Introduction We study from a multidimensional perspective the different factors that help prevent the development of cognitive impairment in old aging. Methods This study analyzed in 300 elderly subjects the relationship between cognitive reserve (CR), physical reserve (PR) and motivational reserve (MR) with cognitive impairment. This study also takes into consideration different variables (sex, age, educational level, and institutionalization) that might affect the results in the different types of reserves (CR, physical and MR) and cognitive impairment. Results The results show that people with a higher cognitive reserve, physical reserve and motivational reserve have less cognitive impairment. Discussion Therefore, it is important to consider measuring the CR as a variable to diagnose neurodegenerative illnesses but it is also essential to consider the physical state and physical activity, as well as the motivational dimension. With the cognitive reserve and sex variables no significant differences were observed. Age had a negative effect on strategic flexibility, but those with higher CR had better cognitive flexibility and the educational.
El temblor esencial (TE) es una enfermedad neurológica que se manifiesta con trastornos del movimiento, experimentando la persona que lo sufre temblores que no puede controlar. Además de producirse temblores en manos, también manifiestan temblores en las mandíbulas y laringe, quedando principalmente la voz de estos pacientes afectada. Por otro lado, se ha demostrado que los ejercicios de tracto vocal semiocluído (ETVSO) provocan cambios beneficiosos en el patrón vibratorio de los pliegues vocal. Es por ello que se presenta el caso clínico de una mujer de 61 años diagnosticada de TE con la finalidad de comprobar la efectividad de los ETVSO en pacientes con dicha enfermedad. Los resultados post intervención logopédica mostraron un descenso en los Hz de los formantes de la voz, una mejora de fonación continua y mejora de la prosodia. Por lo que se concluye que el uso de los ETVSO podría ser beneficioso en pacientes con temblor esencial.
Introduction: Disability associated with the symptoms of post-COVID-19 syndrome is one of its main features and can have a considerable impact on care and rehabilitation units. This, linked to a decreased aerobic capacity and endurance in post-COVID-19 syndrome patients, increases interest in studying the potential of mobile applications to assess performance capacity. The purpose of this research was to study how a free mobile application assesses aerobic capacity and endurance and its relationship with aerobic capacity, test-retest reliability, and endurance evaluated by a conventional test, along with fatigue and health-related quality of life. Methods: An observational study was conducted. RUNZI®, a free mobile application, was used by mounting a Samsung Galaxy S8 smartphone using a strap on the right forearm while all participants simultaneously performed a 6-Minute Walking Test (6MWT). Construct validity between the 6MWT and the total distance performed evaluated by RUNZI® was explored. Additionally, evaluation scales to assess fatigue (MFIS) and health-related quality of life (SF-36) were used to analyze the construct validity of RUNZI®. For test-retest reliability of the app, the same instructions about the 6MWT and procedure with the app were given to all participants at two different time periods. Results: A total of 16 post-COVID-19 syndrome patients (15 females and 1 male) completed the procedure. Distance measured with the RUNZI® showed an excellent correlation with the 6MWT assessed conventionally (p < 0.0001; r = 0.851). No statistical correlations were found between the distance assessed by the RUNZI® app with MFIS and the SF-36. Test-retest reliability was found to be close to statistical significance (p = 0.058) for distance (m) measured by RUNZI® with an ICC of 0.482. Conclusions: Instrumental 6MWT assessed by the RUNZI® app for the Android® operating system showed an excellent correlation with conventional 6MWT, indicating its construct validity in post-COVID-19 syndrome patients. Further, values for the test-retest reliability for the free mobile application were close to statistical significance with a reliability considered poor in an indoor setting.
