Psychosocial risk prevention has become increasingly important in the European landscape. The relevance of analyzing conditioning factors in good psychosocial risk prevention practices is increasing significantly in the face of constant change and psychosocial risks that are difficult to mitigate for current reasons. The aim of this article is to identify, through empirical research, evidence on the factors analyzed as good practices for the prevention of psychosocial risks in Social Economy organizations. This research aims to identify: H1 factors that improve the prevention of psychosocial risks in organizations; H2 which are the most necessary strategies to use in Social Economy organizations. In the method-ological development, data were collected through a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) and the PRISMA®-Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses method was used. In the multilevel analyses, the association between NVivo® software and Design Structure Matrix (DSM) was used, which allowed the verification of variables of the levels. The following main points of consideration were assessed: employee involvement; well-being at work programs; regular check-in; organizational flexibility; specific training; collaboration with specific external entities; employee involvement programs; promotion of work-life balance; building resilience.
The verifiability of a suspect's alibi is often interpreted as a sign of innocence. Because the police resources are limited, verifiability could be used to dismiss suspects of minor offenses. We examined whether alibi verifiability actually indicates innocence for minor crimes. In Experiment 1, participants imagined they were guilty or innocent suspects of minor crimes and selected a response to convince the police of their innocence. Compared to innocent suspects, guilty suspects were more likely to select pseudo‐verifiable responses (which seemed verifiable but were not) rather than non‐verifiable responses. Experiment 2 revealed that pseudo‐verifiable responses increased observers' perceptions of innocence (rather than guilt). Experiment 3 suggested that people infer the police will not verify alibis of minor crimes, which may lead people to invent pseudo‐verifiable responses. These results indicate that apparent verifiability does not necessarily indicate innocence. The police should systematically test alternative hypotheses whenever they encounter apparent verifiable responses.
Past studies have revealed the benefits of rodent participation in the colonization process of oak species. Certain rodent species (Apodemus sylvaticus and Mus spretus) partially consume acorns, beginning at the basal part and preserving the embryo. Perea et al. (2011) and Yang and Yi (2012) found that during periods of abundance, the remains left after partial consumption continue to be present on the surface and are not transported to caches, given that they are perceived as leftovers. These remains, produced after several visits by the cache owner or by thieving conspecifics, also appear in the caches. If they are perceived as offal, they will not be attacked and may remain in these stores for longer periods, serving as resources for the cache builder. Our objective is to determine whether these remnants are perceived as offal by the rodent generating them or if the remains left by other rodents are considered offal. This is relevant in cases of theft, a common behavior of this species, if the thieving animals reject the remains. The results suggest that foreign remains and the rodents’ own remains are not rejected, but rather, they are consumed in preference to intact acorns. The intact acorns remain in the cache for longer periods and have a greater opportunity to germinate and emerge. Rodents prefer to consume foreign remains first. This may be due to the fact that, in case of shortage, it is considered advantageous to finish the reserves of a potential competitor before depleting one’s own reserves. Significance statement Rodents participate in the acorn dissemination process by constructing surface stores (caches). The rodent species studied here partially consumes acorns, beginning with the basal part and preserving the embryo located at the apical end. These partially consumed acorn remains are considered offal and remain in the caches for longer periods, serving as reserves for the rodent. Our objective is to examine whether these acorn remains are viewed as offal by the rodents. We have found that, to the contrary, they are consumed before intact acorns. Intact acorns remain in the caches for longer periods, assuming the role of reserves and taking on a greater capacity to germinate. This species of rodent differentiates between its own remains and those of others, first consuming the foreign offal. Therefore, their own offal remains in the stores for longer periods and may potentially germinate if the embryo is preserved. This behavior has been demonstrated by this rodent species.
Intimate partner violence against women is a pervasive and significant problem around the world that causes victims to suffer grave mental and physical health issues. The Stages of Change or SOC model has been used in recent study to examine the stage of change in female victims as a potential predictor of their readiness to end their relationship. This study's objective was to analyse emotion-focused coping strategies used by female victims to deal with emotions arising from trauma, violence or abuse, according to the SOC model. The sample comprised 200 victims of gender violence who had received formal assistance in Spain. The standardised test was administered in face-to-face interviews. According to the women's SOC, the findings showed differences in the use of emotion-focused coping strategies and indicated that emotion regulation efforts were greater in the early SOC-especially in precontemplation and action-of the continuum towards action. Emotion-focused coping strategies were activated to regulate either positive or negative emotions, again in accordance with participants' stage of change, with negative affectivity predominating in the early stages (precontemplation and contemplation), and positive affectivity having a greater presence in the later ones (action and maintenance). A series of mediation analyses demonstrated that although negative emotions immobilise female victims in the precontemplation stage, they also facilitate effective coping in the action stage, thereby helping to reduce the emotional impact of violence.
