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- SourceAvailable from: María Carolina Pire-Sierra[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The objective of this research was to relate the biological nitrogen removal in tannery wastewater with profiles of pH, alkalinity and redox potential (ORP) using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with a working volume of 2 L. The reactor worked under two operational sequences: anoxic-aerobic-anoxic (Ax/Ae/Ax) and aerobic-anoxic (Ae/Ax), which were combined with two cell retention times (CRT) (15 and 25 days), with an operation cycle time (OCT) of 11 hours. The profiles were performed by measuring each 15 minutes the following parameters: pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), ORP, and each hour the parameters: total alkalinity, total chemical oxygen demand (DQOT), soluble chemical oxygen demand (DQOS), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), nitrite (NO2−), nitrate (NO3−) and ammonia nitrogen (N-NH4+). Alkalinity and ORP profile were excellent indicators of the processes of biological nitrogen removal. However, pH could not be used as a control parameter, due to the buffering capacity of tannery wastewater. Finally, this research work showed that alkalinity and ORP values can be used as on-line control parameters to monitor the evolution of the nitrogen removal in tannery wastewater (nitrification and denitrification processes).
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ABSTRACT: The contemporary Venezuelan population is the product of major admixture process across various historical events, which has provided it a particular genetic background. The aim of this study concerns the analysis of Glutathione S-transferase (GST) GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 genetic variants and five polymorphisms at the TP53 gene, which are related to cancer susceptibility, in an urban/admixed population and five Amerindian tribes (Bari, Panare, Pemon, Warao and Wayuu) from Venezuela. Genotyping was carried out in 120 individuals from an urban sample and 188 Amerindians. The analysis performed on TP53 haplotype and GST allele distribution showed a close correlation for Pemon and Warao populations, while Bari group appears isolated from the other populations. GSTT1 null variant frequency in our admixed (11%) and Native samples (0.0-11.4%) was lower when compared with Caucasians, Africans and Asians. Frequency of the GSTP1*Val cancer-associated allele found in Bari (88.6%) and Panare (63.0%) are of the highest so far reported. Fourteen TP53 haplotypes were observed in the admixed populations, whereas only 3 to 5 in Amerindians. To our knowledge this is the first report of GST polymorphisms and TP53 haplotype distribution in Venezuelans. The distribution of most of analyzed polymorphisms in the urban sample is consistent with the admixed origin of the present-day population of Venezuela. While, the inter-ethnic variations in genetic polymorphisms found in Native American tribes seem to be the result of the influence of demographic factors. These results provide additional data for undertaking ethnographic and disease association studies in Venezuela.
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