There is little scientific knowledge about the influence of the match status criteria (winning, drawing, losing) in ball possessions in women’s football. Therefore, the aims of this study were: (i) to discover how technical-tactical criteria in ball possessions in women’s football are modified based on the match status, and (ii) to find out which criteria provide the best probability for offensive success (i.e. goal, shot, and sent to area) under the influence of match status. To this end, 2323 ball possessions were analyzed in the FIFA Women’s World Cup France 2019 using observational methodology. Two types of analysis were applied: firstly, a bi-variate analysis between match status and the rest of the criteria, followed by a predictive multivariate binary logistic regression analysis. The results obtained from the bi-variate analysis reveal the existence of significant statistical differences in the start and development of ball possessions in this championship depending on the match status. On the other hand, there was no evidence of differences when it comes to goal scoring, shots, and passes into the area based on these criteria. From the logistic regression models used, it was observed that there is a common pattern of success regardless of the match status, consisting of ball possessions that start in forward zones, in contexts of offensive interaction and with the intention of rapid progression toward the opponent’s goal. These results could be used for planning match and training strategies in elite women’s football.
El presente trabajo desarrolla un programa de intervención para mejorar las competencias de la memoria autobiográfica, el bienestar y el estado de ánimo en adultos mayores institucionalizados en residencias. El programa se centra en posibilitar al adulto mayor para reescribir las experiencias personales positivas, magnificando las estrategias señaladas por la Psicología Positiva como más efectivas para lograr la felicidad. Se realiza un estudio piloto con diseño pre- y post-test, con una intervención de 8 sesiones, en una residencia de mayores. Como instrumentos se utilizan cuestionarios y auto informes para cuantificar las emociones positivas, la sensación de felicidad, la orientación al placer en las situaciones cotidianas de la vida y el número de recuerdos positivos. Los hallazgos coinciden con la literatura en los cuales la promoción de reminiscencias positivas favorece la sensación de bienestar y el incremento de la memoria de identidad positiva en adultos mayores. La conclusión derivada es que los programas basados en la reminiscencia son eficaces para mejorar el bienestar y la felicidad percibida en adultos mayores institucionalizados por lo que deberían incrementarse este tipo de intervenciones.
Tomando como referencia los estudios de William Johnson sobre la sociología de la lectura en la antigüedad, este estudio se propone reconstruir en sus líneas generales cómo se leyeron los evangelios en el periodo que va desde la composición del primero de ellos hasta noticia de Justino sobre su lectura en las comunidades de Roma (70-150). Tras una breve presentación del modelo y de los datos sobre esta práctica en el periodo indicado, se analizan cinco factores: (1) el tipo de texto que se lee; (2) el contexto o situación en que se lee; (3) la comunidad lectora; (4) la tradición cultural en que se inscribe la lectura; y (5) la identidad del lector. El estudio concluye con algunas reflexiones sobre el impacto de esta lectura en el arraigo inicial del cristianismo.
La erección del Secretariado Nacional de Formación Profesional de la Iglesia, por la Conferencia de Metropolitanos en el año 1957, integrado y dependiente de la Comisión Episcopal de Enseñanza, modificó las condiciones de la situación jurídica en la que se encontraban los centros de Formación Profesional de la Iglesia. El Secretariado se convertía en el representante autorizado de dichos centros, ante la jerarquía eclesiástica y ante los correspondientes organismos del Estado. El artículo presenta los comienzos de dicho Secretariado: creación, estatutos, puesta en marcha y primeras dificultades, tanto internas como externas. Y todo ello bajo la dirección del obispo de Huelva, Pedro Cantero Cuadrado, que marcará un estilo propio.
Universities are a key element in preventing any form of discrimination. Therefore, the United Nations 2030 Agenda recognizes their role through goal 4 regarding the quality of education. The 2030 agenda also includes goals 5 and 10, regarding gender equity and reducing inequalities as cross-cutting elements to boost social inclusion. The purpose of this research is to carry out a multivariate and dynamic analysis of the most outstanding universities in the global list of the THE Impact Rankings, which is the only tool that classifies these institutions in terms of the sustainable development goals (SDGs) to study how they are positioned in the indicators related to inequality. We also examine its evolution in the last three years and the relationship between goals 4, 5, and 10. The results show that less than half of the leading universities in sustainability carry out an active social inclusion policy. Additionally, most of them underwent significant changes in their trajectories to approach the indicator of gender equity. The research suggests there is still a long way to go to achieve social justice.
