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- SourceAvailable from: Bert Kohlmann[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The following new species of geotrupids and scarabs from Costa Rica and Panama are described: Athyreus gulesseriani new species, Ateuchus alutacius new species (the first recorded brachypterous Ateuchus species), Coprophanaeus geph-yra new species, Deltochilum acanthus new species, and Onthophagus turgidus new species. The following two species of Coprophanaeus are revalidated: C. kohlmanni Arnaud and C. uhleri Malý & Pokorný. Illustrations of the dorsal habitus of the new species are provided, as well as distribution maps for all species.
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ABSTRACT: As part of an evaluation of the braconid parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) as a biocontrol agent of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in Brazil, the aims in the current study were to find the best parental ratio of females to males in the rearing cages in order to get the highest female biased offspring in the parasitoid rearing process, and to verify the parasitism efficiency on C. capitata according to parental female densities. Three treatments were assessed: T1 (20 females: 20 males), T2 (60 females: 20 males) and T3 (100 females: 20 males). Ten late-third instars of C. capitata were offered daily to each female parasitoid from the 1st to the 12th d of age. The parental female productivity, fecundity, offspring sex ratio, percentage of parasitoid emergence, and daily mortality of parental females and males at different female/male densities were evaluated. The results indicated that numbers higher than 20 parental females did not affect offspring sex ratio, overall offspring production, nor the percent parasitism. Female biased offspring occurred in all three parental female/male ratios analyzed in this study, except that predominately males developed from parasitoid eggs laid in the age interval 1-2 d post emergence. Higher parasitoid female productivity and fecundity were found at the 1:1 female/male per cage density whereas lower productivity and fecundity were recorded at the 5:1 female/male ratio. Higher female/male ratio in the parental cages increased the mortality rate of females but did not influence the number of parental male deaths. The results may facilitate advancement of an optimum mass-rearing system to aid in control of C. capitata in Brazil.
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ABSTRACT: A historic analysis of the classification of Scarabaeoidea is presented. The analysis comprises a historic comparison of the type and number of characters of the genera and their grouping into higher-level taxa. The analysis is divided into three time periods, including a review of 70 publications on scarab systematics (beginning with Linnaeus). The first period (1735–1858) encompasses an era prior to the publication of Darwin's The Origin of Species, and it is, therefore, a classification process arguably free of any evolutionary influences. The second period (1859–1949) includes a comparative synthesis on the classification of the Scarabaeoidea based on faunistic and taxonomic works. The third period (1950–2006) summarizes and analyzes classifications influenced by phylogenetic theories and is based on monographs, faunal studies, keys for regional fauna, papers on comparative morphology, and studies specifically devoted to the understanding of evolutionary relationships and processes in the Scarabaeoidea. A large problem concerning the classification and phylogeny still remains because most studies do not consider all the diversity of the Scarabaeoidea in a single analysis.
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