• Salamanca, Castilla y León, Spain
Recent publications
Every country in the world has been affected by climate change. Global warming is considered a structural handicap for developed economies as well as developing economies. All the scientists have agreed that global warming can lower the pace of their growth and it can disrupt its financial stability. For some countries, this phenomenon can even worsen their financial instabilities. For these reasons, scientific research has been directed towards very advanced empirical studies linking the climate cycle with the economic cycle and these have been noticed by the development of the Integrated Assessment Models (IAM). This kind of model is considered as a macroeconomic model of climate change but in our case, we introduce this module in the Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium Model applied for the Tunisian economy. Our paper develops an environmental DSGE (E-DSGE) model whose objective is to try to sensitize political decision-makers as well as Tunisian financial decision-makers, to be more concerned about climate change in their economic policies from an evaluation of the effects of these climatic changes on financial stability in Tunisia. This study finds the negative effect of temperature on the whole of macroeconomic variables which led to the persistence of financial instability in Tunisia.
Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is still a deadly tumour. Histological and molecular aspects of thioacetamide (TAA)-induced intrahepatic CCA (iCCA) in rats mimic those of human iCCA. Carcinogenic changes and therapeutic vulnerabilities in CCA may be captured by molecular investigations in bile, where we performed bile proteomic and metabolomic analyses that help discovery yet unknown pathways relevant to human iCCA. Methods Cholangiocarcinogenesis was induced in rats (TAA) and mice ( Jnk Δhepa + CCl 4 + DEN model). We performed proteomic and metabolomic analyses in bile from control and CCA-bearing rats. Differential expression was validated in rat and human CCAs. Mechanisms were addressed in human CCA cells, including Huh28-KRAS G12D cells. Cell signaling, growth, gene regulation and [U- ¹³ C]-D-glucose-serine fluxomics analyses were performed. In vivo studies were performed in the clinically-relevant iCCA mouse model. Results Pathways related to inflammation, oxidative stress and glucose metabolism were identified by proteomic analysis. Oxidative stress and high amounts of the oncogenesis-supporting amino acids serine and glycine were discovered by metabolomic studies. Most relevant hits were confirmed in rat and human CCAs (TCGA). Activation of interleukin-6 (IL6) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathways, and key genes in cancer-related glucose metabolic reprogramming, were validated in TAA-CCAs. In TAA-CCAs, G9a, an epigenetic pro-tumorigenic writer, was also increased. We show that EGFR signaling and mutant KRAS G12D can both activate IL6 production in CCA cells. Furthermore, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH), the rate-limiting enzyme in serine-glycine pathway, was upregulated in human iCCA correlating with G9a expression. In a G9a activity-dependent manner, KRAS G12D promoted PHGDH expression, glucose flow towards serine synthesis, and increased CCA cell viability. KRAS G12D CAA cells were more sensitive to PHGDH and G9a inhibition than controls. In mouse iCCA, G9a pharmacological targeting reduced PHGDH expression. Conclusions In CCA, we identified new pro-tumorigenic mechanisms: Activation of EGFR signaling or KRAS mutation drives IL6 expression in tumour cells; Glucose metabolism reprogramming in iCCA includes activation of the serine-glycine pathway; Mutant KRAS drives PHGDH expression in a G9a-dependent manner; PHGDH and G9a emerge as therapeutic targets in iCCA.
