Citation: Jiménez-Daza, P.; Teba del Pino, L.; Calleja-Gonzalez, J.; Sáez de Villarreal, E. Maturity Offset, Anthropometric Characteristics and Vertical Force-Velocity Profile in Youth Basketball Players. Abstract: This work aimed to analyze the relationships between maturity offset, anthropometric variables and the vertical force-velocity profile in youth (12-18 years old) male basketball players. The vertical force-velocity profile was measured in 49 basketball players, grouped in competitive-age categories, i.e., under 14, 16 and 18 years of age (U-14, U-16 and U-18, respectively). A bivariate correlational analysis was carried out between maturity offset, anthropometric variables (height, body mass, % fat, muscle mass, bone mass and body mass index (BMI)) and vertical force-velocity profile (theoretical maximal force [F0], theoretical maximal velocity [V0], theoretical maximal power [Pmax], force-velocity imbalance [Fvimb] and force-velocity profile orientation). The results showed significant correlations (p < 0.05) between Fvimb and maturity offset at early ages of training (12-15 years). The anthropometric profile was correlated (p < 0.05) with F0 in U-14, V0 in U-16, and Pmax in U-18 basketball players. The current findings suggest a relationship between the vertical force-velocity imbalance and maturity offset and the main vertical force-velocity profile variables. The vertical force-velocity profile is hypothesized as a useful index to correct vertical force-velocity deficits according to the maturity offset of male basketball players.
How do owners of family firm portfolios restructure poorly performing firms? To answer this question, we conducted an in-depth qualitative case-study analysis of six poorly performing family portfolio firms, on the basis of 39 interviews, 117 pieces of archival data, and observations we gathered over 2 years. Drawing upon the socioemotional wealth (SEW) perspective and escalation-of-commitment literature, we suggest that family firm owners initially show refraining behaviors toward restructuring their poorly performing portfolio firms. Subsequently, they exhibit escalating behaviors by first investing and then reshuffling assets, to safeguard firm-level SEW. Yet, when retaining these poorly performing firms threatens the existence of the remaining portfolio and, thus, portfolio-level SEW, family firm owners exhibit de-escalating behaviors by divesting. Preferably, they attempt a sale and, when a sale is no longer an option, a liquidation. We developed a model that contributes to a more granular theoretical understanding of the family firm’s restructuring behavior, in the context of portfolio entrepreneurship.
The study, conducted in 2021, describes the relationship between resilience development factors and dimensions and the grief processes of persons affected by the suicide of a family member. The objective was to analyze whether the loved ones of suicide victims had developed resilient behaviors and how these were manifested during the mourning process. To achieve this, two instruments were used: the Brief Resilience Coping Scale (BRCS), and in-depth interviews, in both cases applied to a sample of 21 individuals from whom narratives of their experiences were obtained as elements for analysis. These narratives were operationalized, coded and analyzed according to the theoretical framework advanced by the authors Edith Grotberg and Cecily Knight. The behaviors detected took the form, among others, of artistic expression and/or the provisioning of support services to people affected by suicide, generally through participation in associations and self-help groups dedicated to the care and facilitation of emotional expression resulting from the traumatic event.
Poales are one of the most species-rich, ecologically and economically important orders of plants and often characterise open habitats, enabled by unique suites of traits. We test six hypotheses regarding the evolution and assembly of Poales in open and closed habitats throughout the world and examine whether diversification patterns demonstrate parallel evolution. We sampled 42% of Poales species and obtained taxonomic and biogeographic data from the World Checklist of Vascular Plants database, which was combined with open/closed habitat data scored by taxonomic experts. A dated supertree of Poales was constructed. We integrated spatial phylogenetics with regionalisation analyses, historical biogeography and ancestral state estimations. Diversification in Poales and assembly of open and closed habitats result from dynamic evolutionary processes that vary across lineages, time and space, most prominently in tropical and southern latitudes. Our results reveal parallel and recurrent patterns of habitat and trait transitions in the species-rich families Poaceae and Cyperaceae. Smaller families display unique and often divergent evolutionary trajectories. The Poales have achieved global dominance via parallel evolution in open habitats, with notable, spatially and phylogenetically restricted divergences into strictly closed habitats.