Molybdenum (Mo) and zinc (Zn) play important roles in the process of adaptation to physical training. The aims of the present study were: (i) to analyze the differences in extracellular (plasma and urine) and intracellular (erythrocytes and platelets) Mo and Zn concentrations between sexes and (ii) to relate extracellular Zn concentrations with biomarkers of muscle damage and muscle mass. The present study involved 138 semi-professional soccer players divided according to sex: male (n = 68) and female (n = 70). Mo and Zn concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Erythrocytes, platelets, creatine kinase (CK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) values were also determined by automatic cell counter and spectrophotometric techniques. There were no sex differences in Mo and Zn intake. Male soccer players obtained higher values of erythrocytes, CK, and LDH (p < 0.05), and showed higher plasma and urinary concentrations of Mo and Zn (p < 0.05). Female soccer players showed relatively higher Zn concentrations in erythrocytes (p < 0.05). Finally, positive correlations were observed between extracellular Zn concentrations with CK, LDH and muscle mass. Extracellular concentrations of Mo and Zn were higher in male soccer players. However, the relative concentrations of Zn in relation to the number of erythrocytes were higher in female soccer players.
Virtual and augmented reality technologies are increasingly being implemented in education and there is a growing body of evidence on their usefulness for training academic and non-academic skills among student with different education levels and diverse educational needs. To fully benefit from their use, teachers need to know the different existing tools and their potential, as well as be trained and motivated in their use. The current study aims to evaluate the factors that promote and hinder the use of virtual and augmented reality in future teaching professionals. Data were gathered by means of an online questionnaire from a total of 422 Spanish students from the Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca (Spain). Instrumental analyses (Cronbach’s Alpha, and CFA) were performed, together with descriptive, correlational, and inferential tests (Manova, Anova, and Student’s T test) to contrast the hypotheses. Results indicate that participants show favorable attitudes towards these technologies, but have little knowledge of them. Age, year of study, and knowledge are associated with a higher perception of usefulness as tools for teaching and learning and for promoting inclusion. The results support the relevance of providing knowledge, and enhancing skills, thus fostering positive attitudes towards these technologies (more info at: https://www.mdpi.com/2227-7102/12/12/855)
Due to the cognitive decline associated with aging, it is necessary to determine the variables involved in this process to implement preventive actions to avoid or help slow the progression of cognitive decline to dementia in older adults. This is a priority in the current pandemic situation, due to the consequences of periods of confinement due to COVID-19. To address these challenges, this study was conducted through Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), by adapting an in-person assessment protocol into an online Tele neuropsychological consultation. The correlation between autonomy and cognitive performance variables is analyzed in 47 Mexican subjects over 60 years of age. The results of the statistical analyses suggest a moderate correlation between the level of autonomy and cognitive performance (with MOCA and Clock Drawing Test), significant correlation values are outlined in some of the variables reviewed, and interesting data were found in the correlation of cognitive reserve with cognitive decline and the educational level from the participants. Finally, future analysis is proposed of the sensitivity of screening tests (CDT) to find indicators of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in this population that is not detected in classical tests (MOCA). Developing ICT-based screening protocols for the elderly may be a key tool in these coronavirus times or under any given circumstances.
Within the context of emergency situations, the terms witness or bystander are used to refer to individuals involved in oppressive incidents who are neither the victim nor the perpetrator. Among the different types of emergency situations, our study focuses on violence against women (VAW). In keeping with current efforts in the scientific literature on bystander intervention and the evidence currently available, the main focus of this study is to analyze some personal factors that reflect the characteristics or experiences of bystanders and that could have a bearing on their predisposition to help victims of VAW (i.e., empathy, a just world belief system, and expectations of self-efficacy) and later analyze the possible relationship between these personal characteristics and gender or previous experience as a VAW bystander. An opportunity sample of 546 Spanish participants (73.4% women and 26.6% men) between 18 and 56 years of age took part in this study and fill out a sociodemographic data sheet, a questionnaire to evaluate the experience as violence witness designed ad hoc, and the Characteristics of People who Help Questionnaire scale (CPHQ). The results obtained indicate that CPHQ could constitute an adequate measure for the three dimensions analyzed. Female participants are significantly more empathetic than males, but in the case of a just world belief and expectations of self-efficacy the results showed no gender-related differences. Additionally, only a just world belief was clearly influenced by having been a bystander to some form of VAW. In conclusion, this study contributes a proposal for an evaluating instrument featuring three relevant personal characteristics in the development of helping behaviors, presenting some results of interest regarding empathy, a just world belief, and expectations of self-efficacy and their relationship with gender or previous experiences as VAW bystanders. These results obtained suggest an initial path toward future research in the development of interventions with bystander participation in our environment.
