Universidad Técnica de Ambato (UTA)
Recent publications
Cultural tourist sites in search of an intercultural approach, participatory in the face of quality management processes and focused on the interest of the visitor with a cultural visit profile, through continuous improvement, ISO standards and indicators that contribute to organizational effectiveness that provide responses to the changes generated in cultural sites and allow the consolidation of the administration, operation and structure of cultural institutions, to which, the study analyzed the quality levels of the representative cultural centers of the rural parish of San Miguelito. The objective of this study is to analyze quality management in the satisfaction of tourists in visiting cultural tourist destinations. This research is correlational with the use of Pearson's correlation and simple descriptive, due to the detail of the phenomena influenced in visiting cultural tourist destinations, it is a determining factor in quality, through the perception of quality, through satisfaction it is possible to define different categories, in addition to taking the character of non-experimental design research, with a cross-sectional design because the level and state of the variables are analyzed at a single point in time; to verify the relational trend of the variables, using a validated data collection instrument focused on the adapted SERVPERF model. Furthermore, high positive correlation results were achieved between quality management in cultural sites, the results at the time of making the relationship through the t statistic, showed a correlation with a level of significance < 1%, with which the hypothesis was validated, it was supported with a level of 1% (0.610).
Captive environments trigger the propagation and multiplication of parasites among different reptile species, thus weakening their immune response and causing infections and diseases. Technological advances of convolutional neural networks have opened a new field for detecting and classifying diseases which have shown great potential to overcome the shortcomings of manual detection performed by experts. Therefore, we propose an approach to identify six captive reptiles parasitic agents ( Ophionyssus natricis , Blastocystis sp , Oxiurdo egg , Rhytidoides similis , Strongyloides , Taenia ) or the absence of such parasites from a microscope stool images dataset. Towards this end, we first use an image segmentation stage to detect the parasite within the image, which combines the Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) technique, the OTSU binarization method, and morphological operations. Then, we carry out a classification stage through MobileNet CNN under a transfer learning scheme. This method was validated on a stool image dataset containing 3616 images data samples and 26 videos from the six parasites mentioned above. The results obtained indicate that our transfer learning-based approach can learn a helpful representation from the dataset. We obtained an average accuracy of 94.26% across the seven classes (i.e., six parasitic agents and the absence of parasites), which statistically outperformed, at a 95% confidence level, a custom CNN trained from scratch.
Es un hecho que, en la actualidad las TIC cumplen un rol muy importante dentro del proceso educativo, confiriéndole calidad al acto educativo; entre otras cosas, porque promueven el autoaprendizaje, el pensamiento crítico y sobre todo el trabajo colaborativo en los estudiantes, independientemente de su edad o progreso escolar. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo caracterizar los tipos de herramientas tecnológicas utilizadas por los docentes de la “Unidad Educativa Nueva Era” en las experiencias de aprendizaje en educación virtual. La metodología de abordaje del objeto de estudio asumió un enfoque cuantitativo. Se trató de una investigación descriptiva, apoyada en un diseño no experimental, de campo. La muestra del estudio estuvo conformada por docentes, a los cuales se les aplicó un cuestionario contentivo de preguntas, que incluyeron las dos dimensiones: Herramientas sincrónicas y asincrónicas. Los resultados de la investigación identifican que un promedio de 3.75 de los participantes, emplean en un alto nivel las herramientas tecnológicas de la subdimensión sincrónica. Se concluye que los docentes de la Unidad Educativa “Nueva Era” implementaron recursos para satisfacer los requerimientos de los estudiantes, apoyándose en herramientas sincrónicas y asincrónicas utilizando con mayor frecuencia plataformas como Zoom, Edmodo e Idukay.
