Background and objectives: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is associated with health, social, and academic problems but whether these are consequences of the disorder rather than precursors or correlates is unclear. We aimed to evaluate whether IGD in the 1st year of university predicts health, academic and social problems 1 year later, controlling for baseline health, academic and social problems, demographics, and mental health symptoms. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, 1741 university students completed both a baseline online survey in their 1st year and a follow-up survey 1 year later. Log-binomial models examined the strength of prospective associations between baseline predictor variables (IGD, baseline health, academic and social problems, sex, age, and mental health symptoms) and occurrence of health, academic and social problems at follow-up. Results: When extensively adjusted by the corresponding outcome at baseline, any mental disorder symptoms, sex, and age, baseline IGD was associated only with severe school impairment and poor social life (risk ratio [RR] = 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14-2.75, p = .011; RR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.07-1.38, p = .002, respectively). Conclusions and scientific significance: University authorities and counselors should consider that incoming 1st-year students that meet criteria for IGD are likely to have increased academic and social impairments during their 1st year for which they may want to intervene. This study adds to the existing literature by longitudinally examining a greater array of negative outcomes of IGD than previously documented.
Introduction. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). OBJECTIVE. To analyze the factors associated with nephrotoxicity in pediatric patients with DKA. Material and methods. We performed a case-control study. Records of patients under 18 years of age with DKA were analyzed from January 2016 to January 2021 at the Hospital General Leon, Guanajuato, Mexico. Those who presented AKI diagnosed with KDIGO criteria were defined as cases and clinical and biochemical data were compared with the group that did not present AKI. Results. Thirty records of patients with DKA were reviewed, of which 15 developed AKI (50%) which on average resolved by the fourth day of treatment. In this group there were higher values of serum chloride (112±4 mEq/L vs. 105±4 mEq/L, p<0.001, power 99%) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (14.2±2.4% vs 11.5±2.4%, p=0.003, power 90%). The ROC curve analysis for serum chlorine and LRA had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.9 (95% CI 0.69-0.97) with a cut-off point of 110 mEq/L and for HbA1c AUC of 0.8 (95% CI 0.6-0.9) with a cut-off point of 12.9%. The level of HbA1c ≥13% at admission as a risk factor for developing AKI showed an OR of 11 (95% CI 2-60) (p=0.006) and serum chloride ≥110 mEq/L an OR of 42 (95% CI 5 -346) (p=0.0005). Conclusions. Half of the children with DKA had some degree of AKI. Serum chloride level ≥110 mEq/L or HbA1c ≥13% at admission increases the risk of AKI.
We present an extension of the trace of a vertex operator and explain a representation-theoretic interpretation of the trace. Specifically, we consider a twist of the vertex operator with infinitely many Casimir operators and compute its trace as a character formula. To do this, we define the Fock space of infinite level F∞. Then, we prove a duality between gl∞ and a∞=glˆ∞ of Howe type, which provides a decomposition of F∞ into irreducible representations with joint highest weight vector for gl∞ and a∞. The decomposition of the Fock space F∞ into highest weight representations provides a method to calculate and interpret the extended trace.
This research shows the relationship between oxygen vacancies and the charge transfer effects generated from the synthesis process using the electrospinning method in an uncontrolled atmosphere for copper oxide nanofibers (CuO NFs) pure and enriched with 3.0% Mn. The thermal measurements obtained through TGA-DSC allowed finding the calcination temperature and obtaining the tenorite structure with monoclinic phase at 700 °C. In addition, the combination of x-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) with the multiplet calculation using Cowan's codes suggests that the charge transfer effects play an important role in CuO NFs. After XPS analysis was possible to determine the presence of oxygen vacancies (Vo) and oxygen adsorbed (Ao) in the XPS O 1s region placed at 532 eV. The synthesized materials show a mixture of oxides, and a single oxidation state for Cu³⁺ in a superlattice according to the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis. Finally, the CuO NFs enriched with 3.0% show the presence of Mn⁴⁺ and Mn³⁺ according to the XPS Mn 2p region analysis.
