An adaptive control approach for a three-phase grid-interfaced solar photovoltaic system based on the new Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System with Rain Optimization Algorithm (ANROA) methodology is proposed and discussed in this manuscript. This method incorporates an Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) with a Rain Optimization Algorithm (ROA). The ANFIS controller has excellent maximum tracking capability because it includes features of both neural and fuzzy techniques. The ROA technique is in charge of controlling the voltage source converter switching. Avoiding power quality problems including voltage fluctuations, harmonics, and flickers as well as unbalanced loads and reactive power usage is the major goal. Besides, the proposed method performs at zero voltage regulation and unity power factor modes. The suggested control approach has been modeled and simulated, and its performance has been assessed using existing alternative methods. A statistical analysis of proposed and existing techniques has been also presented and discussed. The results of the simulations demonstrate that, when compared to alternative approaches, the suggested strategy may properly and effectively identify the best global solutions. Furthermore, the system’s robustness has been studied by using MATLAB/SIMULINK environment and experimentally by Field Programmable Gate Arrays Controller (FPGA)-based Hardware-in-Loop (HLL).
In recent years, many projects have been developed to reduce the energy consumption of buildings, both from the point of view of energy efficiency and the integration of renewable energies. However, few projects are related to the problem of integrating DER in environments dominated by high-tech equipment, the so-called "critical loads": data centers, railroad stations, airports, and hospitals. The European Interreg Sudoe IMPROVEMENT project aim is to renovate existing public buildings where critical loads predominate, converting them into nearly zero-energy buildings (NZEB), and for this purpose, it integrates combined cooling, heat, and power (CCHP) microgrid with renewable and other distributed energy resources (DER) like hybrid energy storage systems (ESS). With still one year to go before the end of the project, the consortium partners present in this position paper the latest progress of their respective work packages to date.
The expected increase in the use of environmentally friendly liquid fuels in medium and heavy-duty compression ignition engines (for both off-road and transport applications), together with the well-documented benefits of hydrogen-carriers to decrease energy dependence and to achieve a neutral-carbon economy (internal combustion engines highly contributing to the global CO2 emissions), have motivated this work. The autoignition characteristics of different alternative diesel-type fuels (hydrotreated vegetable oil, advanced biodiesel and blends of conventional diesel fuel with polyoxymethylene dimethyl ether and 1-butanol) under dual-fuel operation with H2, NH3, and CH4 were studied in a constant volume combustion chamber at 535 and 600 °C. The high reactivity fuel was replaced by the gaseous fuel up to 40 % by energy. The main ignition delay time was significantly affected not only by the type of low reactivity fuel, with ammonia considerably retarding autoignition, but also by the nature of the liquid fuel, biodiesel being the less sensitive to the presence of the H2-carrier fuel. Results also proved that the higher the reactivity of the diesel-type fuel (quantified through the cetane number), the lower the influence of the gaseous fuel on the autoignition time.
Background and objective: One of the main tasks in a biobank consists in storing biological samples in a high-quality condition in order to future research. At moment, there exist many applications to manage a biobank. However, in general, these are web-based applications. In these web-based applications different tasks can be done. Among them, it is possible to remark the following: informed consent, confidentiality, non-profit, respect for quality and safety standards, including traceability of samples. In this paper, we describe a blockchain smart contract to ensure the traceability of the processes done in a biobank meaning a step forward to guarantee this traceability. Methods: Use of blockchain technology to improve security, integrity and traceability of the processes carried out in a biobank. In particular IBM Hyperledger Fabric. Results: As a result, a set of smart contracts have been developed describing the biobank processes. Conclusions: Improvement of the security, integrity, and traceability of samples in biobanks.
- Ming‐Hui Zeng
- Zhi‐Min Wu
- Jian‐Jun Zheng
- Rena C. Yu
Co-creation activities have shown dramatic development somewhat recently. The initial step of a productive co-creation technique originates from a comprehension of people’s practices inside of these websites. Based on the limited knowledge of online co-creation behaviour in the retail sector, particularly in fashion retailing, this study develops a latent class segmentation analysis that allows examining the diversity of co-creation behaviours. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to analyse the heterogeneity of co-creators’ behaviours in the online retail environment. This study examines different indicators that determine the co-creation behaviour of users such as co-creation value and activities, engagement with the company/brand, satisfaction with the co-creation process, intention to continue co-creating) in the Spanish fashion sector. Three different segments have been obtained: “full co-creator”, “co-creator oriented to the company/brand” and “co-creator oriented to other people” that show three distinct ways of co-creating with a fashion firm. The findings offer fashion retailers an interesting perspective for attracting customers to co-creation ventures during the fashion online shopping process.