In recent years, cutting edge preparation became a topic of high interest in the manufacturing industry because of the important role it plays in the performance of the cutting tool. This paper describes the use of the drag finishing DF cutting edge preparation process on the cutting tool for the broaching process. The main process parameters were manipulated and analyzed, as well as their influence on the cutting edge rounding, material remove rate MRR, and surface quality/roughness (Ra, Rz). In parallel, a repeatability and reproducibility R&R analysis and cutting edge radius re prediction were performed using machine learning by an artificial neural network ANN. The results achieved indicate that the influencing factors on re, MRR, and roughness, in order of importance, are drag depth, drag time, mixing percentage, and grain size, respectively. The reproducibility accuracy of re is reliable compared to traditional processes, such as brushing and blasting. The prediction accuracy of the re of preparation with ANN is observed in the low training and prediction errors 1.22% and 0.77%, respectively, evidencing the effectiveness of the algorithm. Finally, it is demonstrated that the DF has reliable feasibility in the application of edge preparation on broaching tools under controlled conditions.
Currently, inefficient use of electricity in homes, businesses, schools, and industries requires the implementation of policies, mechanisms, and technological innovations of rational use of energy. In this sense, the implementation of new distribution systems, low-voltage direct current, LVDC, is presented as a technological solution for energy saving as well as for the efficiency for end users and for energy distribution companies’ power. The emergent of new distribution systems such as LVDC has encouraged the development of innovative methods and components for power to low voltage DC, which are applied to lighting systems, datacenters, and interior spaces. Existing experience about LVDC distribution systems have shown that reducing energy loss is proportional to increased levels of DC voltage. In addition, conversion AC/DC systems have higher losses than conversion DC/DC ones. Therefore, the implementation of LVDC systems is comparatively more efficient than traditional distribution methods of alternating current. The massive integration of LVDC distribution systems will significantly reduce energy losses and increase the efficiency of energy end users. In this article, the implementation of a cloud platform control and management of an isolated distribution system that feeds LVDC lighting loads is described. Also, the conceptual development of integration of LVDC system with a renewable generation, which supplies current to the lighting system is presented.
The aims of the research are to evaluate the factorial validity, internal consistency, measurement invariance, discrimination, and difficulty of the Covid-19 Anxiety Scale (CAS) applied to a sample of Ecuadorian adults (N = 451). The study is based on an instrumental design with Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) technics. The results confirmed the validity of the CAS single-factor structure, with measurement invariance across gender and high internal consistency. Additionally, all CAS items displayed adequate discrimination indexes and proper ordering of the difficulty thresholds. In a conclusion, the CAS is a valid measurement scale for Ecuadorian adults.
En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la evaluación de la huella de carbono entre un vehículo con motor de combustión interna (VMCI) y uno con motor eléctrico a baterías (VEB), considerando el panorama energético de Ecuador. Para esto, se utilizó el análisis del Pozo-a-la-Rueda, determinando primeramente la matriz de generación de energía eléctrica en el país. Como caso de estudio se consideró un vehículo KIA Soul y KIA Soul EV (versión eléctrica). De esta manera, se usaron las características técnicas de ambos vehículos provistas por el fabricante, y consideraciones sobre la distancia de conducción, ruta del combustible, vida útil y reemplazo de baterías, así como emisiones debidas al chasis y la carrocería de los vehículos. Los resultados obtenidos indican que las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero de un VMCI en Ecuador es 236.16 gCO2/km, mientras que el VEB emite 63.14 gCO2/km, lo que significa apenas un 27% de las emisiones producidas por el VMCI. Estos resultados representan un impacto positivo para reducir los índices de contaminación ambiental, indicando además la necesidad de sostener y acelerar el cambio de la matriz energética del país hacia una generación de energía limpia y sostenible.
