BACKGROUND Current research supports the fact that prophylactic ankle taping (AT) is effective in preventing ankle injuries in amateur and elite sports athletes. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to investigate the effect of AT on balance, knee valgus during drop jump and single-leg countermovement jump (SL-CMJ) landings, and ankle range of motion (ROM) restriction in healthy participants. DESIGN AND SETTING A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at the Universidad Europea de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. METHODS Participants: Thirty-nine healthy individuals participated in this study and performed the movements under two conditions (with and without tape). Outcome measurements: ankle ROM, balance, SL-CMJ height, flight time, ground time, and knee valgus. Before any intervention, a random process was developed with a 1:1 allocation ratio, and the participants were assigned to groups A (tape-no tape) and B (no tape-tape). RESULTS Significant differences between tape and no-tape moments were observed for drop jump knee valgus flexion (P = 0.007), with an increase in knee valgus in participants with ankle taping. Similarly, the Y-balance testshowed a significant decrease in all variables (P = 0.001 and), ankle dorsiflexion (P = 0.001) in participants with ankle taping. CONCLUSIONS AT is effective for immediate ankle ROM restriction. However, an increase in knee valgus during drop jump task and a decrease in lower limb balance were observed during drop jump task. Based on these results, it can be concluded that AT application in healthy individuals should not be recommended as it results in increase in injury risk factors. KEYWORDS (MeSH terms): Ankle injuries; Biomechanical phenomena; Kinetics AUTHORS’ KEYWORDS: Hopping training; Kinematics; Biomechanics
This paper reports on a comprehensive approach to characterize a set of kidney stones through various analytical techniques including ESEM-EDS, XRD, Raman, and CL spectroscopy, linked to an assessment of the patient's lifestyle and dietary habits. The use of these techniques can provide valuable insights into the underlying causes of stone formation and guide strategies for prevention and treatment. ESEM-EDS and XRD are commonly used techniques for kidney stone characterization due to their complementary nature, enabling the identification of a wide range of renal calculi. However, these techniques may not be sensitive enough to determine the detailed composition of the samples. In such cases, Raman and CL techniques can be used to provide more precise information about the chemical and structural composition of the stones. Raman spectroscopy, for example, can identify molecular phases observed under an optical microscope characterizing chemical compositions through vibra-tional modes associated with specific bonds. The CL spectral emission within the 250-850 nm range can also yield valuable information about the mineral phases, including the identification of structural crystallinity, hy-drated molecules, Ca-OH bonds, and oxygen defects. By correlating spectral analyses with patient habits, this study identifies potential exogenous factors contributing to stone formation, including excess protein consumption , urinary bacterial infections, and oxalate-rich diets. This comprehensive approach provides a more complete understanding of the composition of kidney stones helping to personalized prevention and treatment strategies.
The hippocampus is a fundamental cortical structure in the memory process of encoding, retaining, and recalling information. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) following a Paired Associative Stimulation (PAS) enhances nervous system excitability and promotes cortical plasticity mechanisms by synchronizing two stimuli in the same neural pathway. However, PAS has not been shown to improve memorization capacity yet. Here, we present an innovative protocol stemming from the PAS paradigm, which combines single-pulse TMS to the hippocampus with endogenous hippocampal activity during a working memory (WM) task. 96 volunteers were randomized across one experimental group and three parallel groups (motor cortex stimulation, sham stimulation, and no stimulation) in a single session. This combined-stimuli configuration resulted in an increased memorization capacity in the WM task, which was dependent on the stimulated brain location and subjects’ basal memory performance. These results are potentially significant for clinical research on memory dysfunction and its related neurological disorders. Future research on paired associative or combined stimulation is required to unveil stimulation-derived neural mechanisms that enhance the ability to memorize.
