to a singularization of elements. Nonetheless, PT families tend to be more frequently found, showing they prevail over any other similarity pattern.
This paper provides a comprehensive assessment of the economic values for ecosystem services (ESs) in Colombia. Were analyzed 154 studies that estimated economic values for 21 ESs in 18 general ecosystems. In total, 502 values were coded and classified according to the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services - CICES. Despite being a technique that is not based on primary economic valuation information, Benefits transfer was the most common method used to estimate the value of ESs in Colombia, followed by market prices and contingent valuation. Opportunities for recreation and tourism, climate regulation, habitat conservation, and water have been the most valued ESs. Many important ESs remain unnoticed and are not adequately accounted (e.g., pollination). Additionally, 53% of the information available on the economic values of ESs is concentrated in only 5 of the 32 Colombian departments. Finally, this review highlights the multiple challenges of Colombian academics and practitioners to improve the economic valuation practice and complement and recognize the multiple social relationships and the multiple views in terms of the values nature has.
The aim of this work is to design a fixed-bed column with vegetal biomass of Eichhornia crassipes and the process of recycling it for treatment via the adsorption of water loaded with chromium (VI). In the first stage, the relationship between the fixed-bed density and the microparticle density is calculated, giving a model for the design of the fixed bed. Using this model, two systems for the treatment of Cr (VI)-contaminated water were designed and built. The vegetable biomass at three particle diameters of 0.212 mm, 0.30 mm and 0.45 mm was evaluated in the removal of Cr (VI) from water using the designed fixed-bed systems, giving the best removal of Cr (VI) with the lowest size particles and allowing the validation of the proposed model with the Thomas model. The incorporation of iron into the biomass allowed for the treatment of near 2.0 L of polluted solution, removing around 90% of Cr (VI), while it was only possible to treat nearly 1.5 L when using raw biomass, removing around 80% of Cr (VI). The recycling of the biomass was achieved via the elution of Cr (VI) with EDTA, permitting the reuse of the material for more than five treatment cycles.
The Pacific region is considered a biodiversity hotspot and presents high species endemic levels. The Colombian Pacific basin occupies an area of approx. eight million hectares, located in the country's west. The literature about the economic valuation of ecosystem services (ES) and the spatial information on natural resources in the Colombian Pacific basin was revised through various information sources to document the earliest approximation to the state, spatial distribution, and economic value of the natural capital at the scale of biomes, specific ecosystems, and political-administrative units. Our assessment estimated a natural capital loss of 40 billion Int.$2020/year (15% of Colombian GDP in 2020) and a remnant natural capital worth 139 billion Int.$2020/year (51% of Colombia's GDP in 2020) for 15 ecosystem services. This research establishes that a potential expansion in livestock production systems will generate an additional loss of natural capital between six and eight billion Int.$2020/year. Additionally, we include an analysis based on the GLOBIO4 initiative models, identifying future natural capital losses between 7.5 and 7.6 billion Int.$2020/year. Lastly, the policy challenges and gaps in research and management concerning this remaining natural capital in the Colombian Pacific basin are pointed out.
Estimating the burden of tuberculosis disease is relevant for assessing and identifying population health status and progress in policies and programs aimed at epidemic control. The objective of this study was to estimate disability-adjusted life years attributable to Tuberculosis in Colombia 2010-2018. A longitudinal descriptive study was conducted. The variables, sex, age groups and origin were studied. This study included 110,475 cases of morbidity and 8514 cases of mortality. Indicators of years of life lost, years of life with disability and disability-adjusted life years at the subnational level were determined using the methodology of the World Health Organization. With the results of this last indicator, an epidemiological risk stratification was carried out. The DALY rate of the study period was 684 (95% CI 581.2-809.1) per 100,000 inhabitants. According to sex, 68.4% occurred in men; for every DALY in women, 2.21 occur in men. People of productive age (15 to 69 years) account for 56% of DALYs. Amazonas (1857.1 CI 95% 1177.1-2389.6) was the territorial entity with the highest rate. A total of 51.5% of the territorial entities of departmental order of the country are of high burden for Tuberculosis. For the first time in Colombia, a comprehensive assessment of the status of the disease burden at a subnational (departmental) territorial level attributable to Tuberculosis is being carried out using the updated World Health Organization methodology. The results obtained allow us to specify that there is a knowledge gap in terms of the realization and clear understanding of the burden of the disease in Colombia. There are territorial gaps that are necessary to know in order to plan, develop, implement and redirect policies to improve health and eliminate disparities according to the territorial context.
The dialectical relationship between ecosystems and society is complex; therefore, holistic approaches are required to address this complexity. This view also stands out in the ecosystem services valuation field, where different scholars and global platforms have drawn attention to the need to incorporate plural valuation initiatives at decision-making. In this sense, through a comprehensive design, we conducted a multi-layered valuation of ecosystem services, and we highlighted multiple values in two areas of the province of Caldas, Colombia. We proposed a three-phase valuation process called Recognizing, Normalizing and Articulating values. Then, in cooperation with the regional environmental authority, we obtained different water-related ecosystem services values. Our results showed some warnings: first, we found mismatches between ecosystem services values; second, people assigned high values to ecosystems but the actual capacity of ecosystems to support ES is low. Finally, monetary values were marginal compared to social and ecological values. We conclude by saying that the more strata are assessed, the more values appear in the valuation scenarios, and those values could be conflicting. Our results have political implications, since they highlight the need to incorporate plural values as a fundamental tool for planning and land use in real scenarios where conflicts of interest and values are evident.
