The gradual ageing of the population, and its effect on public spending, constitutes an urgent challenge for advanced economies. In this context, the effect that the older population has on the growing public health spending is a topic of great interest to researchers and policy makers. This cross-sectional study analyzes, through logistic regression, the effect that the elderly population has on Spanish public health spending based on the factors associated with its use, through the analysis of different dependent variables of use of health services and consumption of health technology. The results indicate that although, in general terms, aged has an effect on the consumption of both health services and technology, the main factors that explain both are related to the so-called need factors: self-reported health status, presence of chronic diseases, and disability. The results of this study may be valid for the design of public health policies that allow rationalizing the consumption of health services and health technology.
PALB2 loss-of-function variants are associated with significant increased risk of breast cancer as well as other types of tumors. Likewise, splicing disruptions are a common mechanism of disease susceptibility. Indeed, we previously showed, by minigene assays, that 35 out of 42 PALB2 variants impaired splicing. Taking advantage of one of these constructs (mgPALB2_ex1-3), we proceeded to analyze other variants at exons 1 to 3 reported at the ClinVar database. Thirty-one variants were bioinformatically analyzed with MaxEntScan and SpliceAI. Then, 16 variants were selected for subsequent RNA assays. We identified a total of 12 spliceogenic variants, 11 of which did not produce any trace of the expected minigene full-length transcript. Interestingly, variant c.49-1G > A mimicked previous outcomes in patient RNA (transcript ∆(E2p6)), supporting the reproducibility of the minigene approach. A total of eight variant-induced transcripts were characterized, three of which (∆(E1q17), ∆(E3p11), and ∆(E3)) were predicted to introduce a premature termination codon and to undergo nonsense-mediated decay, and five (▼(E1q9), ∆(E2p6), ∆(E2), ▼(E3q48)-a, and ▼(E3q48)-b) maintained the reading frame. According to an ACMG/AMP (American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology)-based classification scheme, which integrates mgPALB2 data, six PALB2 variants were classified as pathogenic/likely pathogenic, five as VUS, and five as likely benign. Furthermore, five ±1,2 variants were catalogued as VUS because they produced significant proportions of in-frame transcripts of unknown impact on protein function.
Improving the digital competences of teachers, students, and schools contributes to achieving Sustainable Development Goal 4 of the 2030 Agenda. That goal consists in enhancing the quality of education and offering learning opportunities. The knowledge of digital resources that teachers had and used during the COVID-19 confinement has contributed to the current awareness of the need to improve teachers’ digital competence. The main objective of this paper is to analyse the digital resources that teachers participating in this research used the most in Spain between March and June 2020 due to the lockdown experienced in that country. A validated questionnaire, which was administered online in schools and high schools of the Community of Madrid, was answered by 97 teachers who were able to teach from home. The results reveal their assessment of the technological resources they used. In their opinion, the most useful were digital platforms, online classes, and videos, whereas the least useful were online tests and forums. Their answers also show that the training they received was mainly through Internet tutorials and consultations with colleagues. In order to ensure quality education, it is important to improve teachers’ digital competence as a part of their training.
Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) is characterized as the pain reduction after an exercise session and it seems to be related to the release of plasma β-endorphin. In this sense, the core stabilization training (CT) has been suggested for patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain (CNSLBP), but it is unclear whether it induces EIH. Patients with CNSLBP have neuromotor dysfunctions that can affect the performance of functional tasks, thus, performing functional training (FT) could improve motor control and promote EIH, since functional training uses multi-joint exercises that aim to improve the functionality of actions performed in daily life. EIH is usually assessed using quantitative sensory tests (QST) such as conditioned pain modulation, pressure pain threshold, and temporal summation. Thus, the sum of parameters from quantitative sensory tests and plasma β-endorphin would make it possible to understand what the neuroendocrine effects of FT and CT session are. Our study compared the acute effect of CT and FT on the EIH and plasma β-endorphin release, and correlated plasma β-endorphin with quantitative sensory testing in patients with CNSLBP. Eighteen women performed two training sessions (CT and FT) with an interval of 48 h between sessions. EIH was assessed by QST and plasma β-endorphin levels. Results showed that only FT significantly increased plasma β-endorphin (FT p < 0.01; CT p = 0.45), which correlated with pain pressure threshold (PPT) and conditioned pain modulation (CPM). However, QST values were not different in women with CNSLBP after CT or FT protocols. Plasma β-endorphin correlated with PPT and CPM, however, the same did not occur with a temporal summation.