Introduction. The screening for atrial fibrillation (AF) scale (SAFE score) was recently developed to provide a prediction of the diagnosis of AF after an ischemic stroke. It includes 7 items: a g e ≥ 65 years, bronchopathy, thyroid disease, cortical location of stroke, intracranial large vessel occlusion, NT-ProBNP ≥250 pg/mL, and left atrial enlargement. In the internal validation, a good performance was obtained, with an A U C = 0.88 (95% CI 0.84-0.91) and sensitivity and specificity of 83% and 80%, respectively, for s c o r e s ≥ 5 . The aim of this study is the external validation of the SAFE score in a multicenter cohort. Methods. A retrospective multicenter study, including consecutive patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack between 2020 and 2022 with at least 24 hours of cardiac monitoring. Patients with previous AF or AF diagnosed on admission ECG were excluded. Results. Overall, 395 patients were recruited for analysis. The SAFE score obtained an A U C = 0.822 (95% CI 0.778-0.866) with a sensitivity of 87.2%, a specificity of 65.4%, a positive predictive value of 44.1%, and a negative predictive value of 94.3% for a SAFE s c o r e ≥ 5 , with no significant gender differences. Calibration analysis in the external cohort showed an absence of significant differences between the observed values and those predicted by the model (Hosmer-Lemeshow’s test 0.089). Conclusions. The SAFE score showed adequate discriminative ability and calibration, so its external validation is justified. Further validations in other external cohorts or specific subpopulations of stroke patients might be required.
We present and validate the catalog of Lyman-α forest fluctuations for 3D analyses using the Early Data Release (EDR) from the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) survey. We used 88,511 quasars collected from DESI Survey Validation (SV) data and the first two months of the main survey (M2). We present several improvements to the method used to extract the Lyman-α absorption fluctuations performed in previous analyses from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). In particular, we modify the weighting scheme and show that it can improve the precision of the correlation function measurement by more than 20%. This catalog can be downloaded from https://data.desi.lbl.gov/public/edr/vac/edr/lya/fuji/v0.3, and it will be used in the near future for the first DESI measurements of the 3D correlations in the Lyman-α forest.
Proton and hydrogen-bonded networks sustain a broad range of structural and charge transfer processes in supramolecular materials. The modelling of proton dynamics is however challenging and demands insights from prototypical...
The long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) AUXIN‐REGULATED PROMOTER LOOP ( APOLO ) recognizes a subset of target loci across the Arabidopsis thaliana genome by forming RNA–DNA hybrids (R‐loops) and modulating local three‐dimensional chromatin conformation. Here, we show that APOLO regulates shade avoidance syndrome by dynamically modulating expression of key factors. In response to far‐red (FR) light, expression of APOLO anti‐correlates with that of its target BRANCHED1 ( BRC1 ), a master regulator of shoot branching in Arabidopsis thaliana . APOLO deregulation results in BRC1 transcriptional repression and an increase in the number of branches. Accumulation of APOLO transcription fine‐tunes the formation of a repressive chromatin loop encompassing the BRC1 promoter, which normally occurs only in leaves and in a late response to far‐red light treatment in axillary buds. In addition, our data reveal that APOLO participates in leaf hyponasty, in agreement with its previously reported role in the control of auxin homeostasis through direct modulation of auxin synthesis gene YUCCA2 , and auxin efflux genes PID and WAG2 . We show that direct application of APOLO RNA to leaves results in a rapid increase in auxin signaling that is associated with changes in the plant response to far‐red light. Collectively, our data support the view that lncRNAs coordinate shade avoidance syndrome in A. thaliana , and reveal their potential as exogenous bioactive molecules. Deploying exogenous RNAs that modulate plant–environment interactions may therefore become a new tool for sustainable agriculture.
The study evaluated microbial and Potentially Toxic Elements—PTEs risks in high Andean river water in Peru using Monte Carlo simulation. A total of 144 water samples were collected from four rivers and evaluated for physicochemical parameters, PTEs and bacterial pathogens. The microbial risk analysis for exposure to pathogens present in the water was based on the probability of occurrence of diseases associated with Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and enterococci. PTEs risk analysis was performed using a Monte Carlo simulation approach. The results showed that the highest microbial risk due to exposure to water contaminated by E. coli, P. aeruginosa and enterococci was recorded in the Miraflores and Chia rivers. Meanwhile, the analysis of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk by PTEs in adults and children revealed that the Chia river presents a high risk of contamination by PTEs, especially the carcinogenic risk for children. The Monte Carlo simulation indicated a 56.16% and 94.85% probability of exceeding the limit value of 0.0001 for carcinogenic risk in adults and children, respectively. It can be concluded that children consuming the waters of the Chia river are potentially at risk of As toxicity.