The use of toasted vine shoots (SEGs) as an enological tool is a new practice that seeks to improve wines by differentiating between them and encouraging sustainable wine production. The sensorial impact during bottle aging of wines treated with SEGs is a key factor to consider. This paper studies the influence of SEGs on Tempranillo wines treated with their own SEGs in two different doses (12 and 24 g/L) at two differences moments (during alcoholic fermentation and after malolactic fermentation) throughout 1 year of bottle aging. The results indicate that addition moment is the factor that most affects the evolution of sensorial descriptors. The greatest evolution in the wines was observed during the first 4 months, wherein improved integration of the notes related to addition of SEGs occurred. A reduction in the perception of dryness and bitterness was observed in the treated wines, therefore, SEGs could be considered accelerators to eliminate these initial sensations from wines.
This research work analyzes the relationship between environmental degradation, economic growth, trade openness, primary energy consumption, coal consumption, and hydroelectricity consumption in Turkey from 1971 to 2015 using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) time series approach through the hypothesis of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and ecological footprint are both used as indicators of environmental degradation, which employs six different models. According to the results found in this study, while trade openness increases CO2 emissions, it decreases ecological footprint in the long-run. Coal consumption raises both CO2 emissions and ecological footprint. While hydroelectric energy reduces CO2 emissions, it has no effect on the environment. The results demonstrate that the EKC hypothesis is correct for both CO2 emissions and Turkey’s ecological footprint. The threshold points are investigated as $18,704, $16,361, and $13,571 in models, where CO2 emissions are the dependent variable. In models where the ecological footprint is the dependent variable, the investigated threshold points of $11,824, $11,821, and $15,476 are higher than the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita during the analysis periods. Furthermore, the findings highlight the importance of renewable energy use in reducing environmental degradation and coal use in increasing environmental degradation. These findings can shed light on the importance of transition to renewable energy sources (i.e., hydroelectricity consumption), from fossil fuels (i.e., coal consumption), related to future planning in energy diversification for Turkey.
Background: In recent years, ambulatory lower limb exoskeletons are being gradually introduced into the clinical practice to complement walking rehabilitation programs. However, the clinical evidence of the outcomes attained with these devices is still limited and nonconclusive. Furthermore, the user-to-robot adaptation mechanisms responsible for functional improvement are still not adequately unveiled. This study aimed to (1) assess the safety and feasibility of using the HANK exoskeleton for walking rehabilitation, and (2) investigate the effects on walking function after a training program with it. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted including a cohort of 23 patients with less than 1 year since injury, neurological level of injury (C2-L4) and severity (American Spinal Cord Injury Association Impairment Scale [AIS] C or D). The intervention was comprised of 15 one-hour gait training sessions with lower limb exoskeleton HANK. Safety was assessed through monitoring of adverse events, and pain and fatigue through a Visual Analogue Scale. LEMS, WISCI-II, and SCIM-III scales were assessed, along with the 10MWT, 6MWT, and the TUG walking tests (see text for acronyms). Results: No major adverse events were reported. Participants in the intervention group (IG) reported 1.8 cm (SD 1.0) for pain and 3.8 (SD 1.7) for fatigue using the VAS. Statistically significant differences were observed for the WISCI-II for both the "group" factor (F = 16.75, p < 0.001) and "group-time" interactions (F = 8.87; p < 0.01). A post-hoc analysis revealed a statistically significant increase of 3.54 points (SD 2.65, p < 0.0001) after intervention for the IG but not in the CG (0.7 points, SD 1.49, p = 0.285). No statistical differences were observed between groups for the remaining variables. Conclusions: The use of HANK exoskeleton in clinical settings is safe and well-tolerated by the patients. Patients receiving treatment with the exoskeleton improved their walking independence as measured by the WISCI-II after the treatment.