The Amazon basin is one of the most extensive, biodiverse, and dynamic tropical forest ecosystems on the earth. The Colombian Amazon basin occupies an area of approx. 34 million hectares, located in the country's southeast. The literature about the economic valuation of ecosystem services (ES) and the spatial information on remnant natural resources in the Colombian Amazon basin was revised through various information sources to document the earliest approximation to the state, spatial distribution, and economic value of the remnant natural capital at the scale of biomes, specific ecosystems, and political-administrative units. Our assessment estimated a natural capital loss of 18.1 billion $/year (equivalent to 6.7% of Colombian GDP in 2020) and a remnant natural capital worth 153.9 billion $/year (57 % of Colombia's GDP in 2020) for eight ecosystem services. This research founds that a potential expansion in extensive and intensive livestock production systems (in a ten-year projection) will generate an additional loss of remnant natural capital of approximately 9.1 billion $/year. Finally, considering that 63% of the remnant natural capital is represented in indigenous reservations and 28% in protected areas, it is essential that the political management of the Amazon Basin concentrate on strengthening these land management figures. Improving the governability of indigenous lands and incentive sustainable agricultural and cattle ranching production, are the principal political challenges.
The sustainable development in separation-reaction processes involves a higher energy efficiency and pollutant reduction. The main interest of the analysis of the statics methodology is developed the optimal qualitative technological scheme with minimal data, the physicochemical information of the system, and the stoichiometry of the reaction. This results in a feasible intensified scheme flowsheet and a reactive distillation column (RD) that are then implemented in a reactive dividing wall column (RDWC) distillation to produce ethyl lactate from the esterification of lactic acid with ethanol. The RDWC configuration showed a reduction of 38% in the save net duty and an increase of 13% in the conversion compared with a conventional direct sequence. The analysis of the statics method presents an alternative in the design stage in a complex column, allowing for a feasible operation in different degrees of process intensification.
El impacto de la COVID-19 se ha sentido de inmediato, debido a las diferentes acciones que los gobiernos han implantado en sus países, situación que ya persiste por la aparición de diferentes mutaciones del virus que ha causado durante casi dos años graves y profundos impactos económicos, políticos, sociales y psicológicos, El confinamiento a lo que ha sido sometida la población, ha traído consigo cambios en las conductas de los individuos, en la compra y consumo de productos y a la lealtad hacia las marcas Teniendo como objetivo conocer los patrones de compra y lealtad de marca durante el confinamiento provocado por la pandemia de la COVID-19. Se realizó una investigación descriptiva con enfoque cuantitativo, a una muestra de 1004 sujetos, 64% mujeres y 36% hombres residentes en la República Mexicana, Evaluando para este fin, 3 dimensiones respecto al consumo: 1) aumento del consumo, 2) cambio de marca o cambio de hábitos y 3) continuidad en el consumo de las mismas marcas (lealtad); todas estas, durante la contingencia de la pandemia; lo cual conlleva a la lealtad de marca, considerando como categorías de primera necesidad en consumo, el hogar, los alimentos, los medicamentos, el cuidado personal, la higiene y la limpieza, Como hallazgos tenemos que existe una correlación de manera global, en todas las categorías de producto analizadas con respecto a las marcas consumida en época de confinamiento y la continuidad de ellas después del confinamiento, esta situación no se presenta igual en cada una de las categorías evaluadas, siendo la categoría de productos de limpieza la que muestra un mayor consumo y una menor lealtad a la marca en este mismo periodo
Microbiome components and bacterial isolates related to healthy and epitheliocystis states in aquaculture cycles of cobia fish were studied. We detected well-defined 16S rRNA amplicon gene sequence variants showing differential abundance in healthy or diseased cycles. Isolation trials were performed, and experimental tests were used to determine probiotic potential of the bacterial strains obtained from water, tissues or live food used in this aquaculture model. The taxonomic affiliation of these strains was cross-compared against microbiome components, finding that some of them had close or identical affiliation to the abundant types found in healthy cycles. Strains belonging to the groups already identified as predominant by culture-independent means were screened as potential probiotics based on desirable activities such as antagonism and antibiosis against marine pathogenic bacteria, quorum quenching, bile acid resistance, antibiotic sensitivity and enzymatic activities for improved nutrient digestion. We have also found that in the tracking of microbiome composition across different developmental stages of cobia, healthy cycles exhibited a consistent high relative abundance of a Mesobacillus sp., while in the diseased cycle the emergence of a Vibrio sp. was observed. Our study suggests that epithelocystis in cobia is associated with a displacement of a symbiotic microbiome community linked to the increase frequency of Vibrio species.