Background: A simulation model improves how dental students learn to administer dental anaesthesia. This study explored, first, how dental students could make a dental anaesthesia simulation model at home, and, second, the impact of that simulation model on how dental students learned following an online course. Objective: We compared the level of knowledge, the level of perception of confidence to perform the basic injection technique (BIT) of dental anaesthesia, and the level of attitude towards e-learning of the BIT between a group of dental students who had an online course with a home-made dental anaesthesia simulation model (HMDASM) and a group of dental students who did not use that model. Methods: A group of participants (n = 28) used the HMDASM to learn the BIT with an e-learning course. Another group of participants (n = 28) followed the same e-learning course, but that group used a lemon to practise the BIT. The two groups answered questionnaires that explored the level of theoretical knowledge on the BIT, the level of perception of confidence to perform the BIT, and the level of attitude towards e-learning of the BIT. Questionnaire scores from each group were compared by a Student's t-test (p ≤ 0.05). Results: The group that used the HMDASM had a level of knowledge similar to that of the other group (p > 0.05). The group that used the HMDASM had a level of perception of confidence to perform the BIT and a level of attitude towards online learning of the BIT higher than those of the group that did not use the simulation model (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The use of a HMDASM had a positive effect on dental students following an online course to learn the BIT.
The demand for effective, low-cost vaccines increases research in next-generation biomanufacturing platforms and the study of new vaccine delivery systems (e.g., mucosal vaccines). Applied biotechnology in antigen production guides research toward developing genetic modification techniques in different biological models to achieve the expression of heterologous proteins. These studies are based on various transformation protocols, applied in prokaryotic systems such as Escherichia coli to eukaryotic models such as yeasts, insect cell cultures, animals, and plants, including a particular type of photosynthetic organisms: microalgae, demonstrating the feasibility of recombinant protein expression in these biological models. Microalgae are one of the recombinant protein expression models with the most significant potential and studies in the last decade. Unicellular photosynthetic organisms are widely diverse with biological and growth-specific characteristics. Some examples of the species with commercial interest are Chlamydomonas, Botryococcus, Chlorella, Dunaliella, Haematococcus, and Spirulina. The production of microalgae species at an industrial level through specialized equipment for this purpose allows for proposing microalgae as a basis for producing recombinant proteins at a commercial level. A specie with a particular interest in biotechnology application due to growth characteristics, composition, and protein production capacity is D. salina, which can be cultivated under industrial standards to obtain carotene of high interest to humans. D saline currently has advantages over other microalgae species, such as its growth in culture media with a high salt concentration which reduces the risk of contamination, rapid growth, generally considered safe (GRAS), recombinant protein biofactory, and a possible delivery vehicle for mucosal application. This review discusses the status of microalgae D. salina as a platform of expression of recombinant production for its potential mucosal application as a vaccine delivery system, taking an advance on the technology for its production and cultivation at an industrial level.
Durante las últimas décadas, la evolución de las zonas urbanas y dinamismo de la actividad económica a nivel mundial, ha hecho que proliferen las demandas habitacionales en estas áreas y por ende exista mayor crecimiento de las villas residenciales, comercios e industrias, generando como consecuencia la disminución de espacios al aire libre, destinados para el encuentro, identidad cultural, intercambio, deportes, entre otras actividades, afectando especialmente la calidad de vida de las personas de tercera, quienes deben transitar por espacios que ahora presentan ciertos obstáculos o generan desequilibrios en el medio ambiente. Por lo cual, la presente investigación examina los espacios públicos diseñados para adultos mayores en tiempos de Covid-19. Caso: Avenida panorama-México. Siendo esta última el sector objeto de estudio. Se utilizó una metodología documental, interpretativa, tomando como base el real decreto 505/2007 que permitió determinar las características de accesibilidad de la zona en estudio para las personas de tercera edad; obteniendo como resultado que el área libre de acceso peatonal así como las dimensiones de las bancas no se corresponden con lo establecido en la norma. Por lo cual, se recomienda elaborar un proyecto de reestructuración para espacios públicos que hagan más accesibles los mismos a las personas de edad avanzada y contribuyan con su bienestar, especialmente en tiempos de pandemia.
