Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja
  • Loja, Provincia de Loja, Ecuador
Recent publications
We propose an early-detection scheme to reduce communications latency based on sequential tests under finite blocklength regime for a fixed-rate transmission without any feedback channel. The proposed scheme processes observations sequentially to decide in favor of one of the candidate symbols. Such a process stops as soon as a decision rule is satisfied or waits for more samples under a given accuracy. We first provide the optimal achievable latency in additive white Gaussian noise channels for every channel code given a probability of block error. For example, for a rate R=0.5\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$R = 0.5$$\end{document} and a blocklength of 500 symbols, we show that only 63%\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$63\%$$\end{document} of the symbol time is needed to reach an error rate equal to 10-5\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$10^{-5}$$\end{document}. Then, we prove that if short messages can be transmitted in parallel Gaussian channels via a multi-carrier modulation, there exists an optimal low-latency strategy for every code. Next, we show how early detection can be effective with band-limited orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing signals while maintaining a given spectral efficiency by random coding or pre-coding random matrices. Finally, we show how the proposed early-detection scheme is effective in multi-hop systems.
La Ley Orgánica de Comunicación (LOC-2013), reformada en el (2019) derogada el 94 % del contenido y reemplazada por Ley de Libre Expresión y Comunicación (2022), permitió que varios municipios implementaran como estrategia la creación de medios de comunicación, que automáticamente asumieron la categoría de medios públicos/institucionales. Este trabajo analiza a los medios públicos administrados por gobiernos autónomos descentralizados, es decir los municipios, distribuidos de la siguiente manera: 7 Costa, 33 Sierra, 11 Amazonía y 1 medio Insular. Estudia la agenda mediática , en relación a tres categorías: cultura, educación, participación ciudadana, y su vinculación con buenas prácticas sugeridas por organismos como: Unesco (2015). Y una cuarta categoría independiente: comunicación institucional, todo esto en relación a la presencia de cada medio en la red social Facebook. Que los gobiernos locales administren un medio es una oportunidad para la participación ciudadana y la democratización de la comunicación, sin embargo, deben establecerse y delimitarse las políticas comunicacionales para cumplir con el rol de servicio público.
Hedyosmum purpurascens is an endemic species found in the Andes of Ecuador and it is characterized by its pleasant smell. In this study, essential oil (EO) from H. purpurascens was obtained by the hydro-distillation method with a Clevenger-type apparatus. The identification of the chemical composition was carried out by GC–MS and GC–FID in two capillary columns, DB-5ms and HP-INNOWax. A total of 90 compounds were identified, representing more than 98% of the total chemical composition. Germacrene-D, ϒ-terpinene, α-phellandrene, sabinene, O-cymene, 1,8-cineole and α-pinene accounted for more than 59% of the EO composition. The enantioselective analysis of the EO revealed the occurrence of (+)-α-pinene as a pure enantiomer; in addition, four pairs of enantiomers were found (α-phellandrene, o-cymene, limonene and myrcene). The biological activity against microbiological strains and antioxidants and the anticholinesterase properties were also evaluated and the EO showed a moderate anticholinesterase and antioxidant effect, with an IC50 value of 95.62 ± 1.03 µg/mL and a SC50 value of 56.38 ± 1.96. A poor antimicrobial effect was observed for all the strains, with MIC values over 1000 µg/mL. Based on our results, the H. purpurasens EO presented remarkable antioxidant and AChE activities. Despite these promising results, further research seems essential to validate the safety of this medicinal species as a function of dose and time. Experimental studies on the mechanisms of action are essential to validate its pharmacological properties.
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) have become a trend in online education, however, most of them do not meet users’ expectations and satisfaction. The objective of this research is to evaluate the overall UX of two MOOC platforms: Coursera and OpenCampus, from a technological point of view. A case study is conducted using the experimental method through the application of an online questionnaire applied to two independent samples of 10 users each, with the objective of comparing the user interface (UI) design of these platforms, as well as the UI and MOOC video content. The results indicate that the overall UX obtained a higher level of significance in Coursera than in OpenCampus in perceived usefulness, pleasant experience and accessibility. The present research provides a means to evaluate the overall UX of MOOC platforms with similar functions in order to discover areas for improvement and determine UX quality.