Background Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) have a high risk of thromboembolism and other outcomes and anticoagulation is recommended. Hypothesis This study was aimed to explore the risk factors associated with HF worsening in patients with AF and HF taking rivaroxaban in Spain. Methods Multicenter, prospective, observational study that included adults with AF and chronic HF, receiving rivaroxaban ≥4 months before entering. HF worsening was defined as first hospitalization or emergency visit because of HF exacerbation. Results A total of 672 patients from 71 Spanish centers were recruited, of whom 658 (97.9%) were included in the safety analysis and 552 (82.1%) in the per protocol analysis. At baseline, mean age was 73.7 ± 10.9 years, 64.9% were male, CHA 2 DS 2 ‐VASc was 4.1 ± 1.5, HAS‐BLED was 1.6 ± 0.9% and 51.3% had HF with preserved ejection fraction. After 24 months of follow‐up, 24.9% of patients developed HF worsening, 11.6% died, 2.9% had a thromboembolic event, 3.1% a major bleeding, 0.5% an intracranial bleeding and no patient had a fatal hemorrhage. Older age, the history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the previous use of vitamin K antagonists, and restrictive or infiltrative cardiomyopathies, were independently associated with HF worsening. Only 6.9% of patients permanently discontinued rivaroxaban treatment. Conclusions Approximately one out of four patients with HF and AF treated with rivaroxaban developed a HF worsening episode after 2 years of follow‐up. The identification of those factors that increase the risk of HF worsening could be helpful in the comprehensive management of this population.
This article deals with two different numerical approaches for solving singularly perturbed parabolic problems with time delay and interior layers. In both approaches, the implicit Euler scheme is used for the time scale. In the first approach, the upwind scheme is used to deal with the spatial derivatives whereas in the second approach a hybrid scheme is used, comprising the midpoint upwind scheme and the central difference scheme at appropriate domains. Both schemes are applied on two different layer resolving meshes, namely a Shishkin mesh and a Bakhvalov–Shishkin mesh. Stability and error analysis are provided for both schemes. The comparison is made in terms of the maximum absolute errors, rates of convergence, and the computational time required. Numerical outputs are presented in the form of tables and graphs to illustrate the theoretical findings.
La censura de libros en bibliotecas ha crecido de manera preocupante en los últimos años y está afectando especialmente a las bibliotecas públicas y escolares con porcentajes que crecen cada año. Las propuestas de prohibición de libros las realizan habitualmente los padres a través de juntas escolares o ciudadanas, usuarios y grupos políticos y religiosos, bien por el tema del que tratan o por motivos lingüísticos, étnicos o de integrismo religioso. Frente a ellas el personal bibliotecario se mantiene alerta y muestra su resistencia denunciando los casos o prestando ayuda legal a través de las asociaciones profesionales, pero también otras iniciativas como la celebración de la Semana del Libro Prohibido, la puesta a disposición de ejemplares prohibidos, la colocación de distintivos en los libros para llamar la atención sobre lo censurado o mostrar cómo se seleccionan los libros en las bibliotecas. Abstract Book censorship in libraries has risen in a worrying way in recent years, especially affecting public and school libraries, with percentages of censorship increasing year on year. Proposals to ban books are usually made by parents through school or citizen boards, library users, and political and religious groups either because of the subject matter they deal with or due to linguistic, ethnic or religious fundamentalist reasons. In response to this, librarians remain vigilant and show their resistance by denouncing cases or providing legal assistance through professional associations. Other initiatives such as the celebration of Banned Books Week, making banned copies available, placing labels on books to draw attention to what is censored or showing how books are selected in libraries are also being launched.
Currently, web services‐based applications have an important presence in public and private organizations. The vulnerabilities that these types of applications may have pose an inherent potential risk to the business model of these organizations. These applications have the inherent risk of being used by organizations in such a way that their activity is affected and they become the main entry point for attackers who want to breach their security. The main barrier to this type of attack are web application firewalls (WAF), which are responsible for processing Hypertext Transfer Protocol requests between clients and web servers, classifying them and rejecting malicious requests. This type of (WAF) applications, for the most part, have regular expressions that correspond to general rules and allow detecting malicious requests that follow a pattern contained in them. However, due to the knowledge of these rules by attackers, it is easy to circumvent security and to impersonate a malicious request by an innocuous request. Therefore, in this article, we present a study of different models based on artificial intelligence techniques as Naïve Bayes, k‐nearest neighbors, support vector machines, and linear regression to test their effectiveness in detecting malicious requests from a synthetic dataset containing more than 100,000 requests. The results obtained show that the implementation of these methods optimize the detection of malicious requests obtaining results between 92% and 99% of success in their classification.