Avian influenza (AI) is a serious threat to the poultry industry worldwide. Currently, vaccination efforts are based on inactivated, live attenuated, and recombinant vaccines, where the principal focus is on the type of virus hemagglutinin (HA), and the proposed use of recombinant proteins of AI virus (AIV). The use of antigens produced in microalgae is a novel strategy for the induction of an immune response in the mucosal tissue. The capacity of the immune system in poultry, particularly in mucosa, plays an important role in the defense against pathogens. This system depends on a complex relationship between specialized cells and soluble factors, which confer protection against pathogens. Primary lymphoid organs (PLO), as well as lymphocytic aggregates (LA) such as the Harderian gland (HG) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), actively participate in a local immune response which is mainly secretory IgA (S-IgA). This study demonstrates the usefulness of subunit antigens for the induction of a local and systemic immune response in poultry via ocular application. These findings suggest that a complex protein such as HAr from AIV (H5N2) can successfully induce increased local production of S-IgA and a specific systemic immune response in chickens.
Background Research is scarce on the prospective predictors of first onset suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STB) and the accuracy of these predictors in university students, particularly in low‐and‐middle income countries. Therefore, we assessed the 1‐year incidence of STB among first‐year students, a broad range of prospective predictors of STB incidence, and evaluated the prediction accuracy of a baseline multivariate risk prediction model to identify students at highest risk for STB onset over the subsequent 12 months. Methods Students (n = 3238) from 13 universities in Mexico completed an online survey developed for the World Mental Health International College Student Surveys in their first year and again 12 months after. We ran generalized linear models and receiver operator curves. Results The 1‐year incidence of suicidal ideation, plan and attempt was 8.53%, 3.75%, and 1.16%, respectively. Predictors in final models were female sex (ideation only), minority sexual orientation (ideation only), depression, eating disorders, ADHD (ideation and plan), ongoing arguments or breakup with a romantic partner (ideation only), emotional abuse (ideation only), parental death (ideation, plan), not Catholic/Christian (ideation, plan), not having someone to rely on, psychotic experiences (plan only), and insufficient sleep (attempt only). Prediction accuracy for ideation, plan and attempt was area under the curve = 0.76, 0.81 and 0.78, respectively. Targeting the top 10% of students at highest risk could reduce STB in the subsequent year up to 36%. Conclusions By assessing these risk/protective factors in incoming students we identified students at greatest risk for developing STB to whom suicide prevention strategies could be targeted.
The interaction between the mirid predator Engytatus varians (Distant) and a Mexican isolate (SeSIN6) of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) was examined under laboratory conditions. In a choice test, E. varians females and males demonstrated no preference for virus-infected Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) second instar compared with non-infected at two different post-inoculation times (48 and 72 h). Similarly, prey search time (5–6 h) did not differ significantly for each type of prey. Bioassays were performed to confirm the viability of occlusion bodies (OBs) from predator’s faces collected at 48, 96, and 144 h after exposure to virus-infected S. exigua larvae. The proportion of larval mortality was between 0.20 and 0.62 across all times and both E. varians sexes. Another experiment was performed to evaluate the dispersal of SeSIN6 OBs by physical contact with E. varians adults on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Miller) leaflets treated with the pathogen. Engytatus varians adults were exposed to OB-treated tomato leaflets during 24 or 48 h using a clip cage. After each exposure time, these adults were removed and placed on clean uncontaminated leaflets for periods of 4–48 h. These leaflets were then exposed to groups of S. exigua second instars in clip cages. The proportion of virus-induced larval mortality of S. exigua (ranging from 0.45 to 1.0) was significantly affected by the duration of exposure of E. varians adults on OB-treated or untreated tomato leaflets. Our results reveal the potential of E. varians as an agent for the dispersal of SeMNPV OBs.
