Universidad Diego Portales
Recent publications
This section offers a muestra—a sampling or display—of major works of Latin American digital poetry. Authored by experts in the field, these 25 short entries analyze the canon of digital poetry from Latin America. Each entry consists of: (1) a technical description of the work; (2) a brief contextualization of the work (referencing typologies, generational schema, and taxonomies); (3) an analysis of the e-poetics of the digital work; (4) minimal (e-) bibliography (about the author/in general); and (5) QR codes linking to the author’s work. This “sample” of trends in Latin American digital poetics is not meant to be exhaustive; rather, it seeks to situate some key features of these emergent forms in larger computational, literary, and cultural contexts.
The time like structure of the five-dimensional Schwarzschild and Reissner–Nordström anti-de Sitter black holes is studied in detail. Different kinds of motion are allowed and studied by using an adequate effective potential. Then, by solving the corresponding equations of motion, several trajectories and orbits are described in terms of Weierstraß elliptic functions and elementary functions for neutral particles.
Over 4 trillion dollars and 4.1 trillion kilograms of second-hand clothes are exported worldwide (United Nations 2017). People use a garment an average of seven times, purchase five times more clothing than in 1980, and produce 100 trillion garments yearly, with 20% of the total remaining unsold (Thomas 2019). These figures depict an unsustainable system when considering its repercussions in terms of overproduction, environmental impact, and social consequences. Specifically, it is essential to observe and understand the Fashion System from a diverse perspective (Pierce 1903), which can shed new light on current problems. The exploration focuses on whether it is possible to construct a Fashion System that operates and establishes new relationships internally and among its actors, fostering equitable, ethical, sustainable, and horizontal relations. Analysis tools are provided to future creative talents so that, through comprehensive and systemic education, they can consider proposing solutions for an industry and ecosystem that owe a debt to the environment, ethics, labor laws, and social issues. To accomplish this, the circuit of second-hand clothing, specifically the importation of used clothing through the port of Iquique, the Free Trade Zone ZOFRI, is examined.
Although rarely reported, bilateral loss of vision is a severe complication of childhood bacterial meningitis. We assessed its frequency in five prospective treatment trials performed in Europe, Latin America, and Angola in 1984–2017. Course of illness, follow-up findings, and child’s sight were recorded. Sight was examined at discharge, and conditions permitting, also at 1–3 months post-hospitalization and in Angola on hospital day 7. Experienced pediatricians diagnosed clinical blindness if the child did not make eye contact, did not blink or move the eyes, or remained unresponsive to bright light or movement of large objects before their eyes. Of 1515 patients, 351, 654, and 510 were from Finland, Latin America, and Angola, respectively. At discharge, blindness was observed in 0 (0%), 8 (1.2%), and 51 (10%) children, respectively. In Angola, 64 children appeared to be blind on day 7; 16 of these children died. Blindness found at discharge in Angola was not invariably irreversible; approximately 40% had restored the sight at follow-up visit. Clinical blindness rarely occurred in isolation and was usually associated with young age and poor general condition at hospital arrival. Various other serious sequelae were common among the survivors with clinical blindness.
El objetivo de este artículo es comprender cómo definen los individuos su posición social durante la crisis sociopolítica abierta por el estallido social del 2019 en Chile. Se utiliza una encuesta basada en viñetas en una muestra estadísticamente representativa en Santiago y Puerto Montt. Los resultados muestran que las dos formas principales de nombrar la posición social subjetiva, según clase social u otros atributos, abarcan a una similar cantidad de individuos. Los encuestados que apelan a clase social se autoclasifican preferentemente en la clase media baja, mientras quienes hacen referencia a otros atributos tienden a posicionarse subjetivamente en la clase baja. También se estima en qué medida el tipo de posición subjetiva depende de las condiciones socioeconómicas de los respondentes.
