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ABSTRACT: To determine whether the requirements for sialic acid varies and whether several types of silaic acid independent receptors utilized for invasion mechanisms of fresh filed isolates collected around Nanay river basin, Iquitos. The field isolates were cultured as described previously by Jensen and Trager and MR4 protocol with little modifications. The erythrocytes preparation and subsequent enzyme treatment was done as described previously by Sharma. with little modification. Invasion assay was performed as described previously by Sharma et al with little modification. The Nanay river basin isolates showed five types of invasion mechanisms or types of receptors-ligand interactions. Here we observed that an equal numbers of neuraminidase sensitive and resistant invasion receptor-ligand interaction profiles as the most common receptor-ligand invasion profiles. Neuraminidase resistance trypsin sensitive chymotrypsin sensitive (NM(R)T(S)CT(S)) invasion of receptor-ligand interaction profile was found in seven isolates, Five field isolates and one reference strain showed neuraminidase sensitive, trypsin sensitive and chymotrypsin resistant (NM(S)T(S)CT(R)) invasion of receptor-ligand interactions, six isolates including one reference strains dd2 showed neuraminidase sensitive, trypsin and chymotrypsin resistance (NM(S)T(R)CT(R)) indicating its dependence on sialic acids and independence of trypsin and chymotrypsin sensitive proteins. Four isolates showed neuraminidase sensitive, trypsin sensitive and chymotrypsin sensitive (NM(S)T(S)CT(S)) invasion of receptor-ligand interactions, seven isolates were neuraminidase resistant, trypsin sensitive and chymotrypsin resistance (NM(R)T(S)CT(R)) invasion of receptor-ligand interactions, indicating its dependence on trypsin sensitive proteins. The Nanay river basin isolates showed five types of invasion mechanisms or types of receptors-ligand interactions. A full understanding of theses invasion mechanisms may allow the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic strategies that block erythrocyte receptor-ligand invasion mechanisms.
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ABSTRACT: Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is traditionally grown in the mountain regions of the Andes where frost is common. However, the physiological mechanisms responsible for the frost resistance observed in quinoa are largely unknown. For this reason, a study on cultivars of quinoa originating from the Andean highlands and from the inter-Andean valleys was performed. Frost tolerance was determined by measuring the average lethal temperature of 50% of the leaf tissues (LT50) by ion leakage, and supercooling activity was assessed by thermal analysis using thermocouples. Quinoa demonstrated supercooling capacity (a mechanism that prevents immediate damage by freezing temperatures) of 5 °C. Ice nucleation temperature was always lower than the LT50. This indicates that the main survival mechanism of quinoa to frost is avoidance of ice formation by moderate supercooling. The study revealed that quinoa has a high soluble sugar content, which may cause a lowering of the freezing point and therefore contributing to lower the LT50. It is suggested that the content of proline and soluble sugars, such as sucrose, may serve as indicators of frost tolerance in quinoa breeding material.
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