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast the accuracy of endodontic access cavities created using an augmented reality appliance to those performed using the conventional technique. Materials and methods: 60 single-rooted anterior teeth were chosen for study and randomly divided between two study groups: Group A-endodontic access cavities created using an augmented reality appliance as a guide (n = 30) (AR); and Group B-endodontic access cavities performed with the manual (freehand) technique (n = 30) (MN). A 3D implant planning software was used to plan the endodontic access cavities for the AR group, with a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and 3D intraoral surface scan taken preoperatively and subsequently transferred to the augmented reality device. A second CBCT scan was taken after performing the endodontic access cavities to compare the planned and performed endodontic access for accuracy. Therapeutic planning software and Student's t-test were used to analyze the cavities at the apical, coronal, and angular levels. The repeatability and reproducibility of the digital measurement technique were analyzed using Gage R&R statistical analysis. Results: The paired t-test found statistically significant differences between the study groups at the coronal (p = 0.0029) and apical (p = 0.0063) levels; no statistically significant differences were found between the AR and MN groups at the angular (p = 0.6596) level. Conclusions: Augmented reality devices enable the safer and more accurate performance of endodontic access cavities when compared with the conventional freehand technique.
COVID-19 has deeply impacted clinical strategies in dentistry and the use of surgical masks and respirators has become critical. They should adapt to the person’s facial anatomy, but this is not always easy to achieve. Bellus3D Company proposed to apply their face scan software, used with selected smartphones and tablets, to design and 3D-print a bespoke “Mask Fitter” to improve the sealing of surgical masks and respirators. Twenty dental staff participants were face scanned and a Mask Fitter for FFP2 respirators was designed and 3D-printed. Participants were asked to wear their Mask Fitter over one week and then completed a survey. Questions were asked about wearing comfort, sealing confidence, glasses or loupes fogging, both with and without the Mask Fitter. Dental staff gave positive feedback, with levels of comfort during daily use reported as similar with and without the Mask Fitter; and a higher confidence in achieving a proper seal, ranging from a 10% confidence rating of a proper seal without the Mask Fitter to 75% with the Mask Fitter. Moreover, fogging problems decreased considerably. The tested Mask Fitter device could represent an easy and low-cost procedure to improve the facial adaptation of the FFP2 respirator.
Introduction Postpartum Psychosis is an underdiagnosticated psychiatric condition that may be suffered by mothers within a year since delivery. It is a severe syndrome in which symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations and disorganized thinking may appear. The traditional approach of admitting the mothers separated from their children has shown harmful consequences. This has led to the creation of Mother-Baby Units (MBU), psychiatric admission units dedicated to full-time housing mothers and their babies. Objectives To evaluate the evidence available regarding the potential benefits of MBU not only for the mothers, the babies, but for the mother-baby bond. To analyse postpartum psychosis risk factors and prognosis. Methods A thorough review of scientific literature and databases regarding postpartum psychosis and MBU has been carried out. Additionally, international mental health care guidelines for perinatal mental disorders were analysed. Results A wide range of related aspects were studied for the present work, including characteristics of the patients, differences in the self- assessment scales of depression, anxiety, postpartum attachment of the mother to the baby at admission and at discharge and the work and social adaptation. Other studies analysed the percentage of mother-baby separation at discharge, as well as the most frequent delusions, and the potential effect of childhood trauma on these patients. Conclusions The available evidence suggest that MBU may be helpful for the improvement of the mental health in women suffering perinatal mental disorders and for the building of a secure attachment style in the baby. The results of the interventions included in MBU programs also show promotion of a positive mother-baby relationship. Disclosure No significant relationships.