To date, not much research has been devoted to analyzing the impact of some corporate governance mechanisms (board diversity and CEO duality) on corporate risk. Consequently, we believe that it is necessary to study such topic in greater depth. The aim of this research is to provide further evidence of the impact that board diversity, specifically board specific skills, board tenure and board cultural diversity, as well as CEO duality, have on corporate risk. Additionally, our study also examines the moderating role of the state‐owned enterprises (SOEs) on the association between the three characteristics of board diversity and corporate risk, and between CEO duality and corporate risk. The theoretical framework used in this research is based on agency theory and resource dependence theory. The findings show that board specific skills and board cultural diversity have a negative effect on corporate risk, while board tenure does not affect it. On the other hand, CEO duality has a negative effect, which is against the prediction of our hypothesis. Our evidence also reveals a negative moderating effect of SOEs on the impact of board specific skills, board tenure and board cultural diversity on corporate risk. Additionally, SOEs do not moderate the negative impact of CEO duality on corporate risk. Our research contributes to past literature on corporate risk by concluding that some corporate governance mechanisms like board specific skills, board cultural diversity and CEO duality lessen it. The moderating role performed by SOEs with the relationship between board specific skills, board culture diversity, board tenure and corporate risk is also a relevant contribution.
Within the installation of a shallow geothermal system, the lack of information on the subsoil frequently leads to errors in the design of the geothermal wellfield. This research presents the application of geophysics, combining 2D and 3D electrical resistivity tomography surveys and the geological information of a certain area for defining the structural distribution of the underground. Processed electrical resistivity data allow elucidating possible geological units and the thermal behavior of the in-depth materials. Two different assumptions (with different locations of the wells) are designed by using the specific geothermal software GES-CAL. Results show, that Case 1 (based on the geophysical results, so avoiding complex areas) allows the reduction of the global drilling length, and hence, the general initial investment of the system (around 20% lower). Meanwhile, Case 2 (without considering the geophysics) is less economically advantageous and could also present technical difficulties during the drilling process, as well as the possible alteration to the normal system operation. The study highlights the benefits of geophysics as an effective approach to characterize the underground and to help to understand its thermal behavior, which is, in turn, crucial for a proper geothermal design.
This study examines the impact of international crude oil prices on quantiles of the distribution of stock market returns in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico, from May 1, 2015 to January 15, 2021. For this purpose, quantile and ordinary least squares regression analysis methods were compared, controlling for the effects of autocorrelation, exchange rates, the S&P 500, and the COVID-19 pandemic period. We performed the analyses considering five quantiles associated with different states of stock market performance. The results showed that oil price fluctuations exhibited positive influences on Latin American stock markets, more prominent when oil prices were positive, as well as across all quantiles for the S&P 500 index. However, the exchange rate had a negative impact, except in Argentina. Asymmetric responses were found under negative and positive influences in previous trading sessions, as well for the pandemic period.
Red Mediterranean Soils developed over carbonate rocks can precipitate pedogenic carbonates at the base of their profiles, forming an evolutionary stage of calcretes. We studied a 0.6 m deep soil profile in Dalmatia (Croatia) where the lowest section of the soil is a calcic horizon formed by diffuse calcite particles and small nodules. These nodules record different events of dissolution and precipitation. Using a 3-month period of soil environmental monitoring, where soil temperature, soil water content, soil bulk electrical conductivity and soil air CO2 were measured, we implemented a thermodynamic model for dissolution and precipitation of calcite in the soil. The simulation shows a stage dominated by calcite dissolution during spring and early summer followed by a stage dominated by calcite precipitation. Soil air CO2 is the main control of the calcite reactions, with concentration of solutes also being of some importance during the stage of calcite precipitation. Soil water content and temperature, both affect soil air CO2. Precipitation events also have high-frequency impact on soil air CO2, but the response is complex. The model enables soil water solutions to be supersaturated in relation to calcite without precipitation of that mineral. Simulated soil water reached variable values of supersaturation in relation to calcite before its precipitation was triggered, suggesting that there is no fixed threshold value for the precipitation of calcite in a particular soil. During the 3-month simulated period, 83% of the calcite dissolved was reprecipitated as pedogenic carbonate. Most of the initially dissolved calcite, was expected to be diffuse pedogenic carbonate particles, although nodules and bedrock at the base of the soil should also have contributed to the solutes dissolved. Therefore, karst landscapes where soils have pedogenic carbonates are expected to record less denudation rates than those regions without calcretes.