A new glassfrog species of the genus Centrolene (Amphibia, Anura, Centrolenidae) from Cordillera del Cóndor, southern Ecuador. ZooKeys Abstract Based on an integrative taxonomical approach, using molecular, morphological, and bioacoustics data, a new species of glassfrog of the genus Centrolene is described from Refugio de Vida Silvestre El Zarza, southern Ecuador. Centrolene zarza sp. nov. is a medium sized species, easily distinguished from all other glassfrogs by its unique combination of characters, such as a shagreen dorsum with elevated warts corresponding to white spots, an evident tympanum, half or more than half of the upper parietal peritoneum covered by iridophores, iridophores absent on all visceral peritonea, including the pericardium, a lobed liver lacking iridophores, males with small projecting humeral spines, the outer edges of forearms and tarsus with a row of enameled warts that often continue into the external edges of Finger IV and/ or Toe V, and white or yellowish white iris with thick black reticulations. The new species is closely related to a currently undescribed species and superficially resembles C. condor, C. pipilata, C. solitaria, C. altitudinalis, and C. daidalea. The tadpole and advertisement and courtship calls are described, and the threats to the species survival, mainly represented by habitat loss and contamination due to mining activities, are briefly discussed.
Background: Indigenous populations are represented among the poor and disadvantaged in rural areas. High rates of infectious diseases are observed in indigenous child populations, and fever as a general symptom is common. Objective: We aim to improve the skills of healers in rural indigenous areas in the South of Ecuador for managing children with fevers. Method: We performed participatory action research (PAR) for this study with 65 healers. Results: The PAR focused on the following four phases: (1) 'observation,' eight focus groups were used. (2) 'planning' phase was developed, and with culturally reflective peer group sessions, a culturally adapted flowchart was constructed titled "Management of children with fever." In phase (3): 'action', the healers were trained to manage children with fever. Phase (4): 'evaluation', 50% of the healers used the flowchart. Conclusions: Explicit recognition of the need for traditional healers and health professionals in indigenous communities to work together to improve health indicators such as infant mortality exists. Additionally, strengthening the transfer system in rural areas is based on knowledge and cooperation between the community and the biomedical system.
Artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities are producing contamination with heavy metals and metalloids (HMM) into soils and water worldwide. The HMM are considered as one of the major abiotic stresses due to their long-term persistence in soil. In this context, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) confer resistance to a variety of abiotic plant stressors including HMM. However, little is known regarding the diversity and composition of AMF communities in heavy metal polluted sites in Ecuador. In order to investigate the AMF diversity, root samples and associated soil of six plant species were collected from two sites polluted by heavy metals, located in Zamora-Chinchipe province, Ecuador. The AMF 18S nrDNA genetic region was analyzed and sequenced, and fungal OTUs were defned based on 99% sequence similarity. Results were contrasted with AMF communities from a natural forest and from reforestation sites located in the same province and with available sequences in GenBank.The main pollutants in soils were Pb, Zn, Hg, Cd and Cu with concentrations exceeding the soil reference value for agricultural use. Molecular phylogeny and OTU delimitation showed 19 OTUs, the family Glomeraceae was the most OTU-rich followed by Archaeosporaceae, Acaulosporaceae, Ambisporaceae and Paraglomeraceae. Most of the OTUs (11 of 19) have been found at other locations worldwide, 14 OTUs were proven from nearby non-contaminated sites in Zamora-Chinchipe. Our study showed that there are no specialized OTUs at the studied HMM polluted sites, but rather generalists adapted to a wide variety of habitats. Their potential role in phytoremediation approaches remains to be investigated.