Background Older individuals have high rates of seasonal influenza-related hospitalizations and deaths. For this population, enhanced vaccines have been designed to mitigate the effect of age-related immunosenescence by providing higher immunogenicity and increased relative vaccine effectiveness (rVE) compared with standard vaccines. The objective of this review is to assess the assumptions taken in published cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) and analyze the results and decision-making implications on enhanced influenza vaccines for older adults (65yrs+). Methods A targeted literature review was performed to identify economic evaluations of two enhanced vaccines in older individuals: adjuvanted trivalent/quadrivalent vaccine (aTIV/aQIV) and high-dose trivalent/quadrivalent vaccine (HD-TIV/HD-QIV). PubMed was searched for publications in March 2023, limited to studies from the past 10 years and prioritizing English-language publications. Papers describing CEAs were prioritized for inclusion. Congress presentations that included CEA were included based on expert knowledge and ability to retrieve poster and/or oral presentations. Results 31 CEAs comparing enhanced vaccines to standard-dose trivalent/quadrivalent vaccines (SD-TIV/SD-QIV) were analyzed, 15 comparing HD-TIV/HD-QIV with SD-TIV/SD-QIV and 17 comparing aTIV/aQIV with SD-TIV/SD-QIV. Enhanced vaccines were consistently cost-effective vs SD-TIV/SD-QIVs, despite diversity of model types, vaccine acquisition price, rVE estimate used, influenza-associated costs, and study perspective used. CEA results were inconsistent when the enhanced vaccines were compared with each other. The key driver of the latter was the different rVE approaches considered. While observational studies on vaccine effectiveness used in CEAs suggest effectiveness comparability between aTIV/aQIV and HD-TIV/HD-QIV, most studies show a lower acquisition price for aTIV/aQIV. Conclusion Enhanced vaccines for older adults are more efficient compared to standard-dose vaccines. The adjuvanted influenza vaccine could reduce overall costs compared to high-dose vaccine if it has a lower acquisition price. Disclosures David Fisman, CSL Seqirus: Advisor/Consultant Norberto Giglio, CSL Seqirus Inc.: Advisor/Consultant Sergio Márquez-Peláez, MD, CSL Seqirus Inc.: Advisor/Consultant Van Nguyen, PhD, CSL Seqirus Inc.: Advisor/Consultant|CSL Seqirus Inc.: Advisor/Consultant|CSL Seqirus Inc.: Honoraria Maarten Postma, PhD, CSL Seqirus Inc.: Advisor/Consultant|CSL Seqirus Inc.: Advisor/Consultant|CSL Seqirus Inc.: Honoraria Andrea Pugliese, PhD, CSL Seqirus Inc.: Advisor/Consultant Jesús Ruiz-Aragón, MD, CSL Seqirus Inc.: Advisor/Consultant Analia urueña, n/a, CSL Seqirus Inc.: Advisor/Consultant|CSL Seqirus Inc.: Advisor/Consultant Joaquin F. Mould-Quevedo, PhD, CSL Seqirus Inc.: Employee|CSL Seqirus Inc.: Employee|CSL Seqirus Inc.: Stocks/Bonds|CSL Seqirus Inc.: Stocks/Bonds
The global challenges presented by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections have stimulated the development of new treatment strategies. We reported that OmpW is a potential therapeutic target in Acinetobacter baumannii. Here, a library of 11,648 natural compounds was subjected to a primary screening using QSAR models generated from a ChEMBL dataset with >7,000 compounds with their reported MIC values against A. baumannii followed by a structure-based virtual screening against OmpW. In silico ADME evaluation was conducted to assess the drug-likeness of these compounds. The ten highest-ranking compounds were found to bind with an energy score ranging from -7.8 to -7.0 kcal/mol where most of them belonged to curcuminoids. To validate these findings, one lead compound exhibiting promising binding stability as well as favourable pharmacokinetics properties, namely demethoxycurcumin was tested against a panel of A. baumannii strains to determine its antibacterial activity using microdilution and time-kill curve assays. To validate whether the compound binds to the selected target, an OmpW-deficient mutant was also studied and compared to the wild-type. Our results demonstrate that demethoxycurcumin in monotherapy and in combination with colistin is active against all A. baumannii strains. Moreover, an increased bacterial growth was observed in the OmpW-deficient mutant suggesting the importance of OmpW for the compound to exhibit its antibacterial activity. Finally, the compound was found to significantly reduce the interaction of A. baumannii with host cells suggesting its anti-virulence properties. Collectively, this study demonstrates artificial intelligence as a promising strategy for the discovery of curcuminoids as antimicrobial agents for combating A. baumannii infections.