Introduction: The aim of this is study was to analyse the expression of miR-193b, miR-378, miR-Let7-d, and miR-222 in human visceral adipose tissue (VAT), as well as their association with obesity, insulin resistance (IR), and their role in the regulation of genes controlling adipose tissue homeostasis, including adipocytokines, the phosphatase and tension homologue (PTEN), and tumour protein 53 (p53). Material and methods: VAT was obtained from normal-weight (NW), overweight, and obese (OW/OB) subjects with and without IR. Stem-loop RT-qPCR was used to evaluate miRNA expression levels. miRTarBase 4.0, miRWalk, and DIANA-TarBase v8 were used for prediction of validated target gene of the miRNA analysed. A qPCR was used to evaluate PTEN, p53, leptin (LEP), and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) mRNA. Results: miR-222 was lower in IR subjects, and miR-222 and miR-378 negatively correlated with HOMA-IR. PTEN and p53 are miR-222 direct targets according to databases. mRNA expression of PTEN and p53 was lower in OW/OB subjects with and without IR, compared to NW group and its levels positively associated with miR-222. Additionally, p53 and PTEN are positively associated with serum leptin levels. On the other hand, miR-193b and miR-378 negatively correlated with serum leptin but not with mRNA levels. Moreover, miR-Let-7d negatively correlated with serum adiponectin but not with adiponectin mRNA levels. Conclusions: Lower miR-222 levels are associated with IR, and PTEN and p53 expression; the implication of these genes in adipose tissue homeostasis needs more research.
This paper proposes a review on the urban determinants of active mobility such as car driving, cycling, and walking, based on a compilation of research papers from the period 2019-2020. The applied method consists of a selection of scientific texts in indexed journals. Analysis of thirty papers dealing with the relationship between urban space and active mobility. Data codes and linkages processed with ATLAS.ti to identify the main determinants and web-density. According to the results, among the most important factors to understand active mobility are greenery, sociodemographic determinants, neighborhood design, cycling infrastructure and leisure activities. Finally, we discussed the urban processes of Latin American cities to offer some criteria and promote active mobility.
La adolescencia se caracteriza por ser un periodo de desarrollo en donde se presentan cambios biológicos, fisiológicos y psicológicos que a menudo aumentan la aparición de conductas de riesgo, como el consumo de sustancias. Se han identificado algunos factores que podrían predisponer al desarrollo de esta problemática, entre los cuales están: vulnerabilidad, problemas de autonomía, presión social, eventos traumáticos, trastornos emocionales y psiquiátricos, entre otros. Los profesionales de la salud bucal pueden ayudar a prevenir y detectar casos sospechosos de uso de sustancias, cuando se observan cambios en la apariencia de los pacientes adolescentes. El propósito de este artículo es informar acerca del impacto negativo del consumo de sustancias ilícitas en la salud bucodental de los adolescentes y del reconocimiento de los signos de alerta. Además, se propone una secuencia de atención odontológica para esta población en riesgo.
Background and Objectives: Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the main microorganism associated with the presence of dental caries and specific serotypes of this bacteria have been related to several systemic diseases limiting general health. In orthodontics, white spot lesions (WSL), represent a great challenge for clinicians due to the great fluctuation of their prevalence and incidence during conventional orthodontic treatments. Although silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have been demonstrated to have great antimicrobial properties in several microorganisms, including S. mutans bacteria, there is no available information about anti adherence and antimicrobial properties of AgNP exposed to two of the most relevant serotypes of S. mutans adhered on orthodontic materials used for conventional therapeutics. The objective of this study was to determine anti-adherence and antimicrobial levels of AgNP against serotypes c and k of S. mutans on conventional orthodontic appliances. Materials and Methods: An AgNP solution was prepared and characterized using dispersion light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Antimicrobial and anti-adherence activities of AgNP were determined using minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and bacterial adherence testing against serotypes c and k of S. mutans clinically isolated and confirmed by PCR assay. Results: The prepared AgNP had spherical shapes with a good size distribution (29.3 ± 0.7 nm) with negative and well-defined electrical charges (−36.5 ± 5.7 mV). AgNP had good bacterial growth (55.7 ± 19.3 µg/mL for serotype c, and 111.4 ± 38.6 µg/mL for serotype k) and adherence inhibitions for all bacterial strains and orthodontic wires (p < 0.05). The serotype k showed statistically the highest microbial adherence (p < 0.05). The SS wires promoted more bacterial adhesion (149.0 ± 253.6 UFC/mL × 104) than CuNiTi (3.3 ± 6.0 UFC/mL × 104) and NiTi (101.1 ± 108.5 UFC/mL × 104) arches. SEM analysis suggests CuNiTi wires demonstrated better topographical conditions for bacterial adherence while AFM evaluation determined cell wall irregularities in bacterial cells exposed to AgNP. Conclusions: This study suggests the widespread use of AgNP as a potential anti-adherent and antimicrobial agent for the prevention of WSL during conventional orthodontic therapies and, collaterally, other systemic diseases.
