Objective To examine the contribution of preterm birth and size‐for‐gestational age in stillbirths using six ‘newborn types’. Design Population‐based multi‐country analyses. Setting Births collected through routine data systems in 13 countries. Sample 125 419 255 total births from 22⁺⁰ to 44⁺⁶ weeks’ gestation identified from 2000 to 2020. Methods We included 635 107 stillbirths from 22⁺⁰ weeks’ gestation from 13 countries. We classified all births, including stillbirths, into six ‘newborn types’ based on gestational age information (preterm, PT, <37⁺⁰ weeks versus term, T, ≥37⁺⁰ weeks) and size‐for‐gestational age defined as small (SGA, <10th centile), appropriate (AGA, 10th–90th centiles) or large (LGA, >90th centile) for gestational age, according to the international newborn size for gestational age and sex INTERGROWTH‐21st standards. Main outcome measures Distribution of stillbirths, stillbirth rates and rate ratios according to six newborn types. Results 635 107 (0.5%) of the 125 419 255 total births resulted in stillbirth after 22⁺⁰ weeks. Most stillbirths (74.3%) were preterm. Around 21.2% were SGA types (PT + SGA [16.2%], PT + AGA [48.3%], T + SGA [5.0%]) and 14.1% were LGA types (PT + LGA [9.9%], T + LGA [4.2%]). The median rate ratio (RR) for stillbirth was highest in PT + SGA babies (RR 81.1, interquartile range [IQR], 68.8–118.8) followed by PT + AGA (RR 25.0, IQR, 20.0–34.3), PT + LGA (RR 25.9, IQR, 13.8–28.7) and T + SGA (RR 5.6, IQR, 5.1–6.0) compared with T + AGA. Stillbirth rate ratios were similar for T + LGA versus T + AGA (RR 0.7, IQR, 0.7–1.1). At the population level, 25% of stillbirths were attributable to small‐for‐gestational‐age. Conclusions In these high‐quality data from high/middle income countries, almost three‐quarters of stillbirths were born preterm and a fifth small‐for‐gestational age, with the highest stillbirth rates associated with the coexistence of preterm and SGA. Further analyses are needed to better understand patterns of gestation‐specific risk in these populations, as well as patterns in lower‐income contexts, especially those with higher rates of intrapartum stillbirth and SGA.
La presente investigación tiene como objetivo evaluar la efectividad de una intervención de entrenamiento funcional en la composición corporal un grupo de 102 estudiantes de 10 a 13 años de edad de la comuna de Teno, provincia de Curicó, región del Maule. En primera instancia se evaluaron las medidas antropométricas de los estudiantes: peso, talla, índice cintura y cadera, posteriormente se aplicó un plan de entrenamiento funcional de seis semanas, que se realizó durante la clase de Educación Física y Salud (dos horas a la semana). Las sesiones se organizaron para trabajar distintos grupos musculares, con intervalos de cuatro minutos de ejecución de un ejercicio, por un minuto de descanso, aumentando cada semana la intensidad de los ejercicios. Una vez finalizada la intervención, se reevaluaron las medidas antropométricas para poder determinar la efectividad de la intervención en la composición corporal de los estudiantes. Los resultados evidenciaron que, luego de la intervención, aumentaron sus medidas antropométricas, exceptuando el perímetro de cintura. Se concluye que una intervención de entrenamiento funcional de seis semanas en la clase de Educación Física no es efectiva para mejorar todos los componentes de composición corporal medidos. Se sugiere aumentar las semanas de aplicación del entrenamiento funcional, además de aumentar su frecuencia al menos a tres veces por semana, para que existan mejoras significativas en los individuos.