In the summer of 2012, two fires affected Mediterranean ecosystems in the eastern Iberian Peninsula. The size of these fires was at the extreme of the historical variability (megafires). Animals are traditionally assumed to recolonize from source populations outside of the burned area (exogenous regeneration) while plants recover from endogenous regeneration (resprouting and seeding). However, there is increasing evidence of in situ fire survival in animals. To evaluate the effect of large-scale fires on biodiversity and the mechanism of recovery, in 2013, we set up 12 plots per fire, covering burned vegetation at different distances from the fire perimeter and unburned vegetation. In each plot, we followed the postfire recovery of arthropods, reptiles (including some of their parasites), and plants for 2 to 5 years. Here we present the resulting database (POSTDIV) of taxon abundance. POSTDIV totals 19,906 records for 457 arthropod taxa (113,681 individuals), 12 reptile taxa (503 individuals), 4 reptile parasites (234 individuals), and 518 plant taxa (cover-abundance). We provide examples in the R language to query the database.
Correction for ‘MXenes vs. clays: emerging and traditional 2D layered nanoarchitectonics’ by Eduardo Ruiz-Hitzky et al. , Nanoscale , 2023, https://doi.org/10.1039/d3nr03037g.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Neurosurgical resection of brain tumors is a technically demanding task with a steep initial learning curve. Experience has been shown to improve surgical performance and increase the rates of resection. High-grade gliomas (HGG) are responsible for 65% of all primary malignant central nervous system tumors and are the commonest surgically treated brain tumor worldwide. There is increasing evidence that maximal safe surgical resection of HGG impacts on overall survival. The delineation of tumor tissue (and hence the extent of resection) is improved by the use of intraoperative tumor fluorescence, which is achieved by preoperative oral administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid. This however relies on the surgeon developing a skillset of operating under different light conditions for which specific training and experience are required. METHODS We propose a novel, affordable, and highly adaptable model for recreating these surgical conditions and thus simulate fluorescence-guided HGG resection outside the operating theater for trainee neuro-oncological surgeons. We present a model incorporating plant-based polysaccharides, doped with protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), into cadaveric brains of animals. RESULTS We show that the concentrations of polymer and PpIX can be titrated (using previously published data) to produce mechanical and fluorescence properties that model tumor tissue. We validate the simulation in a neurosurgical skills laboratory. Furthermore, we used a mini spectrometer with handheld probe to collect fluorescence signals and validate the spectroscopic signal from the PpIX. CONCLUSION It is hoped that this model system will be useful in neurosurgical teaching and training courses and to neurosurgeons who want to try out new techniques or equipment in anatomy laboratories.
Background Little is known about the relationship between signal intensity patterns on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). Objective In this study, the clinical, hormonal, histological features, and therapeutic responses were evaluated according to the T2 signal intensity in NFPAs. Methods This retrospective and multicenter study included a group of 166 NFPA patients (93 men, 56%, mean age 58.5 ±14.8 yr). Results: Approximately half of the tumors (n=84, 50.6%) were hyperintense, while 34.3% (n=57) and 15.1% (n=25) were iso- and hypointense, respectively. The median maximum tumor diameter of the isointense group [16 (13–25) mm] was significantly lower than that of the hyperintense [23 (16.6–29.7) mm] group (p=0.003). Similarly, the tumor volume of the isointense group [1,523 (618–5,226) mm3] was significantly lower than that of the hyperintense [4,012 (2,506–8,320) mm3] group (p=0.002). Chiasmatic compression occurred less frequently in tumors with isointense signal characteristics (38.6%) compared to tumors with hypointense (68%) and hyperintense (65.5%) signal characteristics (p=0.003). Invasive adenomas (p=0.001) and the degree of cavernous sinus invasion (p<0.001) were more frequent in the hyperintense adenoma group compared to the remaining groups. Plurihormonal tumors and silent lactotroph adenomas were more frequent in the isointense tumor group. Conclusion In conclusion, hyperintensity on T2-weighted MRI in NFPAs is associated with larger and more invasive tumors compared to isointense NFPAs.