In the last two decades, interest in graphene has grown extensively due to its extraordinary properties and potential for various applications such as sensing and communication. However, graphene is intrinsically a semimetal with a zero bandgap, which considerably delays its use where a suitable bandgap is required. In this context, quasi-one-dimensional counterparts known as graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) have demonstrated sizeable bandgaps and versatile electronic properties, which make them promising candidates for photonic and plasmonic applications. While progress has recently been made toward the synthesis of GNRs, theoretical models to envisage their electronic and optical properties have been restricted to ab initio approaches, which are not feasible for wide systems because of the large number of atoms tangled. Here, we use a semi-analytical model based on Dirac cone approximation to show the adjustable electronic and plasmonic characteristics of wide and experimental GNRs, both freestanding and non-freestanding. This approach utilizes the group velocity of graphene, which is calculated using density functional computations (vF=0.829×106 m s−1), as the primary input. Importantly, our research reveals that at the terahertz level, the plasmon-momentum dispersion is highly responsive to changes by varying the ribbon width or charge carrier concentrations, the other involved parameters can be manipulated by setting values from experiments or more sophisticated predictions. In particular, this model can replicate the electronic properties of GNRs on Ge(001) and GNRs on Au(111). From the plasmonic side, the plasmon spectrum of graphene microribbon arrays of 4 μm wide on Si/SiO2 and GNR arrays on Si are found in good agreement with experiments. The potential use of GNRs in sensing molecules such as chlorpyrifos-methyl is also discussed. Chlorpyrifos-methyl is chosen as the test molecule because it is a commonly used insecticide in agriculture, but its high toxicity to organisms and humans makes it a concern. It has been established that the plasmon resonances of all the studied GNRs occur at the same frequency as chlorpyrifos-methyl, which is 0.95 THz. Our findings can serve as a useful guide for future experiments.
Cyanide is a highly toxic compound that can pose serious health problems to both humans and aquatic organisms. Therefore, the present comparative study focuses on the removal of total cyanide from aqueous solutions by photocatalytic adsorption and degradation methods using ZnTiO3 (ZTO), La/ZnTiO3 (La/ZTO), and Ce/ZnTiO3 (Ce/ZTO). The nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and Specific surface area (SSA). The adsorption equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Adsorption kinetics were also evaluated using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models and the intraparticle diffusion model. Likewise, the photodegradation of cyanide under simulated sunlight was investigated and the reusability of the synthesized nanoparticles for cyanide removal in aqueous systems was determined. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of doping with lanthanum (La) and cerium (Ce) to improve the adsorbent and photocatalytic properties of ZTO. In general, La/ZTO showed the maximum percentage of total cyanide removal (99.0%) followed by Ce/ZTO (97.0%) and ZTO (93.6%). Finally, based on the evidence of this study, a mechanism for the removal of total cyanide from aqueous solutions using the synthesized nanoparticles was proposed.
An essential oil, distilled from the leaves of the Andean species Gynoxys rugulosa Muschl., is described in the present study for the first time. The chemical composition was qualitatively and quantitatively determined by GC–MS and GC–FID, respectively. On the one hand, the qualitative composition was obtained by comparing the mass spectrum and the linear retention index of each component with data from literature. On the other hand, the quantitative composition was determined by calculating the relative response factor of each constituent, according to its combustion enthalpy. Both analyses were carried out with two orthogonal columns of nonpolar and polar stationary phases. A total of 112 compounds were detected and quantified with at least one column, corresponding to 87.3–93.0% of the whole oil mass. Among the 112 detected components, 103 were identified. The main constituents were α-pinene (5.3–6.0%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (2.4–2.8%), α-humulene (3.0–3.2%), germacrene D (4.9–6.5%), δ-cadinene (2.2–2.3%), caryophyllene oxide (1.6–2.2%), α-cadinol (3.8–4.4%), 1-nonadecanol (1.7–1.9%), 1-eicosanol (0.9–1.2%), n-tricosane (3.3–3.4%), 1-heneicosanol (4.5–5.8%), n-pentacosane (5.8–7.1%), 1-tricosanol (4.0–4.5%), and n-heptacosane (3.0–3.5%). Furthermore, an enantioselective analysis was carried out on the essential oil, by means of two cyclodextrin-based capillary columns. The enantiomers of α-pinene, β-pinene, sabinene, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, linalool, α-copaene, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, and germacrene D were detected, and the respective enantiomeric excess was calculated.
Thoroughly documenting prey items and diet composition is crucial for understanding a predator’s role in the ecosystem. In gape restricted predators, such as snakes, documenting and analyzing the type and size of the prey is important to interpret their ecological role. We describe the diet patterns of a species of venomous snake, the Terciopelo pit viper ( Bothrops asper ), from its Ecuadorian populations. Examining the gastrointestinal contents of museum specimens collected over an extensive area of the Pacific lowlands of Ecuador, we encountered 69 identifiable prey items from four major taxonomic groups (amphibians, centipedes, mammals, and reptiles). We evaluated the observed composition of prey to check for differences between sexes and size-classes. To complement our observations of the Terciopelo species complex throughout their distribution, we carried out a systematic literature review. Our data show an ontogenetic shift in diet, with a transition from more diverse diet in juveniles towards a mammal-specialized diet in adults, and distinct proportion of prey taxa between the sexes in the juvenile size class.