Background The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF)/American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) Cancer Prevention Recommendations are lifestyle-based recommendations which aim to reduce cancer risk. This study investigated associations between adherence, assessed using a standardised scoring system, and the risk of all cancers combined and of 14 cancers for which there is strong evidence for links with aspects of lifestyle in the UK. Methods We used data from 94,778 participants (53% female, mean age 56 years) from the UK Biobank. Total adherence scores (range 0–7 points) were derived from dietary, physical activity, and anthropometric data. Associations between total score and cancer risk (all cancers combined; and prostate, breast, colorectal, lung, uterine, liver, pancreatic, stomach, oesophageal, head and neck, ovarian, kidney, bladder, and gallbladder cancer) were investigated using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for age, sex, deprivation index, ethnicity, and smoking status. Results Mean total score was 3.8 (SD 1.0) points. During a median follow-up of 8 years, 7296 individuals developed cancer. Total score was inversely associated with risk of all cancers combined (HR: 0.93; 95%CI: 0.90–0.95 per 1-point increment), as well as breast (HR: 0.90; 95%CI: 0.86–0.95), colorectal (HR: 0.90; 95%CI: 0.84–0.97), kidney (HR: 0.82; 95%CI: 0.72–0.94), oesophageal (HR: 0.84; 95%CI: 0.71–0.98), ovarian (HR: 0.76; 95%CI: 0.65–0.90), liver (HR: 0.78; 95%CI: 0.63–0.97), and gallbladder (HR: 0.70; 95%CI: 0.53–0.93) cancers. Conclusions Greater adherence to lifestyle-based recommendations was associated with reduced risk of all cancers combined and of breast, colorectal, kidney, oesophageal, ovarian, liver, and gallbladder cancers. Our findings support compliance with the Cancer Prevention Recommendations for cancer prevention in the UK.
Objective We aimed to compare the prevalence and neonatal mortality associated with large for gestational age (LGA) and macrosomia among 115.6 million live births in 15 countries, between 2000 and 2020. Design Population‐based, multi‐country study. Setting National healthcare systems. Population Liveborn infants. Methods We used individual‐level data identified for the Vulnerable Newborn Measurement Collaboration. We calculated the prevalence and relative risk (RR) of neonatal mortality among live births born at term + LGA (>90th centile, and also >95th and >97th centiles when the data were available) versus term + appropriate for gestational age (AGA, 10th–90th centiles) and macrosomic (≥4000, ≥4500 and ≥5000 g, regardless of gestational age) versus 2500–3999 g. INTERGROWTH 21st served as the reference population. Main outcome measures Prevalence and neonatal mortality risks. Results Large for gestational age was common (median prevalence 18.2%; interquartile range, IQR, 13.5%–22.0%), and overall was associated with a lower neonatal mortality risk compared with AGA (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.77–0.89). Around one in ten babies were ≥4000 g (median prevalence 9.6% (IQR 6.4%–13.3%), with 1.2% (IQR 0.7%–2.0%) ≥4500 g and with 0.2% (IQR 0.1%–0.2%) ≥5000 g). Overall, macrosomia of ≥4000 g was not associated with increased neonatal mortality risk (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69–0.94); however, a higher risk was observed for birthweights of ≥4500 g (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.10–2.11) and ≥5000 g (RR 4.54, 95% CI 2.58–7.99), compared with birthweights of 2500–3999 g, with the highest risk observed in the first 7 days of life. Conclusions In this population, birthweight of ≥4500 g was the most useful marker for early mortality risk in big babies and could be used to guide clinical management decisions.
Adherence to healthy dietary patterns can prevent the development of non-communicable diseases and affect life expectancy. Here, using a prospective population-based cohort data from the UK Biobank, we show that sustained dietary change from unhealthy dietary patterns to the Eatwell Guide dietary recommendations is associated with 8.9 and 8.6 years gain in life expectancy for 40-year-old males and females, respectively. In the same population, sustained dietary change from unhealthy to longevity-associated dietary patterns is associated with 10.8 and 10.4 years gain in life expectancy in males and females, respectively. The largest gains are obtained from consuming more whole grains, nuts and fruits and less sugar-sweetened beverages and processed meats. Understanding the contribution of sustained dietary changes to life expectancy can provide guidance for the development of health policies.