Bivariate calibration algorithm is compared with the results obtained by the usage of high-dimensional calibration methods such as partial least squares (PLS) and multi-way partial least-squares (N-PLS) by using UV-Vis spectrophotometric data of first and second-order. The algorithms were applied to the determination of a mixture of an analgesic and a stimulant compound and their actual concentrations of them were calculated by using spectroscopic data. The direct reading of absorbance values at 227 nm and 271 nm were employed for quantification of the compounds in the case of the bivariate method. The approaches of first-order and multi-way methods were applied with a previous optimization of the calibration matrix by constructing sets of calibration and validation with 20 and 10 samples (mixtures) respectively according to a central composite design and their UV absorption spectra were recorded at 200-350 nm. All algorithms were satisfactorily applied to the simultaneous determination of these compounds in pharmaceutical formulations with mean percentage recovery of 100.5 ± 3.67, 98.7 ± 3.42, and 100.5 ± 3.74 for bivariate, PLS-1, and N-PLS, respectively. The statistical evaluation of the bivariate method showed that this procedure is comparable with those algorithms that employ high-dimensional structured information. The aim of the work is to compare the methods under study and it can be seen that there are no significant differences, so a simple spectrophotometer can be used up to a very specialized one. However, the advantage of bivariate calibration is its simplicity, due to the minimal experimental manipulation.
Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are highly prevalent among university students and predict impaired college performance and later life role functioning. Yet most students do not receive treatment, especially in low-middle-income countries (LMICs). We aim to evaluate the effects of expanding treatment using scalable and inexpensive Internet-delivered transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) among college students with symptoms of MDD and/or GAD in two LMICs in Latin America (Colombia and Mexico) and to investigate the feasibility of creating a precision treatment rule (PTR) to predict for whom iCBT is most effective. Methods We will first carry out a multi-site randomized pragmatic clinical trial ( N = 1500) of students seeking treatment at student mental health clinics in participating universities or responding to an email offering services. Students on wait lists for clinic services will be randomized to unguided iCBT (33%), guided iCBT (33%), and treatment as usual (TAU) (33%). iCBT will be provided immediately whereas TAU will be whenever a clinic appointment is available. Short-term aggregate effects will be assessed at 90 days and longer-term effects 12 months after randomization. We will use ensemble machine learning to predict heterogeneity of treatment effects of unguided versus guided iCBT versus TAU and develop a precision treatment rule (PTR) to optimize individual student outcome. We will then conduct a second and third trial with separate samples ( n = 500 per arm), but with unequal allocation across two arms: 25% will be assigned to the treatment determined to yield optimal outcomes based on the PTR developed in the first trial (PTR for optimal short-term outcomes for Trial 2 and 12-month outcomes for Trial 3), whereas the remaining 75% will be assigned with equal allocation across all three treatment arms. Discussion By collecting comprehensive baseline characteristics to evaluate heterogeneity of treatment effects, we will provide valuable and innovative information to optimize treatment effects and guide university mental health treatment planning. Such an effort could have enormous public-health implications for the region by increasing the reach of treatment, decreasing unmet need and clinic wait times, and serving as a model of evidence-based intervention planning and implementation. Trial status IRB Approval of Protocol Version 1.0; June 3, 2020. Recruitment began on March 1, 2021. Recruitment is tentatively scheduled to be completed on May 30, 2024. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04780542 . First submission date: February 28, 2021.
