Social polarisation processes have become a central phenomenon for the explanation of population behavioural dynamics in today's societies. Although recent works offer solutions for the detection of polarised political communities in social media, there is still a lack of works that allow an adequate characterization of the specific topics on which these divides between social groups are articulated. Our study aims to discover and characterise antagonistic communities on Twitter based on a method that combines the identification of authorities and textual classifiers around three public debates that have recently produced major controversies: (1) vaccination; (2) climate change; and (3) abortion. The proposed method allows the capture of polarised communities with little effort, requiring only the selection of some terms that characterise the topic and some initial authorities. Our findings show that the processes of social polarisation can vary considerably depending on the subject on which the debates are articulated. Specifically, polarisation manifests more prominently in the realms of vaccination and abortion, whereas this divide is less apparent in the context of climate change.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm disease is the local enlargement of the aorta, typically in the infrarenal section, causing up to 200,000 deaths/year. In vivo information to characterize the individual elastic properties of the aneurysm wall in terms of rupture risk is lacking. We used a method that combines 4D ultrasound and direct deformation estimation to compute in vivo 3D Green-Lagrange strain in murine angiotensin II-induced dissecting aortic aneurysms, a commonly used mouse model. After euthanasia, histological staining of cross-sectional sections along the aorta was performed in areas where in vivo strains had previously been measured. The histological sections were segmented into intact and fragmented elastin, thrombus with and without red blood cells, and outer vessel wall including the adventitia. Meshes were then created from the individual contours based on the histological segmentations. The isolated contours of the outer wall and lumen from both imaging modalities were registered individually using a coherent point drift algorithm. 2D finite element models were generated from the meshes, and the displacements from the registration were used as displacement boundaries of the lumen and wall contours. Based on the resulting deformed contours, the strains recorded were grouped according to segmented tissue regions. Strains were highest in areas containing intact elastin without thrombus attachment. Strains in areas with intact elastin and thrombus attachment, as well as areas with disrupted elastin, were significantly lower. Strains in thrombus regions with red blood cells were significantly higher compared to thrombus regions without. We then compared this analysis to statistical distribution indices and found that the results of each aligned, elucidating the relationship between vessel strain and structural changes. This work demonstrates the possibility of advancing in vivo assessments to a microstructural level ultimately improving patient outcomes.
Fractal and multifractal analysis of porous images allow the description of porous media through a scale-invariant understanding. There have been numerous works that have used these analysis techniques for the description of a great variety of real porous media. However, these studies are usually comparative, being difficult to discern the role played by the pore size and pore distribution in the results of fractal and multifractal analysis. This works develops an in-depth study of different synthetic porous media from a fractal and multifractal approach, in which both the pore size and its distribution in the medium are parameterized. Thus, a set of synthetic binary images have been generated obtaining deterministic and random structures with different fixed pore sizes and also with different rates of pore sizes. Lacunarity is also calculated in order to complete the aforementioned analysis. Results evinces that fractal dimension increases with pore size and that it is higher when the pore distribution obeys a random distribution versus a deterministic one. However, when the pore size is very large, fractal dimension is similar regardless of the pore distribution. From a multifractal approach, pore size is negatively correlated with the degree of multifractality. In fact, in images with mixtures of different pore sizes it is also found that the greater the ratio of small pores, the greater degree of multifractality. By contrast, when the ratio of large pores is relevant, the degree of multifractality also increases due to the merging of macro-pores.
This present study depicts the successful employment of fixed-bed column for total chromium removal from tannery wastewater in dynamic mode using sodium alginate-powdered marble beads (SA–Marble) as adsorbent. The SA–Marble composite beads prepared were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) method. The adsorption process performance of this bio-sorbent was examined in batches and columns for real effluent (tannery wastewater). After 90 min, the total chromium removal efficiency could be kept above 90% in the batch experiment. The adsorption kinetics fit better with the pseudo-second-order model, indicating the chemisorption process and the adsorption capacity of about 67.74 mg g−1 at 293 K (C0 = 7100 mg L−1) was obtained. Additionally, dynamic experiments indicate that the total chromium removal efficiency could be maintained above 90% after 120 min at 293 K and 60 min at 318 and 333 K; it’s an endothermic but rapid process. The effects of two adsorption variables (Temperature and time) were investigated using central composite design (CCD), which is a subset of response surface methodology (total Cr, COD, sulfate, and total phosphorus percentage removal). This work paves a new avenue for synthesizing SA–Marble composite beads and provides an adsorption efficiency of total chromium removal from tannery wastewater.