Objective The study aim was to investigate associations of 11 anthropometric measures with incident type 2 diabetes and compare their predictive performance. Methods This prospective cohort study included 161,127 White European UK Biobank participants who were free of diabetes at baseline. Anthropometric measures included height, weight, BMI, A Body Shape Index, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, waist to height ratio (WHtR), hip circumference, visceral adiposity index, hip index, and anthropometric risk index. The associations were examined using Cox proportional hazard models. The differences in C‐index were used to compare predictive performance between BMI and other anthropometric measures. Results The median follow‐up was 10.0 (interquartile range: 9.3–10.8) years, during which 6315 participants developed type 2 diabetes. All markers except height and hip index were positively associated with incident type 2 diabetes. The strongest associations were found for WHtR (hazard ratio per 1‐SD increment: 2.27 [95% CI 2.19–2.35] in women; 1.96 [95% CI 1.90–2.01] in men). Compared with BMI, WHtR and anthropometric risk index had significantly better type 2 diabetes risk discrimination. Conclusions Although most adiposity markers were associated with type 2 diabetes, the magnitude of the associations differed. WHtR had the strongest associations and predictive ability for type 2 diabetes and thus could be a more suitable marker for clinical use.
Background People with disabilities usually face barriers to regularly engaging in physical activities. Estimating physical activity patterns are necessary to elaborate policies and strategies to facilitate active lifestyles, considering the particular access difficulties experienced by this population.PurposeThis study aimed (i) to describe the prevalence of physical activity levels and (ii) to examine the associations of physical activity levels with socio-demographic variables and type of disability in the 2020 Chilean National Physical Activity and Sports Habits in Populations with Disabilities (CNPASHPwD) survey during the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic.Methods Cross-sectional data from 3,150 adults (18–99 years old), 59.8% female, were analyzed from November to December 2020. Self-reported age, gender, type of disability (i.e., physical, visual, hearing, intellectual, or mixed), socio-economic status, area and zone of residence, and physical activity levels (0 min/week, < 150 min/week, ≥ 150 min/week) were obtained.Results11.9% of the participants were classified as active (≥ 150 min/week), and 62.6% declared no involvement in physical activity. A larger proportion of females (61.7%) did not meet the current guidelines (≥ 150 min/week of physical activity) in comparison with males (p < 0.001). Participants with visual and hearing disabilities were more likely to be active than those with other types of disabilities. Those living in the central and southern regions of Chile were more likely to be physically active than those from the northern region. Also, older participants, women, and those from lower socio-economic statuses were less likely to meet the physical activity guidelines.Conclusion Alarmingly, nine out of ten participants were categorized as physically inactive, particularly women, older adults, and those with a low socioeconomic status. If the pandemic context moderated, the considerable prevalence of reduced physical activity levels deserves future exploration. Health promotion initiatives should consider these aspects, emphasizing inclusive environments and increasing opportunities to favor healthy behaviors, countering the COVID-19 effects.
We provide here the first bottom‐up review of the lived experience of depression, co‐written by experts by experience and academics. First‐person accounts within and outside the medical field were screened and discussed in collaborative workshops involving numerous individuals with lived experience of depression, family members and carers, representing a global network of organizations. The material was enriched by phenomenologically informed perspectives and shared with all collaborators in a cloud‐based system. The subjective world of depression was characterized by an altered experience of emotions and body (feeling overwhelmed by negative emotions, unable to experience positive emotions, stuck in a heavy aching body drained of energy, detached from the mind, the body and the world); an altered experience of the self (losing sense of purpose and existential hope, mismatch between the past and the depressed self, feeling painfully incarcerated, losing control over one's thoughts, losing the capacity to act on the world; feeling numb, empty, non‐existent, dead, and dreaming of death as a possible escape route); and an altered experience of time (experiencing an alteration of vital biorhythms, an overwhelming past, a stagnation of the present, and the impossibility of the future). The experience of depression in the social and cultural context was characterized by altered interpersonal experiences (struggling with communication, feeling loneliness and estrangement, perceiving stigma and stereotypes), and varied across different cultures, ethnic or racial minorities, and genders. The subjective perception of recovery varied (feeling contrasting attitudes towards recovery, recognizing recovery as a journey, recognizing one's vulnerability and the need for professional help), as did the experience of receiving pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and social as well as physical health interventions. These findings can inform clinical practice, research and education. This journey in the lived experience of depression can also help us to understand the nature of our own emotions and feelings, what is to believe in something, what is to hope, and what is to be a living human being.
