Amaranth sprouts contain phytochemicals with antioxidant activity that can neutralize free radicals that damage cellular macromolecules and change the stability of cells. In some seeds, phytochemicals content can be enhanced when these are imbibed with an aqueous seaweed extract (ASE). This study evaluated the effect of different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 2.5 mg mL⁻¹) of Padina durvillei (TP) and Ulva lactuca (TU) extracts, with distilled water as a control treatment, on the growth of amaranth sprouts and content of total polyphenols (TPC), flavonoids (TFC), chlorophylls a and b (TCCa and TCCb), carotenoids (TCC), betacyanins (TBC) and, the antioxidant in-vitro activity of sprouts. There was a positive effect on hypocotyl and root growth of sprouts when treated with 2.5 mg mL⁻¹ and 0.5 mg mL⁻¹ TP and TU extracts, respectively. The highest antioxidant activity ocurred in sprouts grown in 0.5 mg mL⁻¹ TP. Sprouts treated with 0.5 mg mL⁻¹ ASE had a higher content of bioactive compounds compared to those treated with water, with the TP extract associated with the highest content of TPC (9.52 mg QE g⁻¹) and TFC (0.567 mg GAE g⁻¹), TCCa, and TCCb (0.09 and 0.12 mg g⁻¹, respectively), sprouts grown in 0.5 mg mL⁻¹ TU accumulated a higher TCC content (0.04 mg g⁻¹ dry sprout). Treatment with at 2.5 mg mL⁻¹ TP and TU extracts produced sprouts that accumulated a higher TBC content in the cotyledons. These results demonstrated the biostimulant effect of ASEs when applied to amaranth seeds, and can be a suitable option for sustainable agriculture.
Biological and fishery features of Panopea sp. clams have been studied in northwest Mexico because of their importance for human consumption. However, the content of pollutants in their tissues, along with their implications have not been addressed yet. The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), and zinc (Zn) in soft tissues of Panopea generosa and P. globosa clams were examined in this region by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The metal concentrations (µg/g wet weight) ranged from 6.5 to 14.2, 0.97–8.09, 0.60–1.18, and 0.01–0.07, for Zn, Cu, Cd, and Hg, respectively. This study proposes that metal presence is related to weathering, upwelling, and drainage from adjacent agricultural lands to the coast. According to the Official Mexican Standard (NOM-242-SSA1-2009) and the World Health Organization (WHO, 2022), the metal content in siphon tissue indicates safe levels for human consumption.
Systemic hypoperfusion plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Extreme dips in mean arterial pressure (MAP) due to high 24-h variability are associated with POAG, however, whether this is driven by diurnal or nocturnal dips remains undocumented. We aimed this study to investigate the association of POAG damage with variability and dips in the diurnal and nocturnal MAP. We conducted a retrospective longitudinal study that included 110 POAG patients who underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Our outcomes included (i) functional [visual field defects expressed as mean deviation (MD)] and (ii) structural (optic disc cupping obtained from cup-to-disc ratio) glaucoma damage. MAP variability independent of the mean (VIMmap) was computed for diurnal and nocturnal MAP. Dips were the five diurnal and three nocturnal lowest drops in MAP. We also calculated the night-to-day ratio. We applied mixed models to evaluate the progression of visual field defects and optic disc cupping in relation to diurnal and nocturnal MAP measures. The mean age was 64.0 y (53% women). The median follow-up was 9 years. In adjusted mixed models, functional progression of glaucoma damage was associated with VIMmap (−2.57 dB change in MD per every 3 mmHg increase in VIMmap; P < 0.001) and diurnal MAP dips (changes in the MD ranged from −2.56 to −3.19 dB; P < 0.001). Every 5 mmHg decrease in the nocturnal MAP level was associated with −1.14 dB changes in MD [95% confidence interval (CI), −1.90 to −0.40] and 0.01 larger optic disc cupping (95% CI, 0.01–0.02). Lower night-to-day ratio was also related to both outcomes (P ≤ 0.012). Functional glaucoma damage worsened if nocturnal hypotension was combined with high variability or extreme dips in the diurnal MAP (P ≤ 0.022). Progression of glaucoma damage in POAG associates with high variability and extreme dips in the diurnal MAP. Structural glaucoma damage seems more vulnerable to nocturnal hypotension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring allows the assessment of sporadic diurnal and persistent nocturnal hypotension episodes. These phenotypes might offer an opportunity to improve the risk-stratification of open-angle glaucoma (OAG).