The well-suited discretization of the Keller–Segel equations for chemotaxis has become a very challenging problem due to the convective nature inherent to them. This paper aims to introduce a new upwind, mass-conservative, positive and energy-dissipative discontinuous Galerkin scheme for the Keller–Segel model. This approach is based on the gradient-flow structure of the equations. In addition, we show some numerical experiments in accordance with the aforementioned properties of the discretization. The numerical results obtained emphasize the really good behaviour of the approximation in the case of chemotactic collapse, where very steep gradients appear.
The purpose of this study is to define the impact of early brain growth trajectory in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) on neurological prognosis at 2 years, assessed using sequential ultrasound (US) scans. This is a prospective cohort study with consecutive inclusion of VLBWI ≤ 32 weeks gestational age and ≤ 1500 g at birth. Total brain volume (TBV) was assessed using sequential 3D-US from birth to discharge. Prognosis at 2 years (corrected age) was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition. TBV showed slower growth with postmenstrual age (PMA) in those VLBWI who had an adverse cognitive prognosis compared to those with good cognitive prognosis (mean difference in TBV between prognostic groups from 4.56 cm³ at 28 weeks to 42.58 cm³ at 43 weeks) as well as in those with adverse language prognosis (mean difference in TBV from 2.21 cm³ at 28 weeks to 26.98 cm³ at 43 weeks) although other variables showed more impact than TBV on language prognosis (gestational age at birth, brain injury at term, and socioeconomic status). No association was found between TBV and motor prognosis. Brain growth rate was also significantly higher in those VLBWI who presented good cognitive scores (18.78 + (0.33 × (PMA-33)) cm³/week) compared to those with adverse cognitive outcome (13.73 + (0.64 × (PMA-33)) cm³/week). Conclusion: Early altered brain growth is associated with poor cognitive prognosis at 2 years of age. Using sequential US monitoring, we can detect early brain growth deviation in patients who will have adverse cognitive outcomes. What is known: • The prediction of neurodevelopmental outcome of VLBWI is mostly based on the presence of brain injury in US and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term. • Some studies have related brain volume measured on MRI at term with neurodevelopment outcome. What is new: • VLBWI with adverse cognitive prognosis at two years of age present smaller brain volumes detectable by sequential US during NICU admission. • Brain volume can be estimated from 2D and 3D US and has prognostic value in VLBWI.
The incidence of childhood obesity and metabolic syndrome has grown notably in the last years, becoming major public health burdens in developed countries. Nowadays, oxidative stress is well-recognized to be closely associated with the onset and progression of several obesity-related complications within the framework of a complex crosstalk involving other intertwined pathogenic events, such as inflammation, insulin disturbances, and dyslipidemia. Thus, understanding the molecular basis behind these oxidative dysregulations could provide new approaches for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of childhood obesity and associated disorders. In this respect, the transcriptomic characterization of miRNAs bares great potential because of their involvement in post-transcriptional modulation of genetic expression. Herein, we provide a comprehensive literature revision gathering state-of-the-art research into the association between childhood obesity, metabolic syndrome, and miRNAs. We put special emphasis on the potential role of miRNAs in modulating obesity-related pathogenic events, with particular focus on oxidative stress.
Grasslands across arid and semi‐arid regions are predicted to experience reductions in precipitation frequency. Besides, grassland degradation has become a serious problem in many of these areas. Despite increasing evidence suggesting compound effects of these synchronous alterations on biotic and abiotic ecosystem constituents, we still do not know how they will impact the coupling among ecosystem constituents and its consequences on ecosystem functioning. Here, we assessed the effects of decreased precipitation frequency and grassland degradation on ecosystem coupling, quantified based on the mean strength of pairwise correlations among multispecies communities and their physicochemical environment, individual functions and ecosystem multifunctionality, and reported their relationships within a mechanistic plant–nematode–micro‐organism–soil interactions framework. Decreased precipitation frequency led to poorly coupled ecosystems, and reduced aboveground plant biomass, soil water content, soil nutrient levels, soil biota abundance and multifunctionality. By contrast, belowground plant biomass and soil potential enzyme activities increased under decreased precipitation frequency treatment. Severe degradation resulted in decoupled ecosystems and suppressed most of individual functions and multifunctionality. Using structural equation modelling, we showed that coupling had a strong direct positive effect on multifunctionality (standardized total effect: 0.74), while multifunctionality was weakened by greater soil water variation (−0.54) and higher soil pH (−0.53). The great sensitivity of ecosystem coupling to altered precipitation regimes and degradation highlights the importance of considering interactions among biotic and abiotic components when predicting early ecological impacts under changing environments. Moreover, the positive relationship between ecosystem coupling and functioning suggests that restoration of degraded grasslands may be achieved by intensifying ecological interactions. Read the free Plain Language Summary for this article on the Journal blog.