In this article, we explain how the data-driven approach to Artificial Intelligence enabled by global demateralization and embraced by digital platforms leads to an “excess of unutilized big data” and why the need to unlock the value hidden in increasingly larger volumes of big data leads to a new model of how digital platforms drive and profit from innovation that departs from the standard model. We also explain how this new model is based on a dual positioning of big data as a core and as a generalized complementary asset in the “extended innovation ecosystems” of digital platforms and how the rise of these extended innovation ecosystems ultimately leads to the rise of the “global stakeholder capitalism model of digital platforms” as the new economic model under which digital platforms operate today. We conclude with a discussion of some of the challenges and future directions of this new model at the intersection of Artificial Intelligence, innovation and societal transformation.
Stroke and acute myocardial infarction are leading causes of mortality worldwide. The latter accounts for approximately 9 million deaths annually. In turn, ischemic stroke is a significant contributor to adult physical disability globally. While reperfusion is crucial for tissue recovery, it can paradoxically exacerbate damage through oxidative stress (OS), inflammation, and cell death. Therefore, it is imperative to explore diverse approaches aimed at minimizing ischemia/reperfusion injury to enhance clinical outcomes. OS primarily arises from an excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or decreased endogenous antioxidant potential. Natural antioxidant compounds can counteract the injury mechanisms linked to ROS. While promising preclinical results, based on monotherapies, account for protective effects against tissue injury by ROS, translating these models into human applications has yielded controversial evidence. However, since the wide spectrum of antioxidants having diverse chemical characteristics offers varied biological actions on cell signaling pathways, multitherapy has emerged as a valuable therapeutic resource. Moreover, the combination of antioxidants in multitherapy holds significant potential for synergistic effects. This study was designed with the aim of providing an updated overview of natural antioxidants suitable for preventing myocardial and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injuries.
Introduction Work-related Traumatic Brain Injury (wrTBI) is a frequent cause of chronic morbidity, mortality, and high treatment costs. Its causes are highly environmentally determined and were affected by COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns. Objective We aimed to describe TBI epidemiology in working population and evaluate its modifications during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods We performed a two-year retrospective epidemiological analysis of TBI patients hospitalized in a tertiary Work-Related Hospital before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results In the pre-pandemic period, TBI patients were predominantly men, with a bimodal age distribution. Crash accidents were the leading wrTBI cause. During COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns, there was a positive correlation between street traffic and TBI rate, presenting increased motor crash accidents as a cause of TBI. Conclusions These results are relevant for planning and focalization of resources for TBI prevention.
Metallicity gradients refer to the sloped radial profiles of the metallicities of gas and stars and are commonly seen in disk galaxies. A well-defined metallicity gradient of the Galactic disk is observed particularly well with classical Cepheids, which are good stellar tracers thanks to their period–luminosity relation, allowing precise distance estimation and other advantages. However, the measurement of the inner-disk gradient has been impeded by the incompleteness of previous samples of Cepheids and the limitations of optical spectroscopy in observing highly reddened objects. Here we report the metallicities of 16 Cepheids measured with high-resolution spectra in the near-infrared YJ bands. These Cepheids are located at 3–5.6 kpc in Galactocentric distance, R GC , and reveal the metallicity gradient in this range for the first time. Their metallicities are mostly between 0.1 and 0.3 dex in [Fe/H] and more or less follow the extrapolation of the metallicity gradient found in the outer part, R GC > 6.5 kpc. The gradient in the inner disk may be shallower or even flat, but the small sample does not allow the determination of the slope precisely. More extensive spectroscopic observations would also be necessary for studying minor populations, if any, with higher or lower metallicities that were reported in previous literature. In addition, the 3D velocities of our inner-disk Cepheids show a kinematic pattern that indicates noncircular orbits caused by the Galactic bar, which is consistent with the patterns reported in recent studies on high-mass star-forming regions and red giant branch stars.