This paper aimed to evaluate the effects of feeding rate and the hormonal treatments for spawning induction on the condition factor, and the reproductive performance of the striped catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. A commercial diet with 35% of protein in three feeding rates-1%, 2%, and 3% biomass, were supplied for 184 days-and two hormonal methods-hCG injections and GnRHa implants-were applied. A marked influence of the feeding rates on the monthly variations in body weight and condition factor was observed, with the highest values for fishes fed at 3% biomass. No spawning occurred in females in the 1% biomass group. The relative fecundity in both sexes, the fertilization, and the hatching rates were significantly higher in the 3% biomass group than observed in the 2% biomass group. Thus, the use of diets with 35% protein provided at 3% biomass to the breeders of P. hypophthalmus, is recommended.
In this study, the concentration of six metal(loid)s was examined in the fish Oreochromis aureus collected from El Comedero dam during a massive mortality event induced by a mine tailing spill. A major spill (~ 300,000 m³) of waste was released into the San Lorenzo River System following a rupture in the tailing dam of a mining plant in NW Mexico; consequently, the discharged material flowed into El Comedero dam. The accumulation of metal(oid)s in the tissues of O. aureus showed higher levels in the liver than in the guts and muscle. Concentrations in the liver were high (As, 1.1–1063; Cd, 8.9–392; Cu, 372–59,129; Hg, 0.46–19.79; Se, 8.7–748; and Zn, 116–820 μg g⁻¹), revealing that these fish were exposed to high concentrations of these elements. The mortality of fish could have resulted from the combined effect of the six analyzed metal(loid)s, as well as other residues present in mine tailings.
Background: Adopting awkward postures at work has a great impact on productivity and work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Considering anthropometric data in the design of products and workplaces can diminish this impact. The traditional univariate-percentile-approach is one of the most implemented in the anthropometric analysis, even though it has proved limitations in comparison with multivariate-approaches. Objective: To develop univariate and multivariate hand models considering four anthropometric dimensions, and to theoretically compare the univariate and multivariate accommodation percentages. Methods: Univariate percentile models corresponding to the database of real subject nearest-neighbors to the 5th and 95th percentiles were obtained for the male and female population. Two multivariate approaches were implemented on the central 90% of both populations: 2D principal component analysis and archetypal analysis. The accommodation percentage for each family of models was obtained based on the population that simultaneously fit all the anthropometric dimensions. The goodness-of-fit and McNemar's tests were performed to statistically analyze the accommodation percentages. Results: Eight human hand models were obtained via Principal Component Analysis while two, three, four, and eight Archetypal Analysis models (male-population) and two, three, six, and eight Archetypal Analysis models (female-population) were selected after a root-sum-of-squares analysis for k = 1, ... ,10 archetypes. Conclusion: The results showed that the Principal Component Analysis models obtained a higher accommodation level, followed by the Archetypal Analysis and percentile models (male population). In the case of the female population, models obtained by multivariate-Archetypal Analysis (k = 8) obtained a higher accommodation percentage.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most frequent cancer diagnosed in men worldwide. The detection methods for PCa are either unreliable, like prostate-specific antigen (PSA), or extremely invasive, such as in the case of biopsies. Therefore, there is an urgent necessity for reliable and less invasive detection procedures that can differentiate between patients with benign diseases and those with cancer. In this matter, microRNAs (miRNAs) are suggested as potential biomarkers for cancer. MiRNAs have been found to be dysregulated in several different cancers, and these genetic alterations may present specific signatures for a given malignancy. Here, we examined the expression of miR141-3p, miR145-5p, miR146a-5p, and miR148b-3p in human tissue samples of PCa ( n = 41) and benign prostatic diseases (BPD) ( n = 30) using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). We combined the expression results with patient clinicopathological characteristics in logistic regression models to create accurate PCa predictive models. A model including information of miR148b-3p and patient age showed relevant prediction results (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.818, precision = 0.763, specificity = 0.762, and accuracy = 0.762). A model including all four miRNAs and patient age presented outstanding prediction results (AUC = 0.918, precision = 0.861, specificity = 0.861, and accuracy = 0.857). Our results represent a potential novel procedure based on logistic regression models that utilize miRNA expressions and patient age to assist with PCa diagnosis.