The environmental and service conditions exposed to asphalt pavements affect their rheological and performance properties, making them brittle material susceptible to cracking. One way to partially re-establish the mechanical properties of the cracked pavements is through binder runoff through the cracks in a capillary healing process. It is possible to incorporate conductive materials (electrical or thermal) in asphalt mixtures as additives or partial substitutes for the natural aggregate to maximize the efficiency of the self-healing process and induce a pseudo-Newtonian flow behavior in the binder. The present study evaluated the self-healing performance by UV radiation of asphalt mixtures incorporating copper slag (CS) in different sizes (2.00 mm, 0.25 mm, < 0.063 mm) as a conductive material (heat diffuser) in partial replacement of the natural aggregate. Likewise, the degree of ageing caused by the self-healing process was evaluated through the rheological characterization of the binder extracted after healing. All the CS mixes obtained self-healing rates in mechanical strength higher than 40%, in particular, the 2.00 mm CS mixes with self-healing rates close to 60%. The optimum self-healing temperatures for mixtures with CS sizes with higher thermal inertia are between 95°C and 105°C corresponding to 18000 s and 30000 s of healing, while for mixtures with CS sizes with lower thermal inertia the optimum self-healing temperatures are between 105° and110°C corresponding to self-healing times of 18000 s to 25000 s. It was not possible to determine an accelerated ageing effect in the asphalt mixtures due to the self-healing processes by UV radiation.
Calls for urgent action to conserve biodiversity under global change are increasing, and conservation of migratory species in this context poses special challenges. In the last two decades the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) has provided a framework for several subsidiary instruments including action plans for migratory bird species, but the effectiveness and transferability of these plans remain unclear. Such laws and policies have been credited with positive outcomes for the conservation of migratory species, but the lack of international coordination and on-ground implementation pose major challenges. While research on migratory populations has received growing attention, considerably less emphasis has been given to integrating ecological information throughout the annual cycle for examining strategies to conserve migratory species at multiple scales in the face of global change. We fill this gap through a case study examining the ecological status and conservation of a migratory raptor and facultative scavenger, the red kite (Milvus milvus), whose current breeding range is limited to Europe and is associated with agricultural landscapes and restricted to the temperate zone. Based on our review, conservation actions have been successful at recovering red kite populations within certain regions. Populations however remain depleted along the southern-most edge of the geographic range where many migratory red kites from northern strongholds overwinter. This led us to a forward-looking and integrated strategy that emphasizes international coordination involving researchers and conservation practitioners to enhance the science-policy-action interface. We identify and explore key issues for conserving the red kite under global change, including enhancing conservation actions within and outside protected areas, recovering depleted populations, accounting for climate change, and transboundary coordination in adaptive conservation and management actions. The integrated conservation strategy is sufficiently general such that it can be adapted to inform conservation of other highly mobile species subject to global change.
We present the results of the zooarchaeological analysis carried out on the fauna recovered in five different areas of ancient Termez (Uzbekistan). The sequence analysed covers the period from c 300 BCE to c 1400 CE (Greco-Bactrian/Yuezhi, Kushan, Sassanian, and Islamic periods). The investigation focused on the main animal species raised, the skeletal profiles represented and their age at death. A taphonomic study was also performed to evaluate the processing of the animals' bone carcasses by the human groups in Termez, and to determine other natural and biological agents that have affected the samples. The results reveal a livestock population dominated by sheep and goats throughout the period of occupation of the settlement, from which meat, wool and other dairy products were obtained. Cattle and horses are represented in the whole stratigraphic sequence, although they were particularly important during the Sassanian period. Swine also appears notably, although its frequency significantly decreases in the Islamic period. The diet included roosters and hens, probably also raised for their eggs. Wild species hunted and processed by the inhabitants of Termez appear in all phases of occupation. We should note the presence of gazelle and, in the Greco-Bactrian/Yuezhi phase, saiga antelope. Camelids are scarce and only documented during the Sassanian phase. The use of bones to manufacture game playing pieces or objects for textile production has also been recognised in ancient Termez.