A long-term complication of obesity is the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Patients with T2D have been described as having epigenetic modifications. Epigenetics is the post-transcriptional modification of DNA or associated factors containing genetic information. These environmentally-influenced modifications, maintained during cell division, cause stable changes in gene expression. Epigenetic modifications of T2D are DNA methylation, acetylation, ubiquitylation, SUMOylation, and phosphorylation at the lysine residue at the amino terminus of histones, affecting DNA, histones, and non-coding RNA. DNA methylation has been shown in pancreatic islets, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and the liver. Furthermore, epigenetic changes have been observed in chronic complications of T2D, such as diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, and diabetic neuropathy. Recently, a new drug has been developed which acts on bromodomains and extraterminal (BET) domain proteins, which operate like epigenetic readers and communicate with chromatin to make DNA accessible for transcription by inhibiting them. This drug (apabetalone) is being studied to prevent major adverse cardiovascular events in people with T2D, low HDL cholesterol, chronic kidney failure, and recent coronary events. This review aims to describe the relationship between obesity, long-term complications such as T2D, and epigenetic modifications and their possible treatments.
La pandemia provocada por el COVID-19 agudizó de forma significativa la problemática de varios sectores de nuestra sociedad; la educación superior fue uno de los sectores más ampliamente afectados. Para afrontar esta situación, se debió realizar un “ajuste emergente”, reemplazando las clases presenciales por semestres y períodos virtuales. El objetivo de esta investigación es conocer la percepción de los estudiantes de la Universidad Santo Tomás, de Chile, respecto de sus experiencias en clases virtuales durante el año 2021, así como su perspectiva en torno al regreso a clases presenciales. Para ello, se aplicó una encuesta a estudiantes universitarios, combinando un enfoque mixto de aspectos tanto cuantitativos como cualitativos. Se encontró que la mayoría de los estudiantes dispone de dispositivos tecnológicos para el desarrollo de las clases virtuales. Sobre esta experiencia, los estudiantes han tenido visiones repartidas entre opciones de centro, aunque primó la satisfacción. Entre los principales inconvenientes se registraron problemas de conectividad, falta de espacio adecuado en el hogar, y la distracción del entorno familiar. Se destacan la capacidad de respuesta para dar continuidad al ciclo lectivo, un nivel de calidad educativo incierto para medir, y la presencia de prácticas y elementos tecnológicos que podrían ser aprovechados a futuro.
Background: Firefighting involves exposure of firefighters to risks related to this activity, serious injuries, and occupational diseases are recorded. There are other consequences such as thermal and emotional stress. This systematic review is proposed in order to analyze the risks and consequences faced by these workers and thus provide elements to improve safety management systems in institutions. Method: A descriptive observational study of systematic literature review on the risks and consequences of exposure to firefighters' activity was proposed, and the information was analyzed and described based on the available data and according to the variables determined. Results: The studies showed data on mechanical, physical, chemical, psychosocial risks, workers' perception and resilience, and epidemiological data. Information related to firefighters' activity on falls and slips, exposure to noise, and high concentrations of carbon monoxide is detailed. In addition, the relationship between burnout, cognitive, and physical fatigue as adverse effects on health and performance is mentioned. Conclusions: Among the preventive measures, the use of personal protective equipment is suggested, incorporation in prevention programs of information on exposure to risk factors, as well as the implementation of models that can predict the perception of workers, additionally, the generation of management systems with safety climate models for fire departments.