Objective Arterial stiffness is an early and detectable marker of vascular changes leading to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of different types of exercise in reducing arterial stiffness in children and adolescents. Design A systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted including experimental studies reporting the effects of exercise interventions on pulse wave velocity (PWV) in children and adolescents. Data sources Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE (via Scopus), PubMed (via Medline) and Web of Science from database inception to 25 March 2022. Eligibility criteria Experimental studies reporting the effects of exercise interventions on PWV in children and adolescents. Results Fourteen studies were included in the NMA, all of them were randomised controlled trials except one quasi-experimental study, with an overall risk of bias of some concern. Regarding PWV reduction, all exercise modalities were more effective than control, with standardised mean difference ranging from −1.93 (95% CI: −2.84 to –1.02) and −1.11 (95% CI: −2.01 to –0.21) for aerobic exercise and high intensity interval training (HIIT), respectively, to −0.59 (95% CI: −1.39 to 0.22) for combined exercise. Only sensorimotor training was not superior to the control group 0.11 (95% CI: −1.10 to 1.32). Conclusion Our results support that exercise interventions, especially aerobic exercise or HIIT, can improve arterial stiffness at early ages. The potential to address ACVD early and mitigate long-term consequences via exercise interventions in children and adolescents with higher arterial stiffness requires further investigation. PROSPERO registration number CRD42022322536.
This is an overview of the results from 14 countries or jurisdictions in a Global Matrix of Para Report Cards on physical activity (PA) of children and adolescents with disabilities. The methodology was based on the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance’s Global Matrix 4.0. Data were aligned with 10 indicators (Overall PA, Organized Sport, Active Play, Active Transport, Physical Fitness, Sedentary Behavior, Family & Peers, Schools, Community & Environment, and Government) to produce Para Report Cards. Subsequently, there were 139 grades; 45% were incomplete, particularly for Active Play, Physical Fitness, and Family & Peers. Collectively, Overall PA was graded the lowest (F), with Schools and Government the highest (C). Disability-specific surveillance and research gaps in PA were apparent in 14 countries or jurisdictions around the world. More coverage of PA data in Para Report Cards is needed to serve as an advocacy tool to promote PA among children and adolescents with disabilities.
In recent years there has been a great deal of research into environmental pollution using a variety of techniques in response to growing environmental concerns. Convergence analysis, one of these techniques, helps determine whether the developing countries will catch up with the rich countries in pollution using unit root tests. However, the vast majority of the research in the field has generally used conventional unit root tests. Since many economic series contain structural breaks, using unit root tests that account for structural breaks is essential for accurate prediction. More specifically, if the series has a fractional process, conventional unit root tests may erroneously conclude that the departure from linearity is permanent. Moreover, the existing literature mainly uses gas emissions, such as carbon dioxide, which represent pollution weakly. Therefore, we use per capita ecological footprint (EF hereafter) as a more comprehensive pollution indicator of environmental degradation. In this direction, the study aims to determine whether BRICS-T countries' EF converges to the average of the BRICS-T for the 1992–2017 period. Besides the ADF unit root test, we employed the Fourier ADF unit root test, which considers the structural breaks, and the Fractional Frequency Fourier ADF unit root test, which accounts for structural breaks by considering fractional values. Our results showed that EF converges in Russia and Turkey according to the conventional ADF test, in China and Russia according to the Fourier ADF test, and in Brazil and China according to the Fractional Fourier Frequency test.
This study assessed an innovative temporary edge protection system (TEPS) designed and developed to improve the ergonomics, health and safety at trench works in the construction industry, which ranks as one of the most hazardous worldwide. A wooden prototype of this innovative TEPS was built, and its mechanical resistance was compared to a conventional one. Thereafter, field tests were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of this pioneering TEPS. Both in analytical studies and field tests, the mechanical resistance to static loads of the TEPS complied with EU standards, and outperformed the conventional TEPS. The novel TEPS is effective as fall protection for different trench shoring systems and in buildings without edge protection systems. Moreover, this novel lightweight TEPS is easy to transport, with simple and safe on-site installation.