Objectives: To investigate the effect of bifocal wearing in the amblyopic eye when atropine is used in the sound eye for the treatment of hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia. Methods: Children 4-8 years old were randomly assigned to bifocal + atropine (n = 16) or only atropine (control, n = 19) groups of treatment in a proof-of-concept study. Measurements included visual acuity (logMAR), prism and cover test, stereoacuity (Randot preschool or Randot circles), contrast sensitivity (MARS test), accommodation (Grand Seiko WAM5500 and dynamic retinoscopy), retinoscopic and subjective refraction, before starting treatment and at 6 months, except accommodation, which was remeasured at 9-11 months. Main outcome measure was change in logMAR lines of visual acuity, and secondary outcome measures were change in stereoacuity and contrast sensitivity in the amblyopic eye, at 6 months. Results: Improvement in visual acuity of the amblyopic eye was significantly better (p = 0.04) in the atropine plus bifocal (3.3 ± 0.9 logMAR lines) than in the atropine only group (2.6 ± 0.8 logMAR lines), whereas change in stereoacuity and contrast sensitivity was not significantly different between the two groups. Differences in accommodative gain, which was impaired in the amblyopic compared to the sound eye, before treatment, decreased after treatment, in the atropine group (0.62 ± 0.16 vs 0.79 ± 0.2, p = 0.3), and atropine + bifocal group (0.69 ± 0.15 vs 0.82 ± 0.2, p = 0.4). Conclusions: Use of bifocal lens add in the amblyopic eye of children with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia, treated by atropine penalization, is beneficial in the follow-up period of 6 months.
Titanium and alloy osseointegrated implants are used to replace missing teeth; however, some fail and are removed. Modifications of the implant surface with biologically active substances have been proposed. MEDLINE [via Pubmed], Embase and Web of Science were searched with the terms “titanium dental implants”, “surface properties”, “bioactive surface modifications”, “biomolecules”, “BMP”, “antibacterial agent”, “peptide”, “collagen”, “grown factor”, “osseointegration”, “bone apposition”, “osteogenic”, “osteogenesis”, “new bone formation”, “bone to implant contact”, “bone regeneration” and “in vivo studies”, until May 2022. A total of 10,697 references were iden-tified and 26 were included to analyze 1,109 implants, with follow-ups from 2 to 84 weeks. The ARRIVE guidelines and the SYRCLE tool were used to evaluate the methodology and scientific evidence. A meta-analysis was performed (RevMan 2020 software, Cochane Collaboration) with random effects that evaluated BIC at 4 weeks, with subgroups for the different coatings. The heterogeneity of the pooled studies was very high (95% CI, I2 = 99%). The subgroup of BMPs was the most favorable to coating. Surface modification of Ti implants by organic bioactive molecules seems to favor osseointegration in the early stages of healing, but long-term studies are necessary to corroborate the results of the experimental studies.
Purpose The airway complex is modified by palatine expansion. Computer tomography has been used in the past to determine the change in volume, but there was a lack of a specific, reproducible method for this purpose. The present study sought to determine the accuracy, reproducibility, and repeatability of an innovative digital measurement technique for analyzing the volume of maxillary and nasal sinus airways following suture palatine expansion performed with the Hyrax disyuntor appliance. Methods Patients underwent preoperative and postoperative cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. The datasets were subsequently uploaded into a digital treatment planning software to record the volume of the right and left maxillary sinus, as well as the nasal and maxillary sinus airway complex. The Gage Repeatability & Reproducibility statistical analysis methodology was used to evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of this measurement technique when measuring the volume of maxillary and nasal sinus airways following suture palatine expansion with the Hyrax disyuntor appliance. Additionally, comparative analysis between preoperative and postoperative measures was performed using Student’s t-test for statistical analysis. Results In 5 patients, paired t-tests found statistically significant differences before and after treatment in the volumes of the left maxillary sinus (p = 0.002), right maxillary sinus (p = 0.001), and nasal and maxillary sinus airway complex (p = 0.005) after suture palatine expansion with the Hyrax disyuntor appliance. Conclusion The proposed digital technique is an accurate, repeatable, and reproducible measurement technique for analyzing the volume of maxillary and nasal sinus airways following suture palatine expansion using the Hyrax disyuntor.