Introduction: Neuromuscular deprogramming reduces the main symptoms such as pain by 70 to 90% in patients with temporomandibular dysfunction, but little information is available on the effect on quality of life and sleep. Objective: Determine the effect of neuromuscular deprogramming on quality of life and sleep in patients with temporomandibular dysfunction. Methods: 55 patients with temporomandibular dysfunction were included who were neuromuscularly deprogrammed (29 women and 26 men), with an average age of 34.9 ± 16.5 years. At the beginning and end of neuromuscular deprogramming, surveys were applied to assess the level of chronic pain, perception of quality of life related to oral health, perceived stress, quantity and quality of life, anxiety and depression. Results: In 37 patients (68%) pain was identified on examination, and it was confirmed in the chronic pain survey. The quality of life perception score was correlated with low sleep quality (r = 0.39; p = 0.008); pain score (r = 0.48; p = 0.003); anxiety (r = 0.55; p = 0.003) and depression (r = 0.41; p = 0.006). Neuromuscular deprogramming reduced patient-reported pain levels from 9.9 to 2.9 (p = 0.001), the percentage of patients with poor sleep quality from 60% to 29% (p < 0.0001), the quality of life score from 40.7 to 23.8 (p = 0.03), and perceived stress levels from 22.1 to 19.1 (p = 0.002). Conclusions: In patients with temporomandibular dysfunction, neuromuscular deprogramming reduces the level of pain. It is related to better perception in quality of life, higher quality of sleep and decreases perceived stress.
En este trabajo se analizó el patrón de métodos de tortura empleados por policías del estado de Jalisco en contra de 81 ciudadanos civiles en el periodo 2008-2019. Todos los casos se asociaron a detenidos por participar en presuntos delitos, riñas, o incidentes viales. El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar diferencias entre hombres y mujeres en relación a los métodos de sufrimiento físico y emocional durante la tortura. Se analizaron 50 recomendaciones de derechos humanos para obtener una muestra de 81 ciudadanos. Se eligieron solo aquellos casos con la información completa de género, método de tortura y municipio donde ocurrieron los hechos. La información se analizó con el test de ji al cuadrado y se estimó el factor de riesgo para estudios transversales a través del modelo odds ratio. Se identificaron siete métodos de tortura aplicados de forma generalizada a hombres y mujeres. Además, se obtuvieron diferencias significativas en la aplicación de asfixia contra hombres y violencia sexual contra mujeres, aunque con escasa frecuencia. Finalmente, se encontró un riesgo seis veces mayor de experimentar el método de asfixia en hombres, y nueve veces mayor cuando ocurrió en la ciudad de Guadalajara o su Zona Metropolitana. Las diferencias significativas identificadas en los métodos de tortura perpetrados contra mujeres y hombres se asocian a la violencia de género. Los policías que participaron de este delito eligieron métodos basados en estereotipos de género, provocando efectos diferenciados y específicos en sus víctimas.
A new cohort, known as “Generation Z”, is nowadays studying Health Careers. These students were born between 1996 and 2012, and currently at year 2022, have between 18 and 26 years. It is necessary to comprehend their characteristics and behaviors, for a better understanding of how they learn, what do they expect from education and how to improve their academic development and potential. Generation Z is considered as the most diverse, and it requires a closer mentorship from teachers, who must be ready to help students to manage their time and resources efficiently. It is worth mentioning that Gen Z information about their professional performance is still preliminary, because they are currently studying their University programs. Thus, it will be interesting to further analyze the behavior of Generation Z in Dental Education.
The surface of titanium dioxide (TiO2) was chemically modified to take advantage of the functional groups of cinnamon essential oil (CEO) by two different proposed methods. The first one consisted basically in an impregnation (M1) and the second one by the addition of Tween 80 (M2). These particles were added to the polymeric matrix of PLA (polylactic acid), therefore were evaluated their chemical, mechanical and physical properties on particles and films. Inhibition to the free radical DPPH of 63.43% and 45.24% was obtained by the method 1 and 2, respectively, in order to confirm the antioxidant capability of modified particles. The effects of the modified particles on the polymer matrix indicated that the water vapor permeability was reduced, as well as the dissipation energy, furthermore solubility, contact angle and tensile strength and the elongation percentage were increased, getting as result more flexible films, nevertheless did not significantly modify the PLA structure and thickness of them. The films morphology through SEM showed that the modified particles were dispersed homogeneous without cracks or fissures. The analysis through of AFM indicated that the microstructure of the PLA surface was significantly affected when the particles were added. These results suggest that TiO2 and CEO can be used for the fabrication of active packaging.
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