Introduction: Convergence of linguistics and semiotics materializes in the text not only the conceptual content that is expressed through codes, but the message also underlies the realism of the communicative intentions of the issuing agent in a specific context and the value of the interactions of the actors of the communicative act. Methodology: The vision of reality that is established in the collective imaginary must be analyzed from the interpretation of society and culture, the laws of operation and their constituent parts. For this, this research approached two newspapers of national circulation, five general radio channels of national coverage, and two television newscasts of private channels, and through the use of quantitative instruments, the posts, tweets or videos were reviewed in order to analyze the constituent elements of the discourse-text, images, hashtags, or keywords-which are appreciated from the syntactic and semantic perspectives (structural) and pragmatics (functional). Results: The communication process in its social context denotes the intervention of nonlinguistic elements of sociocultural order that demarcate the generation and interpretation of the meanings and senses of linguistic expressions. Discussion: The linguistic structure offers conditions for communication, but any generation and transmission of meanings is a product of the intention of the subjects who use it for specific purposes and in specific communicative situations within a social context. Conclusions: Intensive use of digital technology and social networks naturalized a relationship of proximity and familiarity in the communication process, satisfaction of needs in the multiplicity of information that is created and distributed in the network bundled to mobile devices and the political and social ecosystem of the nation.
The periodic system, which intertwines order and similarity among chemical elements, arose from knowledge about substances constituting the chemical space. Little is known, however, about how the expansion of the space contributed to the emergence of the system—formulated in the 1860s. Here, we show by analyzing the space between 1800 and 1869 that after an unstable period culminating around 1826, chemical space led the system to converge to a backbone structure clearly recognizable in the 1840s. Hence, the system was already encoded in the space for about two and half decades before its formulation. Chemical events in 1826 and in the 1840s were driven by the discovery of new forms of combination standing the test of time. Emphasis of the space upon organic chemicals after 1830 prompted the recognition of relationships among elements participating in the organic turn and obscured some of the relationships among transition metals. To account for the role of nineteenth century atomic weights upon the system, we introduced an algorithm to adjust the space according to different sets of weights, which allowed for estimating the resulting periodic systems of chemists using one or the other weights. By analyzing these systems, from Dalton up to Mendeleev, Gmelin’s atomic weights of 1843 produce systems remarkably similar to that of 1869, a similarity that was reinforced by the atomic weights on the years to come. Although our approach is computational rather than historical, we hope it can complement other tools of the history of chemistry.
The growing dropout and low permanence of rural students in higher education has become a central problem in the education system, both affecting the quality conditions of training programmes and preventing the materialisation of the benefits that achieving this educational level entails for society. However, the study of these events in rural populations is scarce, resulting in an inadequate treatment of dropout and, consequently, the impossibility of consolidating student permanence. Thus, the aim of this article is to identify which individual, academic, socio-economic, and institutional variables influence the dropout and the retention of the rural student population in higher education. To achieve this purpose, a cross-sectional study was defined. The sample used was a non-probabilistic sample with an n of 269 rural Colombian students who were administered a self-report questionnaire that assessed 59 variables. Data analysis was based on means comparison and cluster modelling. The results show that dropout and permanence in rural students is related to the educational level of the father, family and work obligations, the need to move from their place of residence, the academic average in higher education, satisfaction with the choice of programme, communication with the institution, and the attention of teachers, among other things. View Full-Text
LargeWoody Debris (LWD) accumulation serves essential ecological functions and benefits society’s coastal ecosystems (e.g., beaches). Thus far, the ecosystem services perspective has paid little attention to LWD. Therefore, we aim to contrast social perceptions on LWD and its ecological significance in Puerto Velero beach, Caribbean, Colombia. In consequence, the contribution of LWD to the conformation and creation of Puerto Velero beach was analyzed, as well as how beachgoers perceive the importance of LWD and if they were willing to pay to remove LWD in this beach. To achieve this, a quantitative convergent approach was then proposed using GIS analysis and remote sensing to understand the contributions of LWD to the Puerto Velero beach ecosystem; and in addition, a survey was performed to determine how beachgoers perceived LWD and how they valued the phenomenon. Results indicate that LWD contributed to beach maintenance; nevertheless, most people neglected LWD values because of its lack of visual attractiveness. As such, ecosystem services targets become conflicted because people positively perceived ecosystem services provided by beaches, but they did not assign importance to the beach dynamics they deemed unattractive, regardless of their vast importance.
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2,719 members
Diana C. Díaz G.
  • Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Ingeniería
Douglas Niño
  • Facultad de Ciencias Sociales
Javier Adolfo Hernandez Fernandez
  • Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Ingeniería
Lyda Marcela Grijalba Bendeck
  • Programa de Biología Marina
Jorge Orlando Melo
  • Facultad de Ciencias Sociales
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Carrera 4 # 22-61, Bogotá, Colombia
Head of institution
Cecilia Maria Velez Whithe
Website
www.utadeo.edu.co
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