Bothrops atrox snakebites are a relevant problem in the Amazon basin. In this biodiverse region, the ethnomedicinal approach plays an important role as an alternative to antivenom therapy. Urospatha sagittifolia (Araceae) is a plant used for this purpose; however, its neutralizing properties have not been scientifically accessed. To fill this gap, we investigated the ability of U. sagitti-folia to modulate the catalytic activity of Bothrops atrox venom, and their toxic consequences, such as local damage and lethality. The venom profile of B. atrox was assessed by chromatography and electrophoresis. Inhibition of the three main enzymatic and medically important toxins from the venom was evaluated using synthetic substrates and quantified by chromogenic activity assays. Additionally, the neutralization of lethality, hemorrhage and edema were investigated by in vivo assays. The possible interactions between venom proteins and plant molecules were visualized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Finally, the phytochemical constituents present in the ethanolic extract were determined by qualitative and quantitative analyses. The ethanolic extract reduced the activity of the three main enzymes of venom target, achieving ranges from 19% to 81% of inhibition. Our in vivo venom neuralizations assays showed a significant inhibition of edema (38.72%) and hemorrhage (42.90%). Additionally, lethality was remarkably counteracted. The highest extract ratio evaluated had a 75% survival rate. Our data support the biomedical value of U. sagittifolia as a source of natural enzyme inhibitors able to neutralize catalytically active B. atrox venom toxins and their toxic effects.
La descentralización representa el ejercicio de la democracia en un Estado históricamente centralista. La Constitución de 2008 define el diseño territorial que contribuye a una transferencia organizada de competencias cuya finalidad es alcanzar la equidad territorial y un desarrollo armonizado de las localidades, con énfasis en la calidad de los servicios públicos; la prestación del servicio de agua potable y saneamiento es uno de los más relevantes dada su incidencia en una problemática estructural de la economía nacional como es la desnutrición crónica infantil. El objetivo de este artículo es conocer el modelo de gestión de Quito y Guayaquil, y cómo el ejercicio de esta competencia desde una gestión delegada ha repercutido de manera favorable en los indicadores reportados desde la entidad de control del agua, especialmente los asociados a niveles de cobertura y continuidad en la prestación del servicio.
The memristor is the fourth fundamental element in the electronic circuit field, whose memory and resistance properties make it unique. Although there are no electronic solutions based on the memristor, interest in application development has increased significantly. Nevertheless, there are only numerical Matlab or Spice models that can be used for simulating memristor systems, and designing is limited to using memristor emulators only. A memristor emulator is an electronic circuit that mimics a memristor. In this way, a research approach is to build discrete-component emulators of memristors for its study without using the actual models. In this work, two reconfigurable hardware architectures have been proposed for use in the prototyping of a non-linearity memristor emulator: the FPAA (Field Programing Analog Arrays) and the FPGA (Field Programming Gate Array). The easy programming and reprogramming of the first architecture and the performance, high area density, and parallelism of the second one allow the implementation of this type of system. In addition, a detailed comparison is shown to underline the main differences between the two approaches. These platforms could be used in more complex analog and/or digital systems, such as neural networks, CNN, digital circuits, etc.
This study examined the leaves of Baccharis macrantha to obtain extracts of Baccharis macrantha (EBM) and to determine the total flavonoid content (TFC) and the total polyphenol content (TPC). The main objective of this work was to quantify TPC and TFC of extracts of B. macrantha from Ecuador and evaluate its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The extraction method was optimized with solvents, ethanol, and methanol, at temperatures of 30-60 °C and extraction times of 5-20 min. The optimal TFC extraction conditions were at EtOH25% at 50 °C for 10 min. The optimal TPC extraction conditions were at EtOH50% at 50 °C for 10 min. EBM was characterized by TLC and HPLC with three standards: gallic acid, catechin, and quercetin. EBM-EtOH25% and EBM-EtOH50% obtained at 50 °C for 10 min were used to identify quercetin and evaluate biologicals activities. Quercetin was detected in EBM (EtOH25% and EtOH50%). EBM anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated with the red blood cell stabilization (RBC) method. The RBC model showed values of 49.72% of protection lysis RBC to EBM-EtOH25% and 50.71% of protection lysis RBC to EBM-EtOH50%. The EBM in vitro inhibition of lipid peroxi-dation showed a protection of 77.00% (EtOH25%) and 73.11% (EtOH50%) when the TBARs method was used. EBM-EtOH25% and EtOH50% showed high antioxidant activity. EBM-EtOH25% presented values of ABTS (1172 µmol TE/g EBM), DPPH (836 µmol TE/g, EBM), and FRAP (85.70 µmol TE/g, EBM).