Virgin olive oil (VOO) production generates large amounts of a harmful by-product, olive mill waste (OMW) or alpeorujo, which has a strong environmental impact and that must be recycled to adapt VOO production to a circular economy model. Here, the valorization of OMW was studied by considering three consecutive stages: Stage 1 involves the generation of OMW; Stage 2 the recovery of bioactive phenolic compounds from the fresh OMW using natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs), generating a valuable phenolic extract and a new by-product, a dephenolized OMW named "alpeoNADES"; and Stage 3 involves vermicomposting alpeoNADES with Eisenia fetida earthworms. Six NADES were formulated and tested, selecting a NADES composed of citric acid and fructose (CF) derived from food grade and biodegradable substances. CF was the most effective solvent to obtain phenolic extracts for nutraceutical and agronomical purposes, extracting 3988.74 mg/kg of polyphenols from fresh OMW. This alpeoNADES is a non-palatable substrate for E. fetida earthworms, as the residual CF gives it an acidic pH (pH 2). Its palatability was improved by mixing it with horse manure and straw for vermicomposting, in a 1:1 and 3:1 dry weight ratio. When these substrates were precomposted for 3 weeks they reached pH 5.5-6 and they could then be vermicomposted for 23 weeks (using OMW as a control). The best substrate for vermicomposting was determined by the worm biomass, growth rate, carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio, and N and P content. AlpeoNADES and manure 3:1 produced the highest quality vermicompost in the shortest time, generating a product that complied with European standards for organic fertilizers. Hence, alpeoNADES was recycled to a low-cost, organic balanced fertilizer in Stage 3, enabling the olive oil industry to transition to sustainable production through this integrated circular economy design.
The conversion of forest into grassland can induce differentiation in the functional morphology of resilient species. To assess this effect, we have chosen a dung beetle Dichotomius problematicus, as a model species. We established 20 sampling points distributed along a transect for a forest and grassland located in the Podocarpus National Park in Ecuador. Four pit‐fall traps were baited with pig feces per sample point and were left open for 48 h. We sexed and measured 13 morphological traits of 269 individuals. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling was carried out to evaluate the influence of habitat and sexual dimorphism on the traits. We applied a principal component analysis to evaluate the morphological features that best explain the differences between land use and sexual dimorphism. We used generalized linear models to evaluate the explanatory variables: habitat and sexual dimorphism with respect to morphological traits. Five traits contributed over 70% body thickness, Pronotum width, Pronotum length, Head width and Elytra length, following the results of a principal component analysis. Both habitat and sex influence traits. In the forest, the individuals are larger than grassland likely due to available resources, but in grassland, the structures in charge of the burial process head, protibia are larger, displaying a strong pronotum and possible a greater reproductive capacity given by spherecity. These patterns of changes in the size of beetles and their structures could reflect the conservation state of an ecosystem. We investigated the effects of land use conversion from forest into grassland on the functional morphology of dung beetles Dichotomius problematicus. This conversion can induce differentiation in the functional morphology of resilient species.
Cross-sectional studies (CSS) began European countries in the 1940s in. The CSSs correspond to observational-type investigations that allow studying the prevalence of disease, determining the association between variables and the development of an effect of interest, discovering the properties of a diagnostic test, and censusing populations, describing the characteristics of a population at a given time and place. This implies that follow-up periods are not required, and that they are neither prospective nor retrospective. These characteristics allow them to be cheaper and easier to perform in relation to longitudinal studies. On the other hand, being descriptive in nature, they serve as input and preliminary evidence for studies of greater methodological complexity, such as cohort studies. However, they have limitations and biases that must be considered by researchers. The aim of this manuscript was to generate a study document to review essential characteristics, strengths and weaknesses; discuss methodological issues of ECT in health sciences; and provide some examples obtained from the literature, for a better understanding of the design.