This investigation delves into the UV photodissociation of pivotal amino acids (Alanine, Glycine, Leucine, Proline, and Serine) at 213 nm, providing insights into triplet‐state deactivation pathways. Utilizing a comprehensive approach involving time‐dependent density functional calculations (TD‐DFT), multi‐configurational methods, and ab‐initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations, we scrutinize the excited electronic states (T 1 , T 2 , and S 1 ) subsequent to 213 nm excitation. Our findings demonstrate that α‐carbonyl C−C bond‐breaking in triplet states exhibits markedly lower barriers than in singlet states (below 5.0 kcal mol ⁻¹ ). AIMD simulations corroborate the potential involvement of triplet states in amino acid fragmentation, underscoring the significance of accounting for these states in photochemistry. Chemical bonding analyses unveil distinctive patterns for S 1 and T 1 states, with the asymmetric redistribution of electron density characterizing the C−C breaking in triplet states, in contrast to the symmetric breaking observed in singlet states. This research complements recent experimental discoveries, enhancing our comprehension of amino acid reactions in the interstellar medium.
We report the first Ni‐catalyzed cycloisomerization of 1,5‐allenynes. Substrates containing terminal alkynes afford cyclopentene derivatives, whereas internal alkynes lead to the formation of two consecutive C‐C bonds to give fused 5‐5 bicyclic compounds. The reaction shows a wide scope. Experimental and computational mechanistic studies suggest a Ni(0)‐Ni(II) catalytic cycle. The reaction starts with an oxidative cyclometallation followed by a β‐hydrogen elimination. The trans arrangement of alkenyl and hydride ligands is key to allow formation of the second carbocycle.
Drug–drug interactions occur when two or more molecules interact, potentially altering their effectiveness and cause adverse effect to human health. Caffeine is known to interact with many other drug molecules. Our study was designed to shed insights on characteristics of non-covalent interaction (NCI) and quantify the prevalence of drug–drug interaction between the caffeine and ascorbic acid molecule in gas phase and solvent phase (water) using Density Functional Theory. It was found that caffeine and ascorbic acid molecules interact with one another through hydrogen bonds (HBs) in various ways which can be deduced from the optimized structures and the resulting calculation of binding energy was observed −14.65 kcal/mol and −11.62 kcal/mol in gas and water phase respectively. The Natural Bond Orbital analysis confirmed that the highest stabilization energy interactions are the same interactions which are found to be the possible hydrogen bonds. The RDG, AIM, LED analyses confirmed the delocalisation and localisation of the electron in the complex. The understanding of the non-covalent interaction between caffeine and ascorbic acid may help to further study the drug effectiveness and drug delivery systems.
Metathelazia capsulata (family Pneumospiruridae) is a lungworm parasitizing the bronchi and bronchioles, described in four species of wild carnivores. Very little molecular data are available on this nematode and none on other species of the Pneumospiruridae family. In this work, we describe for the first time the complete mitogenome (mitochondrial genome) of M. capsulata, being the first described of the family Pneumospiruridae. The mitogenome of M. capsulata has 13,659 bp in length, an A + T content of 79.2%. The mitogenome included 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs) (lacking the atp8 gene), 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes (all the genes are coded by the heavy strand), and an AT-rich region. The PCGs varied in size (232 bp-1645 bp). Only the tRNA-Trp has the standard cloverleaf secondary structure, while the other 21 do not. The AT-rich region, with a 90.5% A + T content and a length of 389 bp, is located between the cox3 and tRNA-Ala genes. Comparison with the mitogenomes of 29 species of Spiruromorpha infraorder, belonging to different families, demonstrates that M. capsulata mitogenome shared the common characteristics of most of them. The phylogeny constructions yielded phylogenies that were in agreement with the obtained previously by using sequences and gene order data of mitogenomes.
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