Real-time monitoring in CNC machine tools is focused on the early detection of tool wear, and in this way to assess part piece quality. The machining process known as broaching is critical for firtree slots (dovetails) production in turbomachinery components, such as turbine disks. Tight tolerances on one hand, even less than 5 µm in firtree-slots pressure faces, and high productivity on the other, are the two main requirements. Besides, broaching tools are very expensive and the cutting edges wear must be estimated during the process; in fact, tool wear in difficult-to-cut materials machining may cause a waste not only in terms of the tool but also of the very expensive workpieces. Broaching usually is one of the last operations in the process chain, so components start the operation with a very high-added value. Hence, only one bad slot implies an unrecoverable piece and therefore a huge waste of time and money. In this paper, a monitoring method for efficient broaching is proposed by combining real-time monitoring and off-line tool wear inspection. Firstly, the cutting tool characteristics are defined, and those affected by tool degradation. Secondly, some broaching cycles were carried out while measuring a) process accelerations through two accelerometers, b) cutting force by load cells, and c) motor drive consumption. They were simultaneously recorded. Furthermore, the sensitivity between tool wear and broaching process natural frequencies is established. Finally, a series of experimental tests were executed for verification, showing the useful approach for daily life production. The paper focuses on signals and their sensitivity to significant process variations.
It is widely acknowledged that the drivers for energy consumption in the residential sector are ambient temperature, energy demand, population density, and socio-economic conditions. However, there are no studies in the literature assessing the temporal and spatial distribution of these drivers for a region or country. The decision-making process of the energy transition will be enhanced by using geospatial-resolved and temporal-explicit energy consumption drivers. This study estimates the climatic, end-use demands, and socio-economic drivers of energy consumption in the residential sector of Ecuador at a high spatio-temporal resolution between 2010 and 2020. This research uses publicly available datasets to calculate seven energy consumption drivers in the residential sector of Ecuador: (1) calibrated gridded population density at 1 km² resolution; (2) validated gridded space heating demand at 1 km² resolution; (3) validated gridded space cooling demand at 1 km² resolution; (4) validated gridded water heating demand at 1 km² resolution; (5) calibrated gridded gross domestic product at 1 km² resolution; (6) calibrated gridded gross domestic product per capita at 1 km² resolution; and (7) calibrated regional human development index, at city level. Disaggregation of the drivers at a high spatial resolution for the entire country in a range of 10 years was considered. The final high-1 km² resolution results can be used for the evaluation of different energy policies in terms of long-term planning and in techno-economic modelling of energy systems and decarbonisation pathways.
In the originally published version of chapter 5 the author’s name was misspelled. The author’s name has been corrected as “Daysi Ortiz”.
In the following paper, we present the result of an exhaustive review on how contemporary video games influence multiple social aspects such as health, psychology, family, entertainment, economics, and international conflicts. It also addresses the trends for the near future on the use and influence of video games in society, their consequences, and trends. Multiple scientific articles and websites specialized in the video game industry were reviewed, from which information has been obtained on how they contribute to society. The video game industry quickly incorporates solutions to many social problems directly and indirectly, and their incorporation into society will soon become a prevailing need.