We aimed to discover new tamoxifen derivatives with antimicrobial potential, particularly targeting colistin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. We determined the MIC of 22 tamoxifen derivatives against both A. baumannii wild-type and colistin-resistant strains using microdilution assays, in monotherapy and in combination with colistin. The antibacterial effects of selected tamoxifen derivatives, in monotherapy and in combination with colistin, against colistin-resistant A. baumannii (Ab22), were assessed through bacterial growth assays. Changes in bacterial membrane permeability and the profile of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) were analyzed by using fluorescence assays and SDS-PAGE, respectively. The MIC of the tamoxifen derivatives in monotherapy exceed 64 mg/L. However, the combination of tamoxifen derivatives (1), (14), and (18) with colistin displayed MIC between 0.125 and 2 μg/mL for the reference ATCC 17978 strain and between 0.5 and 1 μg/mL for the colistin-resistant Ab22 strain. Bacterial growth assays demonstrated that tamoxifen derivatives (1), (14), and (18) delayed the growth of the Ab22 strain during the first 4 h. Moreover, treatment with these derivatives resulted in increased membrane permeabilization without affecting the expression of OMPs. These data suggest that tamoxifen derivatives exhibit antibacterial activity against colistin-resistant A. baumannii, potentially broadening the spectrum of available drug treatments for combating antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative bacilli.
Weight-related abuse is defined as verbal or physical maltreatment specific to one's weight. The Weight-Related Abuse Questionnaire (WRAQ) is an instrument specifically designed to measure weight-related abuse. The main goal of this research was to study the factor structure and measurement invariance of the Spanish version of the WRAQ in a non-clinical and a clinical sample. The clinical sample included 150 participants with obesity (60 % women) from the Hospital de Valme. The non-clinical sample included 301 students (79 % women) from the UNED. Scales to measure weight self-stigma and fear of gaining weight were used to analyze the convergent validity of the WRAQ. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that a two-factor model (verbal and physical abuse) was an acceptable fit for the data in both the clinical and non-clinical samples. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis revealed scalar measurement invariance by sample and gender. Cronbach's alpha coefficients and composite reliability for both samples were found to be good, with values ranging from 0.83 to 0.96. Fear of gaining weight was correlated to verbal (r = 0.36, p < .01) and physical (r = 0.12, p < .05) abuse, and weight self-stigma was also related to physical (r = 0.21, p < .01) and verbal (r = 0.41, p < .01) abuse. These results suggest that the WRAQ can be used in clinical and non-clinical samples to assess verbal and physical abuse in both men and women.
(1) Background: Cyberbullying is a growing problem among adolescents, and deeper knowledge of this phenomenon could facilitate the implementation of adequate prevention and intervention strategies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between victimization and aggression patterns in cyberbullying and physical fitness levels in Spanish adolescents. (2) Methods: A total of 741 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years from two high schools in Andalusia, Spain (mean = 14.52 ± 1.96 years; 50.9% girls, 49.1% boys) participated in the study. The participants underwent the EUROFIT battery test and completed the Spanish version of the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (ECIPQ) scale. T-test, bivariate correlations and a linear regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. (3) Results: The study results indicated positive relationships between cyberbullying patterns, especially cybervictimization, and age, as well as several physical fitness measures, including BMI, sit-ups, sit-and-reach, and handgrip tests. On the other hand, cyberperpetration was positively related only to age and the specific grip strength test. Further statistical analysis revealed that cybervictimization was primarily influenced by age, while cyberperpetration was mainly influenced by age and performance in a functional test (sit-and-reach). (4) Conclusions: Cyberbullying roles, both as victims and aggressors, may not be strongly influenced by isolated physical fitness factors. Thus, in order to reach a more comprehensive understanding and better explanations of individual involvement in cyberbullying behavior, future studies should analyze psychological and social factors along with the variables considered in this study.
This paper introduces a problem that can be seen as a combination of the traveling salesman problem with profits and the traveling repairman problem with profits, coined as the multi‐objective traveling salesman–repairman problem with profits (Mo‐TSRPP). The objective of the Mo‐TSRPP is to simultaneously optimize three objectives: the total cost, total latency, and total profit. Indirectly, the number of nodes visited is also considered although not as an objective itself since it is determined by the size of every efficient solution in the Pareto front. The Mo‐TSRPP emerges as a real‐world problem in which a freelancer, which repairs appliances, wants to plan the daily route. Moreover, the daily plan does not require to visit all customers. To solve the problem, first, a greedy randomized adaptive procedure is designed to generate a set of high‐quality nondominated solutions and then, a variable neighborhood descent algorithm is applied for further improving the initial set. This procedure allows us to attain a good approximation of the Pareto front. To prove the performance of the proposal a comparison is done against three well‐known evolutionary algorithms: NSGA‐II, SPEA‐2, and MOEA/D. Finally, a realistic problem is shown and solved to illustrate the potential of the algorithm.