Metaphors are frequently used in psychological interventions, as they are assumed to have effects on cognition and behavior. However, empirical research on this subject is still scarce. This research aims to identify possible types of metaphors that people use to understand life and to analyze the relationships between life metaphors, meaningfulness, experiential avoidance, happiness and mental health. A total of 1536 individuals from Spain and Latin America responded to a survey on the use of life metaphors, which also collected data on their feelings of meaning in life as well as levels of experiential avoidance, happiness, anxiety, depression and general mental health. In Part 1, using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, two independent types of life metaphors were identified, i.e. eudaimonic metaphors (e.g. life is a treasure) and uncertainty metaphors (e.g. life is a maze). Moreover, other complex metaphors referred to fiction (e.g. life is a stage play, a dream) and confinement (e.g. life is a prison) were analyzed in relation to eudaimonic and uncertainity dimensions. In Part 2, eudaimonic metaphors were found associated with higher levels of happiness and meaningfulness, and lower levels of experiential avoidance, anxiety, depression and mental health problems. Conversely, uncertainty metaphors were associated with lower happiness and meaning in life, higher experiential avoidance, and higher presence of mental health symptoms. The results are coherent with the idea that, in clinical contexts, metaphors can be remarkable indicators of psychological problems and also offer an interesting tool for intervention.
The main objective of this research is to analyze the level of anxiety and precompetitive self-confidence of tennis and padel players and to check the influence of gender and competitive level in each of the sports. Four hundred and twenty-three tennis and padel players, with a mean age of 15.40 (± 3.43) years, participated in the study. Of the total number of players surveyed, 291 were padel players and 132 were tennis players. The Spanish version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2R (CSAI-2R) in the Spanish version was used to measure the level of cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence between 30 and 35 min before the start of the match. The general results showed that the level of self-confidence of padel players is higher of tennis players. In relation to gender, female tennis players showed a higher level of precompetitive anxiety than male players, while, in padel, it was the opposite. In terms of competitive level, U14 players had the highest level of self-confidence and the lowest level of precompetitive anxiety. When comparing both sports, female tennis players show a higher level of state-anxiety than female padel players and U14 tennis players are the ones who showed a higher level of self-confidence. This study shows how precompetitive anxiety is one of the most important psychological variables in relation to sport performance and how it can vary according to gender and competitive level.
The main objective of this study was to analyze the acute effect of two teaching models on mood in university students. The sample used is made up of 112 students of the Degree in Physical Activity and Sport Sciences. The Profile of Mood States Questionnaire (Profile of Mood States) by McNair, Lorr and Droppleman (1971) was used in its adaptation to Spanish. Two sessions were conducted, a traditional one based on direct instruction (DI) and an alternative (AL) one based on search and discovery. The traditional model increased all negative factors with significant differences (p0,05), while the alternative model improved positive mood. By gender, the effect of the teaching model on mood is different, and it does so with significant differences (p0,05). The alternative model would be the most suitable for improving the positive of student's mood. KEYWORDS State of mind; Mood; Traditional models; Modern model; University students.