Background The 2018 (WCRF)/American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) Cancer Prevention Recommendations are evidence-based lifestyle recommendations which aim to reduce the risk of cancer worldwide. Sociodemographic factors modulate lifestyle behaviours, and both cancer incidence and survival are socio-economically patterned. We investigated adherence to these recommendations and examined patterns of adherence across sociodemographic subgroups in the UK Biobank cohort. Methods We included 158 415 UK Biobank participants (mean age 56 years, 53% female). Total adherence scores were derived from dietary, physical activity and anthropometric data using the 2018 WCRF/AICR standardized scoring system. One-Way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences in total scores and in values for individual score components according to sociodemographic factors and Pearson’s Χ2 test to investigate associations between sociodemographic factors according to tertiles of adherence score. Results Mean total adherence score was 3.85 points (SD 1.05, range 0–7 points). Higher total scores were observed in females, and older (>57 years), Chinese or South Asian, and more educated participants. We found significant variations in adherence to individual recommendations by sociodemographic factors including education, Townsend deprivation index and ethnicity. Conclusions Identifying and understanding lifestyle and dietary patterns according to sociodemographic factors could help to guide public health strategies for the prevention of cancers and other non-communicable diseases.
Birds generally produce vocalisations in specific daily temporal windows. Describing diel-calling activity patterns along with taxonomic group and guild membership increase the knowledge about potential factors shaping the behaviour of these animals. This information is also highly relevant for the enhancement of monitoring plans for conservation. We performed a passive acoustic monitoring to describe the diel calling activity patterns of a bird assemblage within the Valdivian temperate rainforest, associating the patterns to taxonomic group and diet guild, and also aiming to contribute to the enhancement of ecological monitoring within this biodiversity hotspot. Our results indicate that high richness levels are detected around sunrise and sunset. Also, within the bird assemblage studied, most birds show diurnal vocal activity, among which several were also active during crepuscular periods, and only two species had nocturnal vocal activity. Among diurnal birds with enough number of detections to perform a detailed description of diel calling patterns, our results did not show clear trends considering diet guild or taxonomic group. We expect that this information encourages future research to increase the understanding on the factors influencing vocal activity patterns, as well as population and community trends from this biodiversity hotspot.
The theme for World Social Work Day (WSWD) 2017 focused on “promoting environmental and community sustainability.” The day celebrated and promoted all the actions related to this theme in which social workers are engaged. The WSWD slogan reiterated the third pillar of the Global Agenda for Social Work and Social Development, developed by three international social work bodies, and was aligned with the United Nations (UN) 2030 Agenda for sustainable development. The connection between the two agendas is connected to human rights and highlights the need for some theoretical and methodological reflections to deepen the understanding of sustainable development with the aim of identifying and analyzing the foundations of social work education and practice in this field of action. This article presents background information that allows an understanding of the specific importance of social work in the achievement of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Curricular planning in social work education should be properly aligned with the SDGs to equip students with the skills and competencies necessary to work with target communities. Incorporating the SDGs into the professional curriculum of social work, as well as creating pedagogical tools to connect with new target groups, should create better opportunities for social workers to enhance their professional activities. As a specific reference, a Chilean experience is presented that demonstrates how the SDGs allow for the implementation of community empowerment strategies and policy advocacy at the local level.
Background FFM is an important and essential indicator in sports populations, since greater muscle and bone mass generates greater strength, endurance and speed in athletes. Objective The purpose of the study was to validate Body Surface Area (BSA) as an anthropometric indicator to estimate Fat Free Mass in young Brazilian basketball players. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 141 male basketball players of the Brazilian Basketball Confederation of Sao Paulo (Campinas), Brazil. The age range was 11 to 17 years. Weight and height were evaluated. BSA, body mass index (BMI) and maturity status (MS) were calculated. Total body scanning was performed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The components were extracted: Fat mass (FM), Fat free mass (FFM) and bone mass (BM). Results Three regression equations were generated: Eq. 1 had age and body weight as predictors (R² = 94%, precision = 0.96 and accuracy = 0.99), Eq. 2 used age and BSA [FFM= -44. 508+(1.816*age)+(39.597*BSA)] (R² = 96%, precision = 0.97 and accuracy = 0.99) and Eq. 3 was based on APHV and BSA (R² = 94%, precision = 0.96 and accuracy = 0.99). Conclusions The results suggest the use of anthropometric equation using decimal age and BS to estimate FFM in young basketball players. This new method developed can be used to design, evaluate and control training programs and monitor the weight status of athletes.