Background Digital interventions have become an accessible format in clinical practice to provide better support for patients with mental disorders. However, the clinical efficacy in patients with depressive disorders is not well known. We aimed to determine the efficacy of smartphone applications (apps) in patients diagnosed with a depressive disorder.Method An electronic database search was performed of PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science, to identify relevant articles up to June 12, 2021. Peer-reviewed articles were screened and selected based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria.ResultsSeven articles met the inclusion criteria and therefore were selected for the systematic review, which included a total of 651 patients. The results were heterogeneous, essentially due to the different methodologies used in the selected studies.Conclusions Digital smartphone-delivered interventions do not appear to reduce depressive symptomatology nor improve the quality of life in patients diagnosed with depressive disorders when compared to an active control group. Taking into account the inherent methodological difficulties and the variability among such studies, it is apparent that further research—with more methodologically refined clinical trials, including larger sample sizes—is needed.
Reciprocal crosstalk between endocrine and immune systems has been well-documented both in physiological and pathological conditions, although the connection between the immune system and thyroid hormones (THs) remains largely unclear. Inflammation and infection are two important processes modulated by the immune system, which have profound effects on both central and peripheral THs metabolism. Conversely, optimal levels of THs are necessary for the maintenance of immune function and response. Although some effects of THs are mediated by their binding to cell membrane integrin receptors, triggering a non-genomic response, most of the actions of these hormones involve their binding to specific nuclear thyroid receptors (TRs), which generate a genomic response by modulating the activity of a great variety of transcription factors. In this special review on THs role in health and disease, we highlight the relevance of these hormones in the molecular mechanisms linked to inflammation upon their binding to specific nuclear receptors. In particular, we focus on THs effects on different signaling pathways involved in the inflammation associated with various infectious and/or pathological processes, emphasizing those mediated by NF-kB, p38MAPK and JAK/STAT. The findings showed in this review suggest new opportunities to improve current therapeutic strategies for the treatment of inflammation associated with several infections and/or diseases, such as cancer, sepsis or Covid-19 infection.
During healthcare catastrophes, such as the current COVID-19 pandemic, nurses are exposed to highly stressful situations derived from their work and personal activity. Development of coping strategies for such situations can improve nurses’ physical and mental health. This study analyzed nurses’ adaptability to change, with attention to socio-demographic variables in a COVID- 19 setting, and identified the repercussions on their health. This quantitative, observational and cross-sectional study had a sample of 351 nurses aged 22 to 64 with a mean age of 40.91 (SD = 10.98). The instruments used for the study were the ADAPTA-10 questionnaire and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). It was observed that age, sex, and having a stable partner significantly influenced scores on the emotional, cognitive–behavioral, and adaptation to change factors. Finally, the emotional factor mediated between positive COVID-19 in someone close and the presence of health problems. Understanding the elements that help adapt better to change and adversity enable effective interventions to be developed for improving emotional health of nurses, especially for those in whom there are positive cases of COVID-19 in their personal or work environment.
This study aims to analyze the role of bots in the dissemination of health information, both in favor of and opposing vaccination against COVID-19. Study design: An observational, retrospective, time-limited study was proposed, in which activity on the social network Twitter was analyzed. Methods: Data related to pro-vaccination and anti-vaccination networks were compiled from 24 December 2020 to 30 April 2021 and analyzed using the software NodeXL and Botometer. The analyzed tweets were written in Spanish, including keywords that allow identifying the message and focusing on bots’ activity and their influence on both networks. Results: In the pro-vaccination network, 404 bots were found (14.31% of the total number of users), located mainly in Chile (37.87%) and Spain (14.36%). The anti-vaccination network bots represented 16.19% of the total users and were mainly located in Spain (8.09%) and Argentina (6.25%). The pro-vaccination bots generated greater impact than bots in the anti-vaccination network (p < 0.000). With respect to the bots’ influence, the pro-vaccination network did have a significant influence compared to the activity of human users (p < 0.000). Conclusions: This study provides information on bots’ activity in pro- and anti- vaccination networks in Spanish, within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic on Twitter. It is found that bots in the pro-vaccination network influence the dissemination of the pro-vaccination message, as opposed to those in the anti-vaccination network. We consider that this information could provide guidance on how to enhance the dissemination of public health campaigns, but also to combat the spread of health misinformation on social media
Learning-focussed educational models require the development of pedagogical, methodological, assessment and technological competences among the faculty community. The COVID-19 pandemic has accentuated the need for this training. This study evaluates the impact of the training project “Educate to Transform” on teacher attitudes, knowledge and on the implementation of innovative teaching methodologies. There were 695 faculty participants in the program conducted at the Universidad Francisco de Vitoria (UFV). Participants included full-time professors (FULL-PROF) and part-time professors (PART-PROF). The measurement instrument was validated using the entire sample and a subsample of 357 participants was used to analyse the impact of the program (pre and post measurement). Professor attitudes and knowledge of or familiarity with innovative methodologies and their application in the classroom were evaluated. The findings show that the program improved the attitudes of teachers towards innovation, raised the level of awareness and number of methodologies implemented in the classroom. The methodology towards more experiential and collaborative learning is effective in transforming teaching practice. Furthermore, the implementation of the program through the CANVAS platform, making teachers live the experience as learners, seems to have contributed to improve the teachers' attitude towards the LMS. The only difference found among the participants was a worse attitude towards innovation on the part of medical teachers, with a clearly differentiated profile of teachers and students, as well as a greater implementation of active methodologies by teachers with a lower teaching load. Overall, it may be concluded that the program achieved its proposed objectives.