Background Measurement of muscle mass and function, and thereafter, screening and diagnosis of sarcopenia, is a challenge and a need in hospitalized older adults. However, it is difficult in complex real-world old patients, because usually they are unable to collaborate with clinical, functional, and imaging testing. Ultrasound measurement of quadriceps rectus femoris (QRF) provides a non-invasive, real-time assessment of muscle quantity and quality, and is highly acceptable to participants with excellent inter-rater and intra-rater variability. However, normative data, protocol standardization, and association with longitudinal outcomes, needs further research and consensus. Methods Prospective exploratory multicenter study in older adults admitted to Acute Geriatric Units (AGUs) for medical reasons. 157 subjects from 7 AGUs of Spain were recruited between May 2019 and January 2022. Muscle ultrasound measurements of the anterior vastus of the QRF were acquired on admission and on discharge, using a previously validated protocol, using a Chieson model ECO2 ultrasound system (Chieson Medical Technologies, Co. Ltd, Wimxu District Wuxi, Jiangsu, China). Measurements included the cross-sectional area, muscle thickness in longitudinal view, intramuscular central tendon thickness, echogenicity, and the presence or absence of edema and fasciculations. Functional, nutritional, and DXA measurements were provided. Clinical follow-up was completed at discharge, and 30 and 90 days after discharge. Variations between hospital admission and discharge ultrasound values, and the relationship with clinical variables, will be analyzed using paired t-tests, Wilcoxon tests, or Mc Nemar chi-square tests when necessary. Prevalence of sarcopenia will be calculated, as well as sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound measurements to determine sarcopenia. Kappa analysis will be used to analyze the concordance between measurements, and sensitivity analysis will be conducted for each participating center. Discussion The results obtained will be of great interest to the scientific geriatric community to assess the utility and validity of ultrasound measurements for the detection and follow-up of sarcopenia in hospitalized older adults, and its association with adverse outcomes. Trial registration NCT05113758. Registration date: November 9th 2021. Retrospectively registered.
Predictive tools for major bleeding (MB) using machine learning (ML) might be advantageous over traditional methods. We used data from the Registro Informatizado de Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) to develop ML algorithms to identify patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) at increased risk of MB during the first 3 months of anticoagulation. A total of 55 baseline variables were used as predictors. New data prospectively collected from the RIETE were used for further validation. The RIETE and VTE-BLEED scores were used for comparisons. External validation was performed with the COMMAND-VTE database. Learning was carried out with data from 49 587 patients, of whom 873 (1.8%) had MB. The best performing ML method was XGBoost. In the prospective validation cohort the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and F1 score were: 33.2%, 93%, 10%, and 15.4% respectively. F1 value for the RIETE and VTE-BLEED scores were 8.6% and 6.4% respectively. In the external validation cohort the metrics were 10.3%, 87.6%, 3.5% and 5.2% respectively. In that cohort, the F1 value for the RIETE score was 17.3% and for the VTE-BLEED score 9.75%. The performance of the XGBoost algorithm was better than that from the RIETE and VTE-BLEED scores only in the prospective validation cohort, but not in the external validation cohort.
Background Although evidence suggests that ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption may trigger addictive behaviors, the association between UPF intake and psychoactive substances remains unclear among adolescents, a group especially vulnerable to addiction and its potentially harmful effects on health. Objective To analyze the association between the consumption of UPF and alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs in adolescent students. Method This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE 2019), which collected information from a representative population-based sample of students aged 13–17 years in Brazil. UPF consumption was self-reported in a 24-h recall. Lifetime and use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs in the last month were also reported. Multinomial logistic regression models estimated the relative risk ratios (RRR) (95% confidence intervals – CI) because the outcome variables comprised four categories representing varying frequencies of use of psychoactive substances. Results The mean ± standard error number of different UPF consumed among the 95,074 adolescents included (52.3% girls) was 4.37 ± 0.02. The results from adjusted models revealed that, compared to those who reported low UPF consumption (1st tertile), those who consumed more UPF (3rd tertile) were more likely to report frequent (≥ 3 days in the last month) drinking of alcoholic beverages (RRR = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.87, 2.56), illicit drugs (RRR = 2.22; 95% CI: 1.87, 2.85) and occasional (one or two days in the last month) smoking (RRR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.60). Conclusions UPF consumption was associated with alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use in a national sample of Brazilian adolescents.
Background and objectives: The role of anxiety as a risk factor for compulsive exercise elements among adolescents is unclear. Intolerance of uncertainty (IU), which is a risk feature for anxiety and eating disorders, may be an important, unexplored risk factor for compulsive exercise dimensions. This study aimed to examine the role of IU dimensions and anxiety on compulsive exercise elements. Given previous evidence indicating gender differences in compulsive exercise and IU levels, gender was included as a moderator. Design/methods: A total of 201 adolescent girls and 207 adolescent boys completed the following questionnaires: Eating Disorder Inventory-3, Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-12 (IUS-12), a brief version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET). Results: The hierarchical regression analyses showed that the interaction between IUS-Prospective and gender emerged as a significant predictor of CET-Avoidance and CET-Weight control exercise beyond symptoms of eating disorders and anxiety. Post hoc analysis revealed that the IUS-Prospective was a significant predictor of CET-Avoidance and CET-Weight Control among boys, but not among girls. Conclusions: These findings suggest that prospective IU may contribute towards obsessive-compulsive attitudes towards exercise among adolescent population, specifically among boys.