Endozoochory, the dispersal of seeds by animal ingestion, is the most dominant mode of seed dispersal in tropical forests and is a key process shaping current and future forest dynamics. However, it remains largely unknown how endozoochory is associated with environmental conditions at regional and local scales. Here, we investigated the effects of elevation, climate, and microhabitat conditions on the proportion of endozoochorous plant species in the seed rain of the tropical Andes of southern Ecuador. Over 1 year, we measured seed rain in 162 seed traps on nine 1‐ha forest plots located at 1000, 2000, and 3000 m a.s.l. We recorded climatic conditions (mean annual temperature and rainfall) in each plot and microhabitat conditions (leaf area index and soil moisture) adjacent to each seed trap. In total, we recorded 331,838 seeds belonging to 323 morphospecies. Overall, the proportion of endozoochorous species in the seed rain decreased with elevation. The relative biomass of endozoochorous species decreased with increasing rainfall, whereas the relative seed richness of endozoochorous species increased with increasing temperature and leaf area index. These findings suggest an interplay between climate factors and microhabitat conditions in shaping the importance of endozoochorous plant species in the seed rain of tropical montane forests. We conclude that changing climatic and microhabitat conditions are likely to cause changes in the dominant dispersal modes of plant communities which may trigger changes in the current and future dynamics of tropical forests. Abstract in Spanish is available with online material. La endozoocoria, la dispersión de semillas por ingestión animal, es el modo más dominante de dispersión de semillas en los bosques tropicales y es un proceso clave que determina su dinámica actual y futura. Sin embargo, aún se desconoce en gran medida cómo se asocia la endozoocoria con las condiciones ambientales a escala regional y local. Aquí, investigamos los efectos de la elevación, el clima y las condiciones de microhábitat sobre la proporción de especies de plantas endozoócoras presentes en la lluvia de semillas de los Andes tropicales del sur de Ecuador. Durante un año, medimos la lluvia de semillas con 162 trampas de semillas en nueve parcelas de una hectárea de bosque situadas a 1000, 2000 y 3000 m s.n.m. Nosotros registramos las condiciones climáticas (temperatura y precipitación media anual) en cada parcela y las condiciones de microhábitat (índice de área foliar y humedad del suelo) adyacentes a cada trampa de semillas. En total, registramos 331,838 semillas pertenecientes a 323 morfoespecies. En general, la proporción de especies endozoócoras en la lluvia de semillas disminuyó con la elevación. La biomasa relativa de las especies endozoócoras disminuyó con el aumento de las precipitaciones, mientras que la riqueza relativa de semillas de las especies endozoócoras aumentó con el aumento de la temperatura y el índice de área foliar. Estos resultados sugieren una interacción entre los factores climáticos y las condiciones de microhábitat que determina la importancia de las especies de plantas endozoócoras en la lluvia de semillas de los bosques montanos tropicales. Nosotros concluimos que los cambios en las condiciones climáticas y de microhábitat pueden provocar alteraciones en los modos de dispersión más dominantes de las comunidades vegetales que pueden desencadenar a su vez cambios en la dinámica actual y futura de los bosques tropicales. We investigated the effects of climate and microhabitat conditions on the prevalence of endozoochorous plant species in the seed rain of tropical montane forests in southern Ecuador. Our analyses demonstrate that the prevalence of endozoochorous plant species in seed rain increases with temperature across elevations and with leaf area index within elevations. Our study shows that the prevalence of endozoochory in tropical forests is shaped by an interplay of abiotic and biotic factors at large and small spatial scales.
Recommender systems support users’ decision-making, and they are key for helping them discover resources or relevant items in an information-overloaded environment such as the web. Like other Artificial Intelligence-based applications, these systems suffer from the problem of lack of interpretability and explanation of their results. Enriching or augmenting the system output with explanations increases the users’ trustworthiness and reliability regarding the system decisions. Therefore, it is important not only to measure the performance of automatic models but also to measure the explainability of the system. In this paper, we present research related to explainable recommender systems and a demonstrative case. To illustrate how explainable recommendations can be generated, we present two scenarios based on the Tripadvisor dataset.
Medical records constitute an important source knowledge. Millions of data records can be processed looking for patterns using artificial intelligence and machine learning. Thus, the present research aims to identify patterns in gynecologic data. The dataset used includes 1251 records related to women's diseases, it contains aspects such as age, sicknesses, the contraceptive method used, and pathologic history, among others. The methodology applied in this work allowed the management of key aspects such as data understanding, preprocessing, modeling, and evaluation. Three unsupervised algorithms have been applied: k-means, DBSCAN, and Hierarchical Clustering. Silhouette metric has been used to evaluate the quality of each cluster. Results show that the best silhouette value was 0.73 and 9 clusters, obtained with DBSCAN. The outcomes obtained constitute an important contribution to identifying the most common genital infectious diseases that influence the identification of pattern in each cluster.
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4,699 members
Holger M. Benavides Muñoz
  • Departamento de Ingienería Civil
Selvaraj Thangaswamy
  • Departamento de Ciencias Naturales
Rommel Vicente Torres
  • Departamento de Ciencias de la Computación
Rosario Puertas Hidalgo
  • Departamento de la Comunicación
Nelson Piedra
  • Departamento de Ciencias de la Computación
Marcelino Champagnat, 1101608, Loja, Provincia de Loja, Ecuador
Head of institution
Dr. Santiago Acosta Aide