El consumo de tomate de árbol en el Ecuador es muy amplio a lo largo de las diferentes zonas, es decir, tiene una gran demanda, a su vez no es aprovechado en su totalidad generando gran cantidad de residuos orgánicos. Mediante la microencapsulación se pueden elaborar productos derivados de los principios activos que se generan de esta fruta. En este trabajo se extrajeron y concentraron carotenoides de la piel de Solanum betaceum. Además, se microencapsuló los principios activos contenidos en el extracto con polímeros (goma arábiga y maltodextrina) en una concentración del 35 y 40 %. Es necesario controlar la temperatura de microencapsulación para evitar la degradación del material de interés. Es importante determinar la actividad que presentan dichos metabolitos al ser microencapsulados, se evaluó la actividad antioxidante utilizando un método colorimétrico cuantitativo llamado DPPH. Por otro lado, se usó un modelo in vivo con Saccharomyces cerevisiae en el cual se midió la actividad antioxidante considerandondo de la curva de crecimiento del microorganismo en cuestión sometiéndolo a diferentes factores, uno de ellos el crecimiento normal sin agentes externos, en los dos siguientes se emplearon concentraciones de agentes oxidantes, para simular estrés alto y bajo con hipoclorito de sodio y peróxido de hidrógeno. Palabras clave: Carotenoides, extracción, secado por aspersión, actividad antioxidante, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, razón de crecimiento.
This article describes the occurrence, antibiograms, and detection of antibiotic resistance genes of Enterobacterales isolated from fresh vegetables commercialized in Riobamba, Ecuador. Escherichia coli isolates were screened to detect diarrheagenic pathotypes via PCR. Agar diffusion assay was performed to determine the phenotypic antibiotic resistance of the Enterobacterales strains. The presence of antibiotic resistance genes conferring resistance against beta-lactams, mobile colistin resistance, carbapenems, quinolones, tetracyclines, and sulphonamides was detected via PCR amplification.
In the industry, the need to optimize daily tasks became mainly a requirement to stay competitive. The Facility Layout Problem (FLP) arises from this need and is the most used technique to improved manufacturing processes. Over the years, the distribution of the different facilities became more complex and more susceptible to interventions in their usual workflow. Hence, FLPs emerged to solve these interventions. This capacity to solve various problems is known as resilience. By searching the literature for information on technologies used to solve FLP, many software solutions can be obtained. Still, none of them manage resilience as a factor in the solution. They have also not been compiled in an analysis to determine the most modern options for existing solutions. The current study reviews the most widely used software tools that solve FLP and how these studies view resilience. A systematic literature review was applied to select relevant studies from 2015–2021. This work allowed analyzing a final sample of 133 articles obtained in two different search strings. As a result, this study identified two manners to solve FLP with software tools: using already developed tools and developing an own tool. In the former, three proprietary software were identified: MATLAB, CPLEX, and LINGO. When developing their software tool, the technology used varies significantly between studies. They use very different language programming, depending on the researcher’s domain. Furthermore, the results do not find any case in which some resilience factor was part of the solution obtained.
Flexibility, quick responses to changes, and capacity to respond to external factors are strategies that companies must develop to ensure their continuity and face adverse situations. The flexibility that can be acquired by optimizing plant layout and resilience ensures continuity of production by reducing adverse external shocks. This article synthesizes critical elements used in models to solve facility layout problems, followed by analyzing the resilience variables and factors most frequently applied in the industry. A systematic literature review to achieve this objective was developed, including 170 articles published in 2010 and 2021. Its study was performed through the Atlas.ti software, an analysis of the 4W's (i.e., When, Who, What, and Where) was applied, and finally, answers to three research questions posed were given. Growth in the scientific interest of facility layout problems can be observed in the last five years, especially for dynamic problems and unequal areas, development of multi-objective models, and approach to metaheuristic solutions. Eventually, research gaps were also identified, highlighting the lack of inclusion of resilience factors in plant distribution models.
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2,965 members
Carlos L Vasquez
  • Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias
Orestes Darío López Hernández
  • Facultad de ciencia e ingeniería en alimentos
Marcos Barros-Rodríguez
  • Faculty of Agricultural Sciences
Wilman Ismael Carrillo Terán
  • Facultad de Ciencia e Ingeniería en Alimentos
William Calero-Cáceres
  • Department of Food Engineering