The emotional reactions to social exclusion can be associated with physiological responses that could allow researchers to estimate the valence and intensity of the ongoing affective state. In this work, respiratory activity was analysed to verify whether breathing rate variations can be considered as predictive factors of subsequent positive and negative affect after inclusion and exclusion in young women. A standard Cyberball task was implemented and manipulated information was provided to the participants to create both conditions. The participants were socially excluded by limiting their participation to 6% of the total number of passes among three teammates and providing negative feedback about them. The results suggest that breathing rate can be a good option to infer subjective feelings during social interactions and a promising feature to incorporate into modern emotion monitoring systems as an alternative to other physiological measures. Furthermore, the interaction between metaemotion and physiology was studied by recording breathing rate while completing the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, evidencing a breathing rate increase during the emotion self-assessment only after exclusion.
L-band brightness temperature (TB) has been shown to provide the best sensitivity to soil moisture (SM) although C- and X-band based products offer a longer time-series from satellite-based measurements. Currently, global coverage SM is routinely produced from spaceborne measurements using all three frequency bands, but despite continued validation efforts of the products, the relative characteristics and performance of these observations have not been fully established. Therefore, this study focused on the parametrization of SM retrieval algorithms at L-, C- and X-bands using TB observations from the L-band radiometer on NASA's SM Active Passive (SMAP) mission and the C- and X-band channels of JAXA's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) onboard the GCOM-W satellite. These can be applied in global SM retrieval algorithms using either one of the frequencies or a combination of them. The reference in situ SM data was obtained from 12 core validation sites across various land cover types around the world. The investigation highlighted the known challenges of retrieving SM from C- and X-band data compared to the higher sensitivity of the L-band data. Even with a site-specific retrieval algorithm parameterization, the mean correlation of the C- and X-band retrievals for the core validation site SM measurement were much lower than that for L-band, being 0.52 (0.54) and 0.45 (0.47) for vertical (horizontal) polarization, respectively, while for the L-band retrieval the corresponding values were 0.81 (0.77). The parameterization exercise showed that matching the C- and X-band TB measurements with an emission model was not difficult; the problem was relating the observations to SM under the influence of large roughness and vegetation effects. As a result, parameter optimization produced values for some sites that were not realistic or did not allow any practical sensitivity to SM at C- and X-band. Considering the L-band observations, the parameter optimization resulted in superior bias performance as compared to the operational SMAP product parameterization, but the sensitivity to SM changes (R and unbiased root mean square difference) did not improve markedly, or in some cases degraded at the expense of a smaller bias.
This paper aims at developing a Historical Building Information Modelling methodology for supporting the diagnosis phase in historical constructions. To this end, the work evaluates the capacity of HBIM for integrating all the data generated during the pre-diagnosis and previous tests, including the data coming from point cloud clustering methods. According to this, we propose different families with low Level of Detail (LoD) and high Level of Information (LoI), including strategies for integrating the data of point cloud clustering methods. This proposal is applied to a case study in the Fortress of Almeida (Portugal), demonstrating the viability of the approach for the diagnosis of historical constructions. Future works will be focused on improving the integration of the 3D point clouds features by using convex-hull methods as well as integrating the results of clustering approaches based on artificial intelligence.