To evaluate whether the clinical, biochemical and radiological features of patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) can predict both main subtypes of PA. A retrospective multicenter study of PA patients followed in 27 Spanish tertiary hospitals (SPAIN-ALDO Register). Only patients with confirmed unilateral or bilateral PA based on adrenal venous sampling (AVS) and/or postsurgical biochemical cure after adrenalectomy were included. Supervised regression techniques were used for model development. 328 patients [270 unilateral PA (UPA), 58 bilateral PA (BPA)] were included. The area under the curve (AUC) for aldosterone/potassium ratio and aldosterone responses following saline infusion test were 0.602 [95%CI 0.520 to 0.684] and 0.574 [95% CI 0.446–0.701], respectively, to differentiate UPA from BPA. The AUC was 0.825 [95% 0.764–0.886] when the prediction model with seven parameters – comorbidities (dyslipidemia, cerebrovascular disease, sleep apnea syndrome [SAS]), systolic blood pressure (SBP), plasma aldosterone levels (PAC), hypokalemia and unilateral adrenal nodule >1 cm and normal contralateral adrenal gland on CT/MRI – was used. In patients without comorbidities, hypokalemia, SBP > 160 mmHg, PAC > 40 ng/dL, and unilateral adrenal lesions were associated with a likelihood of having a UPA of 98.5%. The chance of BPA was higher in individuals with comorbidities, SBP < 140 mmHg, normokalemia, low PAC levels, and no adrenal tumors on the CT/MRI (91.5%). A combination of high PAC, SBP > 160 mmHg, low serum potassium, a unilateral adrenal nodule>1 cm and no comorbidities could predict a UPA with a 98.5% accuracy.
Traditional tests fail to detect the presence of nonlinearities in series that are cointegrated, so in this paper a new procedure for cointegration tests is proposed by modifying the two-step Engle and Granger (EG) test (Engle and Granger in Econometrica 55:251–276, 1987), incorporating the RUR and the FB-RUR test of Aparicio et al. (J Time Ser Anal 27:545–576, 2006). The statistics of these non-parametric tests, which are constructed as functions of order statistics, endow the test with desirable properties such as invariance to non-linear transformations of the series and robustness to the presence of significant parameter shifts. As no prior estimation of the cointegrating parameter is required, the new tests lead to parameter-free asymptotic null distributions. Monte Carlo simulations are used to analyze the test properties and evaluate the power at different sample sizes. The robustness of the procedure is tested by performing a comparison of different tests of cointegration in real exchange rate relationships. These tests are able to find evidence of cointegration while standard cointegration tests fail to detect it.
We investigated the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying bi-alphabetic reading using event-related potentials (ERPs). Brain activity was recorded using EEG in a group of Russian–English biliterates during a reading-aloud task with familiar and novel words. Capitalizing on a partial overlap between the Roman and Cyrillic alphabets, the stimuli were presented in L1 Cyrillic, L2 Roman, or in an ambiguous script, in a counterbalanced fashion. The results revealed functional dissociation between the stimuli in terms of processing their graphemic ambiguity. The interference caused by L1-L2 script inconsistencies in novel wordforms was detected at a late processing stage, reflected in N400 response enhancement for unfamiliar script-ambiguous items. Conversely, familiar ambiguous and L2 words showed no N400 increase but demonstrated an early enhancement of the P200 component in comparison to those presented in L1. These results indicate the use of a whole-word reading strategy for familiar words even in ambiguous script, likely triggered by an automatic activation of well-established lexico-semantic representations. The absence of similar top-down mechanisms for novel ambiguous-script words likely results in increased grapheme-to-phoneme decoding effort, with important implications for L2 reading and vocabulary acquisition.
Resumen La integración de las tres coronas en las literaturas ibéricas se verifica, en sustancia, por vías alternativas y complementarias, a partir del último cuarto del siglo XIV, en los reinos de Castilla y Aragón. La difusión conocida de determinados textos de Dante, Petrarca y Boccaccio toma impulso, a partir de nuevas adaptaciones y traducciones, con el ascenso de la dinastía Trastámara. Su incorporación no será pasiva, sino que cobra sentido en un proceso de aculturación, infiltración y acomodación en las tradiciones literarias ibéricas, que se encuentran en transformación. La apropiación de estos autores da lugar a complejos artefactos textuales que derivan en audaces dispositivos culturales y políticos. Tal operación, cuya cronología se nos aparece hoy fracturada, ha de verificarse tanto en la presencia de los textos en las bibliotecas ibéricas como en la capacidad de generar un conjunto de formas y contenidos que propiciarán una translación del canon itálico al ibérico.