The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) industry represent the 71% of aquaculture total world production and demands for novel feeds and better proteins. In this sense, Pacific thread herring (Ophistonema libertate) contains high-quality proteins suitable to produce protein hydrolysates (PH) with antioxidant activity for tilapia feeds. In this study, two Alcalase herring muscle PH were prepared at 10% and 30% degree of hydrolysis (DH) and were supplemented on two formulated feeds, FH10 and FH30 respectively. One hundred eighty tilapia juveniles were fed with the experimental and a control feed (CF) for 6 weeks and then submitted to an acute stress by temperature increment for 24 hours. The results revealed that organisms fed with the FH10 shown the highest (p < 0.05) weight increment compared to the other feeds, showing a better protein yield. The enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) measured in Nile tilapia livers was influenced by the experimental feeds, the organisms fed with FH10 exhibited the highest activity in SOD and CAT and the best productive performance, while the tilapias fed with FH30 showed an elevated GPx activity, suggesting that herring muscle PH in feeds are a suitable option to bring a potential benefit for Nile tilapias.
In this study, the concentrations of Cd and Hg were measured in muscle of juvenile individuals at an importan fishing ground in southeastern Gulf of California to assess the health risk to human consumers considering elemental levels and rate of shark consumption in NW Mexico. Twenty-eight individuals were sampled in September 2019. Quantification of Hg was made by cold vapor-atomic absorption spectrophotometry, analyses of Cd were made by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In general, average Hg (1.27 µg g⁻¹ dry weight) concentrations were higher than Cd (0.059). In comparison to results of Cd and Hg in muscle of several species of genus Rhizoprionodon sp., our reported concentrations were comparable. Maximum permissible limits (Cd 0.5 and Hg 0.5 µg g⁻¹ wet weight) in fish products for human consumption were not exceeded. Health risk assessment to shark consumers indicated that Hg is of more concern than Cd but no hazards exist.
Microplastics have been studied on biota and other environmental domains, such as soils. Despite the importance of groundwater as a resource for millions of people worldwide as drinking water and personal hygiene, domestic, agricultural, mining, and industrial purposes, there are very few studies concerning MPs in this domain around the world. We present the first study in Latin America addressing this topic. Six capped boreholes were analyzed in terms of abundance, concentration, and chemical characterization, at three different depths, from a coastal aquifer in Northwest Mexico. This aquifer is highly permeable and affected by anthropogenic activities. A total of 221 MPs were found in the eighteen samples. In terms of concentration, the interval ranged from 4 to 29 particles/L, with an average of 12.3 particles/L. Four synthetic polymers were identified: isotactic polypropylene (iPP), hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC), carboxylated polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and low-density polyethylene (LDPE); with iPP being the most abundant (64.3%) in each borehole. Agriculture activities and septic outflows are considered the potential regional sources of these contaminants into the aquifer. Three possible transport pathways to the aquifer are suggested: (1) marine intrusion, (2) marsh intrusion, and (3) infiltration through the soil. More research about the occurrence, concentration, and distribution of the different kinds of MPs in groundwater is needed to have a better understanding of the behavior and health risks to organisms, including human beings.
Background Twenty-four-hour and nighttime blood pressure (BP) levels are more strongly associated with cardiovascular risk than office or daytime BP measurements. However, it remains undocumented which of the office and ambulatory BP measurements have the strongest association and predictive information in relation to the presence of type I, or arteriolosclerosis type, cerebral small vessel diseases (CSVD). Methods A subset of 429 participants from the Maracaibo Aging Study [aged ≥40 years (women, 73.7%; mean age, 59.3 years)] underwent baseline brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize CSVD, which included log-transformed white matter hyperintensities (log-WMH) volume and the presence (yes/no) of lacunes, cerebral microbleeds (CMB), or enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS). Linear and logistic regression models were applied to examine the association between CSVD and each +10-mmHg increment in the office and ambulatory systolic BP measurements. Improvement in the fit of nested logistic models was assessed by the log-likelihood ratio and the generalized R ² statistic. Results Office and ambulatory systolic BP measurements were related to log-WMH (β - correlation coefficients ≥0.08; P < 0.001). Lacunes and CMB were only associated with ambulatory systolic BP measurements (odds ratios [OR] ranged from 1.31 [95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.55] to 1.46 [1.17–1.84], P ≤ 0.003). Accounted for daytime systolic BP, both the 24-h (β-correlation, 0.170) and nighttime (β - correlation, 0.038) systolic BP measurements remained related to log-WMH. When accounted for 24-h or daytime systolic BP levels, the nighttime systolic BP retained the significant association with lacunes (ORs, 1.05–1.06; 95% CIs, ≥1.01 to ≤ 1.13), whereas the 24-h and daytime systolic BP levels were not associated with lacunes after adjustments for nighttime systolic BP (ORs, ≤ 0.88; 95% CI, ≥0.77 to ≤ 1.14). On top of covariables and office systolic BP, ambulatory systolic BP measurements significantly improved model performance (1.05% ≥ R ² ≤ 3.82%). Compared to 24-h and daytime systolic BP, nighttime systolic BP had the strongest improvement in the model performance; for WMH (1.46 vs. 1.05%) and lacunes (3.06 vs. ≤ 2.05%). Conclusions Twenty-four-hour and nighttime systolic BP were the more robust BP measurements associated with CSVD, but the nighttime systolic BP level had the strongest association. Controlling ambulatory BP levels might provide additional improvement in the prevention of CSVD.