The aim of this study was to monitor the impact of a preoperative low-calorie diet and bariatric surgery on the bacterial gut microbiota composition and functionality in severe obesity and to compare sleeve gastrectomy (SG) versus Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The study also aimed to incorporate big data analysis for the omics results and machine learning by a Lasso-based analysis to detect the potential markers for excess weight loss. Forty patients who underwent bariatric surgery were recruited (14 underwent SG, and 26 underwent RYGB). Each participant contributed 4 fecal samples (baseline, post-diet, 1 month after surgery and 3 months after surgery). The bacterial composition was determined by 16S rDNA massive sequencing using MiSeq (Illumina). Metabolic signatures associated to fecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, amino acids, biogenic amines, gamma-aminobutyric acid and ammonium were determined by gas and liquid chromatography. Orange 3 software was employed to correlate the variables, and a Lasso analysis was employed to predict the weight loss at the baseline samples. A correlation between Bacillota (formerly Firmicutes) abundance and excess weight was observed only for the highest body mass indexes. The low-calorie diet had little impact on composition and targeted metabolic activity. RYGB had a deeper impact on bacterial composition and putrefactive metabolism than SG, although the excess weight loss was comparable in the two groups. Significantly higher ammonium concentrations were detected in the feces of the RYGB group. We detected individual signatures of composition and functionality, rather than a gut microbiota characteristic of severe obesity, with opposing tendencies for almost all measured variables in the two surgical approaches. The gut microbiota of the baseline samples was not useful for predicting excess weight loss after the bariatric process.
The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) in bariatric patients is common and related to gastric pathology. With preoperative upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), these pathologies and the presence of Hp are diagnosed. The histopathological study of the UGE biopsies is classified based on the Sydney System, a scoring system that stages chronic gastritis (CG) and precancerous gastric lesions. The objective is to assess the histological findings of gastric biopsies during routine UGE and to determine the involvement of Hp in gastric disorders in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. A multicenter retrospective review of prospectively collected databases was performed. The presence of CG, gastric atrophy (GA), and gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) in the study of the biopsies was assessed and correlated with Hp infection. The incidence of Hp among our bariatric population was 36.1%, and it increases with age. The percentage of patients with severe Hp infection is higher in patients with GA or GIM. The Hp eradication rate is also reduced when GA and GIM are present. A histological examination of all the biopsies did not show features of malignancy in any of the cases. Hp is not the only factor involved in the development of gastric pathology in bariatric patients.
The aim of this study was to compare the analytical and densitometric changes 2 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). A retrospective study of a prospectively collected database was performed. Morbidly obese patients undergoing RYGB or SG, as primary bariatric procedures, were included. Weight loss; analytical levels of parathormone (PTH), vitamin D, and calcium; and densitometric parameters were investigated. In total, 650 patients were included in the study, and 523 patients (80.5%) underwent RYGB and 127 (19.5%) SG. There were no significant differences in excess weight loss at 24 months between both groups. When comparing preoperative and postoperative values, a significantly greater increase in PTH values was observed in the RYGB group, whereas there were no significant differences in calcium and vitamin D levels. The mean t-score values decreased after surgery at all the locations and in both groups. The reduction in the t-score was significantly greater in the RYGB group at the femoral trochanter and lumbar spine. A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) was observed after both techniques. The mean BMD decrease was significantly greater in the femoral trochanter and lumbar spine after RYGB.
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