We study 944 shareholder proposals submitted to 343 U.S. firms on climate change issues during 2009–2022. We use logistic and two-stage regression to estimate the propensity for a firm to be targeted or subjected to a vote at the annual general meeting and, for voted proposals, the determinants of that vote. We also examine whether climate-related proposals affect investor returns and how they relate to firms’ future environmental performance and greenhouse gas emissions. Compared to a matched sample, we first find that activists target larger, more carbon-intensive, and less R&D-active firms. Second, voting likelihood is higher for firms with repeated and operations-related proposals and lower pre-proposal environmental ratings. By contrast, disclosure-related proposals are likelier to be negotiated and withdrawn. Third, repeated and operations-related proposals receive higher votes in favor, whereas votes on carbon-intensive firms do not. Fourth, building on the theory that investors act as if they distinguish among the different shareholder proposals based on the expected cost to the firm, we find evidence to support this idea. We find that investors respond negatively to ex-ante costlier proposals, such as those that relate to emissions reduction and target carbon-intensive firms. Fifth, targets’ future environmental performance rating is almost twenty percent higher after a proposal than before compared to the matched sample, whereas emissions do not budge appreciably.
Biogas contributes to environmental protection by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting the recycling of organic waste. Its utilization plays a crucial role in addressing the challenges of climate change and sustainability. However, the deterioration of process plants involved in biogas production due to corrosion has a critical impact on the safety and durability of their operations. In order to maintain safety of structures in service life with respect to corrosion, it is essential to develop effective corrosion engineering control methods. The electrochemical techniques have become a useful tool to evaluate corrosion resistance. However, these techniques may require microscopic analysis of the material surface and the analysis may be influenced by subjective factors. To solve this drawback, this work proposes the use of SVM models to predict corrosion status of the material used in biogas production with no need to perform microscopic analysis after the electrochemical test. The obtained results of sensitivity and specificity equal to 0.94 and 0.97, respectively, revealed the utility of the proposed stochastic models to assure the corrosion state of the equipment involved in biogas production. SVM-based models become an effective alternative to evaluate material durability accurately.
Dyna is a journal is a leading engineering research journal founded in 1926 and celebrating its 15th anniversary on the Web of Science. The objective of this work is to analyze the publications of the journal since it entered the Web of Science, using a bibliometric approach, in order to offer a complete view of the main topics that are published in the journal. This analysis includes clear parameters such as the most cited articles, the main authors, institutions and countries that have participated in its publication. After the analysis, it can be concluded that among the main topics of the magazine are those related to the automotive sector and the mechanical properties of materials, although there is another series of general topics related to electrical energy, electric vehicles and the environmental sustainability collected in the magazine. Keywords: Bibliometric, Dyna, engineering, Web of Science, Journal analysis.
We correct a logic mistake in our paper “On statistical convergence and strong Cesàro convergence by moduli for double sequences” (León-Saavedra et al. in J. Inequal. Appl. 2022:62, 2022).
We correct a logic mistake in our paper “On statistical convergence and strong Cesàro convergence by moduli” (León-Saavedra et al. in J. Inequal. Appl. 23:298, 2019).
Background Most current disease-modifying therapies approved for multiple sclerosis (MS) are immunomodulatory drugs that counteract the aberrant activity of the immune system. Hence, new pharmacological interventions that drive anti-inflammatory activity and neuroprotection would represent interesting alternative therapeutic approaches or complementary strategies to treat progressive forms of MS. There is evidence of reduced noradrenaline levels and alterations to locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic neurons in MS patients, as well as in animal models of this disease, potentially factors contributing to the pathophysiology. Drugs that enhance noradrenaline appear to have some beneficial effects in MS, suggesting their potential to dampen the underlying pathology and disease progression. Methods Therefore, we explored the consequences of chronic LC noradrenergic neurons activation by chemogenetics in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice, the most widely used experimental model of MS. LC activation from the onset or the peak of motor symptoms was explored as two different therapeutic approaches, assessing the motor and non-motor behavioral changes as EAE progresses, and studying demyelination, inflammation and glial activation in the spinal cord and cerebral cortex during the chronic phase of EAE. Results LC activation from the onset of motor symptoms markedly alleviated the motor deficits in EAE mice, as well as their anxiety-like behavior and sickness, in conjunction with reduced demyelination and perivascular infiltration in the spinal cord and glial activation in the spinal cord and prefrontal cortex (PFC). When animals exhibited severe paralysis, LC activation produced a modest alleviation of EAE motor symptoms and it enhanced animal well-being, in association with an improvement of the EAE pathology at the spinal cord and PFC level. Interestingly, the reduced dopamine beta-hydroxylase expression associated with EAE in the spinal cord and PFC was reversed through chemogenetic LC activation. Conclusion Therefore, clear anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects were produced by the selective activation of LC noradrenergic neurons in EAE mice, having greater benefits when LC activation commenced earlier. Overall, these data suggest noradrenergic LC neurons may be targets to potentially alleviate some of the motor and non-motor symptoms in MS.