The objective of this study is to provide descriptive and critical insights into high-performance student-athletes (HPSA) policies and their implementation in China's competitive sports and higher education institutions (regular HEIs, excluding vocational colleges). The purpose of this research is to facilitate the sound development of HPSA policies by analysing their strengths and weaknesses. We conducted a documentary analysis of 25 policies related to Chinese HPSA, contributing to the healthy and long-term development of HPSA and Chinese competitive sports. Additionally, we developed practical considerations for future policymaking. Moreover, this paper, represents the first comprehensive attempt to explore HPSA policies within mainland China in English. It encompasses various aspects, including psychological consideration, the social environment, academic development, post-athletic preparation, and the mechanisms of regular HEIs. Giving considerably greater attention to these aspects would benefit policymaking and practice within the Chinese HPSA context. ARTICLE HISTORY
The pectin from the cell walls of olive waste (alperujo) and apple, orange and strawberry fruits was extracted using choline chloride (ChCl) and the yield and chemical and structural compositions were compared to pectin extracted using citric acid (CA) and ammonium oxalate/oxalic acid (AOOA). According to the results, the alperujo pectin extracted using ChCl from alcohol-insoluble residue (AIR) showed a higher yield (2.20–2.88% on the basis of dry weight of AIR) than using CA (0.65–1.22%) but lower than using AOOA (3.92–5.42%). For fruit pectin, the highest yield was obtained using CA (8.81–16%), followed by AOOA (5.4–6.63%), although for apple pectin, ChCl gave a similar yield (5.36%) to AOOA. The uronic acid contents in all ChCl pectins (45.9–70.6% dry basis AIR) were higher or similar to that of the other extracting agents (30.6–65.2%), although a lower level of neutral sugar side chains was detected, with a lower degree of branching and degree of methylation. The NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy of the pectin isolated using ChCl confirmed its slightly different structural composition with respect to CA and AOOA pectin. Therefore, depending on the source material and functionality, pectin isolated using ChCl could be an acid-free alternative to pectin production.
Cornejo-Daza, PJ, Villalba-Fernández, A, González-Badillo, JJ, and Pareja-Blanco, F. Time course of recovery from different velocity loss thresholds and set configurations during full-squat training. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000–000, 2023—The aims of the research were to examine the effects of (a) velocity loss (VL) thresholds and (b) set configuration, traditional or cluster, on time-course recovery. A randomized cross-over research design was conducted, in which 15 resistance-trained men performed 4 protocols consisting of 3 sets of 70% 1RM in full squat (SQ), differing in the VL incurred during the set assessed with a linear velocity transducer: (a) 20% (70-20), (b) 30% (70-30), (c) 40% (70-40), and in the set configuration (d) 20% of VL using a cluster methodology (70-CLU). Movement velocity against the load that elicited a 1 m·s ⁻¹ velocity at baseline measurements (V1-load) in SQ, countermovement jump (CMJ) height, and sprint time in 20 m (T20) were assessed at baseline (Pre) and postintervention (Post, 6 hour-Post, 24 hour-Post, and 48 hour-Post). The 70-20 protocol resulted in fewer total repetitions than the other protocols ( p = 0.001), whereas 70-CLU, 70-30, and 70-40 completed similar total repetitions. The 70-30 protocol significantly worsened T20 at 6 hours-Post, CMJ at 48 hours-Post, and V1-load at 6 hours-Post ( p < 0.05). The 70-40 protocol significantly impaired T20 at 6 hours-Post, and CMJ and V1-load at 24 hours-Post ( p < 0.05). No significant performance reductions were observed for 70-20 and 70-CLU at 6 hours-Post, 24 hours-Post, and 48 hours-Post. Protocols with higher VL resulted in more pronounced fatigue and a slower rate of recovery. Cluster sets (70-CLU) resulted in higher volume than protocols with a similar level of fatigue (70-20) and a quicker recovery than protocols with a similar volume (70-30 and 70-40).