Resumen Objetivos: Identificar eventos adversos secundarios al decúbito prono (DP) en pacientes con COVID-19 con síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo (SDRA) moderado/severo, analizar los factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de úlceras por presión (UPP) en DP y describir la evolución oximétrica de estos pacientes durante el DP. Método: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo realizado sobre 63 pacientes ingresados en la UCI de un hospital de segundo nivel, con neumonía por SARS-CoV-2, SDRA moderado/severo, ventilación mecánica invasiva, que precisaron maniobras de DP, durante marzo y abril de 2020. Se usó un muestreo no probabilístico consecutivo y se analizaron las variables seleccionadas a través de una regresión logística. Resultados: Se realizaron un total de 139 sesiones de pronación. La mediana de sesiones fue de 2 [1-3] y la duración de 22 horas [15-24] por sesión. La aparición de eventos adversos ocurrió en un 84,9% de los casos, siendo las fisiológicas (ej. hiper/hipotensión) las más frecuentes. Al comparar pacientes pronados que mantuvieron la integridad cutánea (34 de 63 pacientes, un 54%) versus los que desarrollaron UPP (29 de 63, un 46%), estos últimos presentaron los siguientes factores de riesgo: mayor edad, ser hipertensos, pre-albúmina <21mg/dl, mayor número de sesiones de prono y mayor gravedad al ingreso. Se observó un incremento significativo entre la PaO2/FiO2 previa al DP y en los diferentes cortes temporales durante el prono, además de una caída significativa tras despronar. Conclusiones: Existe una alta incidencia de eventos adversos debidos al DP, siendo los de tipo fisiológico los más frecuentes. La identificación de varios factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de UPP ayudará a prevenir la aparición de estas lesiones durante la pronación. La terapia de DP en pacientes COVID-19 con SDRA moderado/severo ha demostrado una mejora en los parámetros de oxigenación.
The purpose of this research was to analyze the organizational structures of the different federations and entities representing the modalities of trail-running, skyrunning, and mountain running and how they have settled in the current sports landscape. The main task of these entities is to act as hosts of the legally established modalities, both internationally and nationally, applying their respective regulations and statutes unilaterally. Through an in-depth review of the different regulations, statutes, and current articles of all the organizations that represent the different disciplines, we can observe how a sport modality that seems to be the same is nevertheless distant in its execution (regulations, championships, classifications, systems of points, etc.), which has led to the international level being established in different sport modalities (trail running and skyrunning). At the level of the Spanish territory, it has led to an administrative dispute to know who has the powers to approve sports competitions.
Este estudio analiza el impacto del apoyo fuera del aula como medida de atención a la diversidad en el alumnado de primaria, además de las nominaciones positivas y negativas que emiten y reciben, así como sus perfiles sociométricos. La muestra representa a 20 colegios ordinarios de la región de Extremadura (España). Participaron 881 alumnos (de 6 a 12 años) pertenecientes a 43 aulas de primaria, de primero a sexto curso; de estos, 98 alumnos (11,12 %) presentaban necesidades específicas de apoyo educativo. Como instrumento se utilizó un cuestionario sociométrico basado en el método de nominación de iguales y la asociación de atributos. Los resultados muestran que los alumnos con necesidades específicas de apoyo educativo (ACNEAE) obtienen más rechazo y que este aumenta a medida que lo hace el nivel educativo. Además, estos alumnos reciben más nominaciones por parte de sus iguales con NEAE. Los alumnos con y sin NEAE muestran perfiles sociométricos distintos que denotan perfiles comportamentales diferentes. Los resultados muestran que la provisión de apoyos fuera del aula parece actuar como factor inhibidor de la inclusión educativa.
Recent decades have seen a growing acknowledgement of violence against women (VAW) as a serious social and public health problem of epidemic proportions. The prevention of VAW and intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) has become a priority within this context, and includes various prevention strategies such as social participation and helping behaviors. In different countries, conducting research on help-seeking behavior and bystander intervention in cases of VAW is a common practice, but addressing these issues is much less common in Spain. In this context, the objective of this study is to provide a preliminary estimation of the volume of bystanders in cases of IPVAW in Spain between 2005 and 2020 (since the entry into force of Organic Law 1/2004), their willingness to intervene and, in the case of intervention, the type of helping behavior (real or hypothetical) preferred, using the sources (secondary data) available (specifically, survey data, as the surveys of social perception of gender violence and the 2014 and 2019 macro-surveys, and also administrative data, as the database of reports filed). The data analyzed allow us to determine that, in fact, in the cases of IPVAW there are usually persons within the victim’s inner circle who are firsthand witnesses or have been informed by the victim of the existence of this type of violence, but, although the bystanders generally claim they would engage in an active and supportive response, this is in fact not always the case. These results underscore the need to develop intervention programs aimed at IPVAW bystanders to improve their reaction and contribute to the development of helpful and efficient active responses.
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