The need for multi-attribute decision-making brings more and more complexity, and this type of decision-making extends to an ever wider range of areas of life. A recent model that captures many components of decision-making frameworks is the complex $q$-rung picture fuzzy set (C$q$-RPFS), a generalization of complex fuzzy sets and $q$-rung picture fuzzy sets. From a different standpoint, linguistic terms are very useful to evaluate qualitative information without specialized knowledge. Inspired by the ease of use of the linguistic evaluations by means of 2-tuple linguistic term sets, and the broad scope of applications of C$q$-RPFSs, in this paper we introduce the novel structure called 2-tuple linguistic complex $q$-rung picture fuzzy sets (2TLC$q$-RPFSs). We argue that this model prevails to represent the two-dimensional information over the boundary of C$q$-RPFSs, thanks to the additional features of 2-tuple linguistic terms. Subsequently, some 2TLC$q$-RPF aggregation operators are proposed. Fundamental cases include the 2TLC$q$-RPF weighted averaging/geometric operators. Other sophisticated aggregation operators that we propose are based on the Hamacher operator. In addition, we investigate some essential properties of the new operators. These tools are the building blocks of a multi-attribute decision making strategy for problems posed in the 2TLC$q$-RPFS setting. Furthermore, a numerical instance that selects an optimal machine is given to guarantee the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed approach. Finally, we conduct a comparison with other existing approaches.
Recently, the two-dimensional elliptic singularly perturbed boundary value problems have received attention. These problems have not been much explored numerically. A highly accurate numerical scheme on different non-uniform meshes is suggested to solve such problems. In particular, the Haar wavelet method on a special type of non-uniform mesh and Shishkin mesh is proposed; because of the use of the block pulse function, it is easy to derive and handle the operator matrices. Also, it has been shown that Shiskin mesh provides better results. The use of the piecewise-uniform Shishkin mesh with the Haar wavelet scheme contains a novelty in itself. Through rigorous analysis, the method is shown as first-order convergent in L2\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$L^2$$\end{document}-norm. The theoretical results are confirmed by computational results obtained in the maximum norm and L2\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$L^2$$\end{document}-norm for two test problems. From the comparative results provided in tables, it is worth noting that the Shishkin mesh is an excellent choice to solve these problems instead of a particular type of non-uniform mesh for the proposed scheme. This can be justified because the grid points defined by the Shishkin mesh are adequately distributed in the layer and non-layer regions.
Book reviews - Crítica de libros - Crítica de livros Paul Brassley, David Harvey, Matt Lobley and Michael Winter: The Real Agricultural Revolution: The Transformation of English Farming, 1939-1985 Deborah Fitzgerald Zsuzsanna Varga: The Hungarian agricultural miracle? Sovietization and Americanization in a Communist country Juan Pan-Montojo Guido Alfani and Erik Thoen (eds.): Inequality in rural Europe (Late Middle Ages-18th century) Gabriel Jover Avellà David González Agudo y Jesús Rodríguez Morales: Bases de la depredación señorial en tierra de Segovia: Casarrubios, siglos XII-XVI Iñaki Martín Viso Teresa María Ortega López y Ana Cabana Iglesia: “Haberlas, haylas”. Campesinas en la historia de España en el siglo XX Eider de Dios Fernández José Ignacio Martínez Ruiz: Crecimiento y libertad. Los vinos de Málaga y Jerez en el mercado atlántico (1480-1850) Enrique Montañés Primicia
The response of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) to climate warming will depend on the ability of their populations to adjust tree performance to water shortage. By exploring inter- and intra-annual variations in secondary growth and mean vessel area (MVA), we assessed the effects of precipitation on cambial activity and hydraulic control during the vessel expansion phase along tree lifes. We sampled beech populations at low and high altitude from four mountain ranges across its southwestern distribution edge. We measured a total of 45,897 rings from 126 trees and 5.5 million vessels from 76 trees. We built chronologies for ring width and MVA between 1950 and 2017, calculated their climate responses and evaluated the effects of region, altitude and chronology type (ring-width vs. MVA) by means of ordinations (PCA) and constrained ordinations (pRDA). Precipitation controlled ring width and MVA along beech's southwestern distribution range, but at different time domains. Ring width responded primarily to summer precipitation during the previous growing season, whereas MVA responded to water availability during the vessel expansion phase, with timing shifting along the ring, according to the moment of vessel expansion. Regional differences were significant, but low, compared with the effect of chronology type. A large part of the variance explained by region was due to the strong difference between Western Pyrenees forests –growing under hyperhumid conditions– and the rest of forests under drier and warmer climate. Only minor differences between altitudes were found for the climate control of ring width and vessel size at annual scale, and no intra-annual effect on climate control of MVA. The stronger effect of chronology type on climatic response compared to the role of geographical location or altitude suggests common climate constraints on secondary growth and xylem anatomy along beech dry edge.