We consider a scenario where inequality levels originate harmful effects on society. To alleviate this negative externality, we introduce tradable consumption licenses within a general equilibrium framework to obtain efficient outcomes, reduce inequality, and improve social welfare. This mechanism would be easily implementable with the necessary support of the law.
Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) stands as the prevailing type of dementia, marked by gradual memory loss and cognitive decline. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive method used to regulate cortical brain function and has been explored as a potential treatment for cognitive impairment. Objective: This study aimed to compare the effects of daily home-based active or sham tDCS on cognitive function in patients with early-stage AD and its follow-up after one month. Methods: The study involved a randomized, blinded, and controlled-placebo design, with 18 participants enrolled. The primary outcome measures were general cognitive function, immediate, and delayed recall, and executive function. Participants included in the study were randomly assigned to the anodal and sham tDCS groups. Participants were assessed before and after the intervention and one month after the end of treatment. The home-based intervention was applied for 5 consecutive days, daily. Results: The results showed a significant interaction between the active and sham groups; in particular, improvements in MMSE scores, immediate memory and delayed recall were observed at one-month follow-up in the active group. Conclusions: The positive effects of tDCS on cognitive function in AD patients observed suggest that tDCS may induce long-term neuroplastic changes, leading to sustained improvements in cognitive abilities.
There may be multiple reasons for tooth extraction, such as deep cavities, an infection that has destroyed an important portion of the tooth or the bone that surrounds it, or for orthodontic reasons, such as the lack of space for all the teeth in the mouth. In the case of orthodontics, however, there is a relationship between tooth extraction and the craniofacial morphological pattern. The purpose of this study is to establish whether such a relationship exists in adolescents and to evaluate it and to serve as a tool to support medical decision making. Machine Learning techniques can now be applied to datasets to discover relationships between different variables. Thus, this study involves the application of a series of Machine Learning techniques to a dataset containing information on orthodontic tooth extraction in adolescents. It has been discovered that by following simple rules it is possible to identify the need of treatment in 98.7% of the cases, while the remaining can be regarded as “limited cases”, in which an expert’s opinion is necessary.
The airway complex is modified by bimaxillary advancement surgery performed in patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of the present study is to analyse the volume of nasal and maxillary sinus after bimaxillary advancement surgery in patients suffering from OSA. The maxillary sinus and nasal complex of eighteen patients with OSA was measured through cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) before and after they were treated with bimaxillary advancement surgery. Digital planning software was used to effectively measure the upper volume changes, as well as, statistical analysis of the results was performed. Methods Eighteen patients were diagnosed with OSA the severity of which was measured by the apnea hypopnea index and were selected and submitted to preoperative and postoperative CBCT scans. Afterwards, datasets were uploaded into therapeutic digital planning software (Dolphin Imaging) to measure the volume of the right and left maxillary sinus and nasal and maxillary sinus complex. Statistically analysis between preoperative and postoperative measures was performed by Student t-test statistical analysis. Results The paired t-test showed statistically significant volumetric reductions in the left maxillary sinus (p = 0.0004), right maxillary sinus (p < 0.0001) and nasal and maxillary sinus complex (p = 0.0009) after bimaxillary advancement surgery performed in patients suffering from OSA. Conclusion The results showed that bimaxillary advancement surgery reduces the maxillary sinus volume as well as, the fossa nasal and sinus complex volume.
Introduction: The transition to college life can impact the mental health of students. There are mental health care strategies that promote connection with the body's internal signals, which can help to improve mental well-being, manage emotions, and reduce the risk of suicide in university students. Aim: This study aimed to examine the association between interoceptive body awareness variables and suicidal orientation in a sample of 169 undergraduate students in Colombia. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2023 with Colombian students as the participants. Results: The findings revealed a significant and moderately negative correlation between the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) total score and the Inventory of Suicide Orientation (ISO-30) total score (r = -0.54, p < 0.001). Confidence and self-regulation were identified as the most influential factors in the relationship between MAIA and ISO-30. Significant correlations were observed (p < 0.001), indicating moderate correlation values ranging from -0.43 to -0.57. Discussion: Our findings support the existence of a negative correlation between interoceptive body awareness and suicidal orientation. Further research is needed to better understand this relationship and to develop specific interventions based on body awareness to prevent suicide orientation. Conclusion: There are practical implications associated with recognizing the importance of body awareness in relation to decreasing suicidal orientation, and multidisciplinary teams addressing mental health can incorporate this knowledge.
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