The increasing use of plastics and the growing concern about their impact on the environment and living beings makes it necessary to study how microplastics (MP) affect aquaculture systems. In order to gain an in-depth understanding of these systems, this study covers the water intake, the purification treatment at the inlet, the water in the culture tanks, as well as the feed used in the feeding and the organism itself. For this purpose, five samples were taken, both in the water line, feed and sea bass during the weeks of the experiment. It is shown that the available purification systems reduce the amount of MP entering from the receiving environment. However, new MP are observed in the sea bass tank, which may be due mainly to those added through the feed and found in the feed, as well as in the piping and other materials used in current aquaculture systems (PTFE, PA, among others). If focusing on the feed that can reach the consumer, in the case of this study, carried out with sea bass, some types of MP (PE, PTFE, PS and PA) were found in 4 head samples and 4 skin/muscle samples. Although inlet water purification systems manage to reduce a high percentage of MPs in the system, it is observed that there are other access routes that should be considered and reduced in aquaculture facilities to prevent them from reaching the human consumer.
Intimate partner violence is a multidimensional phenomenon encompassing psychological, physical, and sexual components. Violence in young couples is common in our society. This kind of violence is usually bidirectional, which adds to its complexity. This study aimed to explore how victimization (in three dimensions: non-abuse, technical mistreatment, and mistreatment) and perpetration (in two dimensions: non-perpetrator and perpetrator) are related to the BIS (Behavioral Inhibition System)/BAS (Behavioral Approach System), and it also evaluated if the dimensions of emotional intelligence (EI) (emotional attention, clarity, and regulation) mediate this relationship. Violence was evaluated in 272 young volunteer participants, as well as BIS/BAS behavioral sensitivity and perceived emotional intelligence. The correlations between these variables were analyzed, and a mediation analysis was also conducted. The results show that victimization (of the sexual and coercive type) was associated with less BAS activation, while victimization (of the sexual, humiliation, and detachment types) was associated with less BIS activity. All types of victimization were associated with less EI, specifically with less emotional clarity. Aggression (of the sexual, humiliation, detachment, and coercion types) was related to lower BAS and higher BIS sensitivity. Detachment aggression was associated with low emotional clarity. In conclusion, relationships between victimization and perpetration are evidenced in terms of BIS/BAS sensitivity and EI. Specifically, the dimension of EI emotional clarity acts as a mediator of BIS activation in victims of detachment.
The role of polymorphism rs9939609 of the FTO gene has been related with fat mass and cardiovascular risk in adults, but it remains unclear in children and adolescents. Hence, the main aim of this study was to determine the FTO polymorphism effects on body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), physical activity (PA), inflammatory markers, and cardiovascular risk both in cross‐sectional analysis and after two‐years of follow‐up in children and adolescents. A total of 2129 participants were included in this study. The rs9939609 polymorphism was genotyped. Body composition measurements, CRF, and moderate‐to‐vigorous PA (MVPA) were determined at baseline and after two‐year of follow‐up. Moreover, plasma leptin and adiponectin were also determined as inflammatory markers. Furthermore, an index of cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDRF‐I) was calculated. Codominant (TT vs. TA vs. AA) and dominant (AA+AT vs. TT) models were applied for statistical analysis. The results showed a main effect of the FTO genotype on body composition measures in both first and third year (p < 0.05), with lower adiposity in TT compared with AA or AA+AT group. These differences were maintained after accounting for pubertal maturity, sex, age, VO2max, and MVPA. Moreover, lower leptin level was observed in TT compared to AA+AT group in the third year. An interaction in Gene*Time*Sex was found in height and neck circumference in dominant model (p = 0.047; p = 0.020, respectively). No differences were found in CRF, MVPA nor CVDRF‐I between groups. Hence, homozygous TT allele could be a protective factor against weight gain from early childhood.
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