Background: New research fields to design social robots for older people are emerging. By providing support with communication and social interaction, these robots aim to increase quality of life. Because of the decline in functioning due to cognitive impairment in older people, social robots are regarded as promising, especially for people with dementia. Although study outcomes are hopeful, the quality of studies on the effectiveness of social robots for the elderly is still low due to many methodological limitations. Objective: We aimed to review the methodologies used thus far in studies evaluating the feasibility, usability, efficacy, and effectiveness of social robots in clinical and social settings for elderly people, including persons with dementia. Methods: Dedicated search strings were developed. Searches in MEDLINE (PubMed), Web of Science, PsycInfo, and CINAHL were performed on August 13, 2020. Results: In the 33 included papers, 23 different social robots were investigated for their feasibility, usability, efficacy, and effectiveness. A total of 8 (24.2%) studies included elderly persons in the community, 9 (27.3%) included long-term care facility residents, and 16 (48.5%) included people with dementia. Most of the studies had a single aim, of which 7 (21.2%) focused on efficacy and 7 (21.2%) focused on effectiveness. Moreover, forms of randomized controlled trials were the most applied designs. Feasibility and usability were often studied together in mixed methods or experimental designs and were most often studied in individual interventions. Feasibility was often assessed with the Unified Theory of the Acceptance and Use of Technology model. Efficacy and effectiveness studies used a range of psychosocial and cognitive outcome measures. However, the included studies failed to find significant improvements in quality of life, depression, and cognition. Conclusions: This study identified several shortcomings in methodologies used to evaluate social robots, resulting in ambivalent study findings. To improve the quality of these types of studies, efficacy/effectiveness studies will benefit from appropriate randomized controlled trial designs with large sample sizes and individual intervention sessions. Experimental designs might work best for feasibility and usability studies. For each of the 3 goals (efficacy/effectiveness, feasibility, and usability) we also recommend a mixed method of data collection. Multiple interaction sessions running for at least 1 month might aid researchers in drawing significant results and prove the real long-term impact of social robots.
During verbal communication, interlocutors rely on both linguistic (e.g., words, syntax) and extralinguistic (e.g., voice quality) information. The neural mechanisms of extralinguistic information processing are particularly poorly understood. To address this, we used EEG and recorded event-related brain potentials while participants listened to Russian pronoun–verb phrases presented in either male or female voice. Crucially, we manipulated congruency between the grammatical gender signaled by the verbs’ ending and the speakers’ apparent gender. To focus on putative automatic integration of extralinguistic information into syntactic processing and avoid confounds arising from secondary top-down processes, we used passive non-attend auditory presentation with visual distraction and no stimulus-related task. Most expressed neural responses were found at both early (150 ms, ELAN-like) and late (400 ms, N400-like) phrase processing stages. Crucially, both of these brain responses exhibited sensitivity to extralinguistic information and were significantly enhanced for phrases whose voice and grammatical gender were incongruent, similar to what is known for ERPs effects related to overt grammatical violations. Our data suggest a high degree of automaticity in processing extralinguistic information during spoken language comprehension which indicates existence of a rapid automatic syntactic integration mechanism sensitive to both linguistic and extralinguistic information.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.
7,780 members
• Department of Computer Science and Automatics
• Departamento de Psicología Básica, Psicobiología y Metodología de las Ciencias del Comportamiento
• Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology
• Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Information