Se está produciendo un cambio en España, y a escala internacional, con respecto a la atención temprana y a la concepción de los/as niños/as y la discapacidad (Tamarit, 2015). Se está pasando de un enfoque clínico, basado en la rehabilitación y centrado en las/los niñas/os, a un enfoque más global, sistémico, ecológico, centrado en la familia y en los entornos naturales. Sin embargo, su alcance y generalización siguen siendo desiguales. En Castilla-La Mancha (una comunidad autónoma española) se está realizando un esfuerzo de transformación en este sentido. El presente estudio, a través de entrevistas en profundidad a agentes relevantes (familiares, personal de la Administración y profesionales que ocupaban los roles de coordinación y de gerencia en entidades de Plena inclusión Castilla-La Mancha) y el análisis de su contenido, ha indagado en los avances logrados en el proceso de transformación; los factores involucrados, tanto en la vida interna de los servicios y entidades como en el entorno externo; y los principales obstáculos y los retos pendientes. A partir de la información recabada, se propone un modelo que describe la transformación y que puede facilitar la transferencia de conocimiento a centros y comunidades que estén desarrollando (o se lo estén planteando) un proceso de transformación similar hacia un enfoque centrado en la familia.
Overabundant populations of wild boar (Sus scrofa) are frequent where anthropogenic food is easily available and where hunting is limited. Improving recreational hunting efficacy may contribute to manage these populations. However, we do not know the factors modulating hunting efficacy in a hunting day (i.e., proportion of individuals culled from a population). Additionally, we need to explore which factors drive hunting efficacy in shooting opportunities (i.e., proportion of hunted individuals from a wild boar group in individual shooting opportunities). Here, we analyze the factors explaining wild boar hunting efficacy at the scale of driven hunt and shooting opportunity. Hunting efficacy was surveyed in 92 driven hunts (2017–2018 to 2020–2021 hunting seasons) and in 145 shooting opportunities in Sierra de Gredos (central Spain). We found that hunting efficacy at the scale of the driven hunt was mainly modulated by the number of hunting posts. Indeed, maximum levels of 82 posts showed a fourfold hunting efficacy (59%) compared to minimum levels reaching six hunting posts (16%). At the scale of the shooting opportunity, hunting efficacy was mainly driven by wild boar group size, being negatively related to hunting efficacy: the higher the number of individuals in the group, the lower the shooting efficacy (13-fold; 41% for an individual, 3% for individuals belonging to groups > 7 individuals). Given the need of maintaining native wild boar populations at densities compatible with biodiversity conservation, rural economy, and animal and public health, efforts towards facilitating more hunters per event would improve wild boar hunting efficacy.
Although insects are considered a healthy and more sustainable source of proteins, consumers in Western countries are still reluctant to accept them as a food ingredient to be included in food formulation. In order to improve acceptance, studies focused on identifying the drivers of the acceptance of insects have shown that environmental awareness is one of the main factors that could encourage the acceptance of insects as food. The current study analyses 435 Spanish consumers’ attitudes towards cookies prepared using insect flour compared to those made using traditional wheat flour and evaluates the influence of consumer attitudes towards sustainable technologies in the acceptance and willingness to pay (WTP) for insect-based cookies. The effect of providing information about the environmental sustainability of insect production on consumer predisposition to buy insect-based products is also considered and we present a description of the sociodemographic characteristics of the consumers that are more sensitive to such information. Our results show that consumers’ WTP falls dramatically when presented with the ‘with insect flour’ claim, with it being the most significant attribute affecting consumers’ preferences. However, the findings also suggest that a significant segment of consumers (37.0%) is more open to eating insects after being informed about their environmental benefits. Gender (women), age (younger) and education (university) are the sociodemographic factors related to a more significant effect of information on consumers’ attitudes towards insect-based foods.
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Edificio Simón Abril , 02071 , Ciudad Real, Castilla-La Mancha, Spain
Head of institution
Prof. Dr. D. José Julián Garde López-Brea