In the present work, we study the introduction of a latent interaction index, examining its impact on the formation and development of complex networks. This index takes into account both observed and unobserved heterogeneity per node in order to overcome the limitations of traditional compositional similarity indices, particularly when dealing with large networks comprising numerous nodes. In this way, it effectively captures specific information about participating nodes while mitigating estimation problems based on network structures. Furthermore, we develop a Shannon-type entropy function to characterize the density of networks and establish optimal bounds for this estimation by leveraging the network topology. Additionally, we demonstrate some asymptotic properties of pointwise estimation using this function. Through this approach, we analyze the compositional structural dynamics, providing valuable insights into the complex interactions within the network. Our proposed method offers a promising tool for studying and understanding the intricate relationships within complex networks and their implications under parameter specification. We perform simulations and comparisons with the formation of Erdös-Rényi and Barabási-Alber-type networks and Erdös-Rényi and Shannon-type entropy. Finally, we apply our models to the detection of microbial communities.
The objective of this study was to explain mental health indicators based on sociodemographic variables, fear, and obsession with COVID-19 in a group of 214 Peruvian police and military personnel. Sociodemographic information, obsession with COVID-19, fear of COVID-19, mental health, depression, and anxiety were all measured. A structural model with latent variables was tested, evaluating procedural effects and their ultimate impact on mental health. The model showed an excellent fit to the observed data. Living in Lima, being in the Army and having the rank of officer and non-commissioned officer was tied to higher levels of fear of COVID-19. There was a large and positively correlated effect of fear of COVID-19 on COVID-19 obsession. Finally, there was a large and negative effect of being obsessed with the virus on mental health. Results could inform better prevention and mental health intervention for the police and military in Peru, who were two of the early main groups responding to the COVID-19 pandemic.
The production of vinegar from the fermentation of cherry (Prunus cerasus) discard was experimentally evaluated. Four treatments were used: filtered vinegar, unfiltered vinegar, pasteurized vinegar and vinegar with metabisulfite. The physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics and their acceptability were determined through a completely randomized experimental design with three (3) repetitions per treatment. The data were analyzed according to an analysis of variance, with a 95% confidence level to determine possible significant differences between the treatments. The parameters were measured; soluble solids, density, pH, sodium chloride and acidity. Also, a sensory analysis of the attributes was carried out; color, aroma, texture and flavor, with 33 trained panelists, in order to evaluate the organoleptic characteristics and acceptance of each of the samples. The cherry vinegar prepared and evaluated after 5, 20 and 35 days did not show significant differences in its physicochemical characteristics. The panelists perceived more differences in sensory attributes when the vinegar was pasteurized according to the treatment (T2). The panelists did not vary their perception of the acceptability of vinegar, regardless of the treatment applied. Key Words: substitute, fermentation, acetic acidity.
Simple Summary Members of the order Phasmida are popularly known as walking stick insects. They have remarkable camouflage, resembling moss, sticks, and leaves. Cladomorphus phyllinus is a giant stick insect from the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Described in 1835 by George Robert Gray, the species is widely distributed in the wild, but several aspects of its biology and ecology remain to be studied. An inedited description of the first instar nymphs of C. phyllinus is presented, showing clear sexual dimorphism in the thorax and distinct abdominal sternites. A sex-specific suture was identified in the metanotum of males but was absent in females. Differentiation of the last three abdominal segments, which are already shaped to form the copulatory apparatus in both sexes, was also recorded and illustrated. Such sexual dimorphism is rare in first instar insect nymphs. Therefore, this study uncovered new characteristics that allow more precise data generation from samples collected in the field for conducting experiments, recording specimens in entomological collections, and improving the species concept and knowledge of sexual dimorphism in C. phyllinus. Abstract The first instar nymphs, both male and female, of the giant stick insect Cladomorphus phyllinus Gray, 1835 were carefully described and measured, revealing a remarkable sexual dimorphism that is considered rare among insects and is poorly explored in the order Phasmida. The studied F1 nymphs originated in captivity from eggs laid by a coupled female specimen collected in the Atlantic Forest in the vicinity of Petrópolis city, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The first instar nymphs of C. phyllinus were measured and illustrated in high-resolution photographs to show the general aspects and details of sexually dimorphic traits, making clear the phenotypic differences in the sexes. A total of 100 nymphs were kept alive until morphological sexual dimorphism was confirmed and quantified. All recently hatched first instar nymphs were separated based on the presumed male and female characteristics, i.e., the presence and absence of the suture in the metanotum in the males and females, respectively, had their sexes confirmed in 100% of the specimens as previously assigned. These results confirm this new morphological trait, which here is named “alar suture” as sex-specific in the first instar nymphs, a novelty in this stage of development of sexual differentiation. In addition, the distinct conformations of the last three abdominal sternites of both sexes were recorded.