Delayed parenthood characterizes family formation in developed countries and is also emerging in developing countries. In Latin America, fertility trends have been historically characterized by early family formation and adolescent childbearing. Recent studies indicate emerging trends of late fertility, but there is conflicting empirical evidence on whether and why parenthood is being postponed. This mixed-methods study examines the trends and determinants of late fertility in Chile, focusing on whether and why women are delaying first childbearing. Quantitative findings indicate an increase in the age at first birth driven by a rise of the proportion of women becoming mothers after 30 years and a decrease of adolescent childbearing. Estimations show differences in the timing of first childbearing according to education, employment, and marital status. Qualitative findings suggest that delaying first childbearing is driven by aspirations of self-realization, emerging gender norms, intensification of mothering, partnership insecurity, and precarious social conditions for having children.
It is well-known that the weighted averages of two competing forecasts may reduce mean squared prediction errors (MSPE) and may also introduce certain inefficiencies. In this paper, we take an in-depth view of one particular type of inefficiency stemming from simple combination schemes: Mincer and Zarnowitz inefficiency or auto-inefficiency for short. Under mild assumptions, we show that linear convex forecast combinations are almost always auto-inefficient, and, therefore, greater reductions in MSPE are almost always possible. In particular, we show that the process of taking averages of forecasts may induce inefficiencies in the combination, even when individual forecasts are efficient. Furthermore, we show that the so-called “optimal weighted average” traditionally presented in the literature may indeed be inefficient as well. Finally, we illustrate our findings with simulations and an empirical application in the context of the combination of headline inflation forecasts for eight European economies. Overall, our results indicate that in situations in which a number of different forecasts are available, the combination of all of them should not be the last step taken in the search of forecast accuracy. Attempts to take advantage of potential inefficiencies stemming from the combination process should also be considered.
Resumen: Las relaciones entre “Para una crítica de la violencia” (1921) y la obra de Franz Kafka han sido bien establecidas por parte de diversos estudios críticos dedicados a Walter Benjamin. Sin embargo, llama poderosamente la atención que el propio Benjamin, en pleno conocimiento ya en 1921 de la obra del escritor checo, se privara de toda referencia a la obra de Kafka en dicho ensayo, y, más ampliamente, en cualquiera de los múltiples productos aledaños que componen el proyecto en torno a la violencia. En el presente artículo nos proponemos examinar un conjunto de nociones (Entstellung, Entsühnung, Zurechstellen) que permiten establecer una relación conceptualmente mediada entre el ensayo de 1921 y los textos que Benjamin dedica a Kafka en el contexto de los años ‘30. Esta relación nos retrotrae, a su vez, al único lugar en el que Benjamin lleva a cabo un tratamiento autónomo sobre la “categoría de la justicia”, en 1916, que identifica - tal como ocurrirá dieciocho años más tarde, en el ensayo sobre Kafka de 1934 - el locus de la justicia en la “no violencia”, descomponiendo de ese modo, el nudo que liga de manera acaso indiscernible las nociones de “mesianismo” y “violencia” al interior de la tradición judía.
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3,959 members
Raimundo Frei
  • School of Sociology
Rene Gempp
  • Faculty of Economics and Business
Christian E Salas
  • School of Psychology
Alemka Tomicic
  • School of Psychology
Juan Montiel
  • Center for Biomedical Research
Santiago, Chile