Simple Summary Studies over the last few years have revealed that integrin function in cancer is controversial. Accumulating evidence has shown that integrins can act as both tumour promoters or tumour suppressors. The targeting of integrins has shown enormous potential in both the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Thus, further mechanistic insights into the roles of integrins as regulators of cancer progression are required. In this work, we aim to use the Drosophila model to gain insight into the role of these extracellular matrix receptors in tumoural progression. We find that the role of integrins as tumour suppressors is conserved. The depletion of integrins enhances the growth and invasive behaviour of tumours induced by a gain of function of an oncogenic form of Ras, by regulating cell shape and cycle progression. Furthermore, our results show that integrin loss enhances the ability of Ras tumour cells to affect the tumour microenvironment through the activation of the JNK pathway. Abstract Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Key to cancer initiation and progression is the crosstalk between cancer cells and their microenvironment. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a major component of the tumour microenvironment and integrins, main cell-ECM adhesion receptors, are involved in every step of cancer progression. However, accumulating evidence has shown that integrins can act as tumour promoters but also as tumour suppressor factors, revealing that the biological roles of integrins in cancer are complex. This incites a better understating of integrin function in cancer progression. To achieve this goal, simple model organisms, such as Drosophila, offer great potential to unravel underlying conceptual principles. Here, we find that in the Drosophila wing disc epithelium the βPS integrins act as suppressors of tumours induced by a gain of function of the oncogenic form of Ras, RasV¹². We show that βPS integrin depletion enhances the growth, delamination and invasive behaviour of RasV¹² tumour cells, as well as their ability to affect the tumour microenvironment. These results strongly suggest that integrin function as tumour suppressors might be evolutionarily conserved. Drosophila can be used to understand the complex tumour modulating activities conferred by integrins, thus facilitating drug development.
Changes in species composition and management operations can have heavy effects on Mediterranean forest ecosystem. However, how these drivers influence the capacity of Mediterranean forests to provide multiple ecosystem functions remains poorly understood. This study evaluates ecosystem multi-functionality (EMF) in Mediterranean forests, comparing ecosystem structure, properties and functions as well as EMF in: (1) a pure and unmanaged stand of Spanish black pine, assumed as control; (2) a pure but managed stand of the same species; and (3) two mixed but unmanaged stands of the same species and (3.a) Spanish juniper and (3.b) holm oak. Regarding the ecosystem structure, both forest management and stand composition altered plant diversity but not soil covers (except for vegetation). About the ecosystem properties, soil characteristics significantly changed between pairs of stands (especially texture, pH and bulk density). Concerning the ecosystem functions, forest stand composition was a significant driver of waste decomposition and wood production, while its effect on nutrient cycling, carbon stocks and water cycle depends on the specific tree species. Moreover, the effects of forest management on the ecosystem functions were in general significant compared to the unmanaged stand in terms wood production, carbon stocks, nutrient cycling, but not of water cycle and waste decomposition. Finally, the average EMF was significantly affected by forest management, but by stand composition only in the case of one mixed stand. KEYWORDS: Mixed forest stands; pure forest stands; ecosystem properties; ecosystem structure; ecosystem functions. KEY MESSAGE: The multiple functions of Mediterranean forest ecosystems primarily increase with management operations, and secondarily with tree composition. This finding emphasizes the importance of management for maintaining ecosystem functioning in Mediterranean forests.
In large cities, the decay of deprived neighborhoods externalizes the consequences of present-day urban social inequality. Residents of these areas often show discomfort with living in a poor environment. Adopting Hirschman's classic Exit, Voice and Loyalty model, this study analyzes the reactions of residents to dissatisfaction in San Diego, a deprived neighborhood in Madrid. A qualitative methodology was applied to analyze the discourses of residents by conducting fourteen focus groups with diverse profiles according to gender, age, socio-labor situation, and geographical origin. The results reflect that, in a deprived neighborhood, there are limits to reactions, so that exit (moving out) is only partially manifested, and voice (social mobilization) is only temporarily activated, conditioned by the situation and organizational capacity. Loyalty, on the contrary, appears as an option that improves coexistence, but it remains attached to long-term residents and hardly welcomes newcomers, especially immigrants. The explanatory capacity of Hirschman's model is here expanded by exploring the use of resistance as a complementary response. This strategy, as a political reaction, complements voice and reinforces agency by seeking concrete improvements in the daily life of the residents. These qualitative research results provide important insight into neighbors’ reactions in deprived areas, where exit and voice, as main options, are limited, and resistance becomes a significant potential for them.
Planctopirus limnophila belongs to the bacterial phylum Planctomycetes, a relatively understudied lineage with remarkable cell biology features. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of essential gene content in P. limnophila. We show that certain genes involved in peptidoglycan synthesis or cell division, which are essential in most other studied bacteria, are not essential for growth under laboratory conditions in this species. We identify essential genes likely involved in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, consistent with the view of Planctomycetes as diderm bacteria, and highlight other essential genes of unknown functions. Furthermore, we explore potential stages of evolution of the essential gene repertoire in Planctomycetes and the related phyla Verrucomicrobia and Chlamydiae. Our results provide insights into the divergent molecular and cellular biology of Planctomycetes.
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