Objectives The present study aimed to evaluate the measurement invariance of a general measure of the perception of governmental responses to COVID-|19 (COVID-SCORE-10) in the general population of 13 Latin American countries. Methods A total of 5780 individuals from 13 Latin American and Caribbean countries selected by non-probabilistic snowball sampling participated. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed and the alignment method was used to evaluate invariance. Additionally, a graded response model was used for the assessment of item characteristics. Results The results indicate that there is approximate measurement invariance of the COVID-SCORE-10 among the participating countries. Furthermore, IRT results suggest that the COVID-SCORE-10 measures with good psychometric ability a broad spectrum of the construct assessed, especially around average levels. Comparison of COVID-SCORE-10 scores indicated that participants from Cuba, Uruguay and El Salvador had the most positive perceptions of government actions to address the pandemic. Thus, the underlying construct of perception of government actions was equivalent in all countries. Conclusion The results show the importance of initially establishing the fundamental measurement properties and MI before inferring the cross-cultural universality of the construct to be measured. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s41155-023-00277-9.
How the diversity of species changes from place to place is well known for some groups, such as vertebrates, considerably aiding conservation planning. However, it is often poorly known for the very diverse groups that make up most species on Earth, such as many invertebrates. This may hinder their effective conservation. We surveyed a group of “Darwin wasps”, a very diverse and important component of invertebrate fauna, up a mountain in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest, a global hotspot for biodiversity. The wasps reproduce by parasitizing other insects and spiders. We found a large number of species of these wasps, suggesting that biodiversity may be high for this group in tropical regions, despite some previous studies suggesting the opposite. We found that low- and mid-altitude locations were especially diverse for this group, but not high-altitude locations. Furthermore, different species were found at different altitudes up the mountain. These findings suggest that tropical forests may harbor high concentrations of Darwin wasps; consequently, deforestation risks losing much of that biodiversity. Conserving low- to mid-altitude forests may be the most effective way to conserve the diversity of these wasps, although protecting a wide range of altitudes is necessary to conserve all species.
Dialogic community classrooms are unique experiences of educational transformation within the Chilean formal educational system, hence their scientific interest. This research intended to unveil the mobilizing principles of the transformation that has allowed these dialogic community classrooms to continue over time, and their forms of organization. To do this, through dialogic-kishu kimkelay ta che research, 8 research communities were formed in 8 schools in territorial, geographical, cultural and linguistic diversity distributed throughout the country. Knowledge was constructed through collective dialogues, dialogic conversations, audio and video recordings. Results reveal that the educational transformation originates from problems identified by the same collective groups and their actions to transform them. For this, they organize through organic relationships of solidarity networks that deepen social integration within each classroom, but differing according to contextual characteristics.
The prevalence of T2DM represents a challenge for health agencies due to its high risk of morbidity and mortality. Physical Activity (PA) is one of the fundamental pillars for the treatment of T2DM, so Physical Exercise (PE) programs have been applied to research their effectiveness. The objective of the study was to analyze the effects of PE methods on glycemic control and body composition of adults with T2DM. A systematic review without meta-analysis was performed, using the PubMed database. Quasi-experimental and pure experimental clinical trials were included, which were available free of charge and were published during 2010–2020. In the results, 589 articles were found and 25 passed the inclusion criteria. These were classified and analyzed according to the methods identified (AE, IE, RE, COM, and others), duration and variable(s) studied. It is concluded that PE is effective for glycemic control and body composition in adults with T2DM using different methods (AE, IE, RE, COM, and others), both in the short and long term. Adequate organization of PE components such as frequency, duration, volume, and intensity, is essential.
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