To balance the risks and benefits of fish consumption, selenium, fatty acids (DHA + EPA), and mercury in fishery products were determined. Analyzed products were canned tuna, frozen tuna (Thunnus albacares), smoked striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax), fresh Pacific sierra (Scomberomorus sierra), fresh dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus), fresh tilapia (Gerres cinereus), and fresh bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus). Mercury (μg g⁻¹ wet weight) ranged from 0.01 (dolphinfish) to 0.23 (bullseye puffer); Se ranged from 0.12 to 0.25. EPA + DHA ranged from 1.16 to 10.72 mg g⁻¹. Intake of EPA + DHA was comparable or above the recommended daily intake; Hg intake was below the reference dose but Se intake was below than recommended values for the different population groups. Considering the HBVSe, fishery products had positive values; i.e., they are healthy food items. According to the interaction of Hg and Se and the rate of fishery product consumption, the risk for consumers is below one percent.
This study aimed to establish the distribution of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, in the muscle and liver of the spotted ratfish Hydrolagus colliei from the northern Gulf of California to establish the bioaccumulation background data in this species. The individuals (n = 110) were obtained by bycatch from the Gulf of California hake fisheries, and the metals and metalloid were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The element with the highest concentration in the muscle (15.19 ± 5.40 mg kg⁻¹) and the liver (20.98 ± 10.30 mg kg⁻¹) was As, followed by essential elements (Zn > Cu), and the lowest were the non-essential Pb (0.029 ± 0.014 and 0.048 ± 0.038 mg kg⁻¹, muscle and liver, respectively) and Cd (0.022 ± 0.014 and 0.796 ± 0.495 mg kg⁻¹, muscle and liver, respectively). The liver showed higher bioaccumulation than the muscle in all the studied elements. The sex was not a factor that influenced the bioaccumulation. The concentrations of As in the muscle did not exceed the maximum permissible limits of Mexican legislation, and < 50% of the samples exceed Cd and Pb limits of the Mexican, European Union, and WHO/FAO regulations. The differences found between the elements and tissues could be related to the different diets of the species, their migratory patterns, and their life conditions. Studies in the deep-sea water H. colliei are limited, and further investigations are needed regarding the feeding habits of H. colliei as well as the interactions of potentially toxic elements within the deep-sea water habitat.
This study aimed to establish the distribution of As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in the main tissues (muscle, liver, gonads, and gills) of the Pacific hake (Merluccius productus) from the northern Gulf of California to establish baseline bioavailability levels in the northern stock. The results for Pb and Cd were the lowest in the studied tissues (Pb < 0.005 mg kg⁻¹ in the liver and gonads and 1.43 mg kg⁻¹ for Cd in the liver), followed by levels of Cu and As (muscle > liver > gonads > gills) and Zn with the most abundant levels in all the tissues. The sex of the organisms was not a factor that influenced the bioaccumulation and distribution of the potential toxic elements (PTEs) nor total length, except for As in gills and Cd in muscle and the liver. Important interactions among Zn and non-essential elements were established. The Pacific hake intake of PTEs was probably through the diet via bioaccumulation of the elements in their prey and less by pollution of the water column. In the muscle, a major distribution and storage of As, Zn, and Pb were observed, but in the liver, higher loads were from Cd and Cu. The maximum tolerable weekly intake must be very high to be at health risk for the essential elements and Cd. However, the population might be at risk for Pb and As consumption if more than 124 g of M. productus in adults and 35 g in children are consumed per week. Further investigations are required to understand the dynamics of PTEs in M. productus as it could be proposed as a biomonitor species.
Half of the territory in Colombia is not connected to the electrical grid; this means that almost 2 million people [Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio “ZONAS NO INTERCONECTADAS - ZNI Diagnóstico de la prestación del servicio de energía eléctrica 2017 Superintendencia Delegada para Energía y Gas Combustible,” no 1, p 74, 2017] live without or with limited access to electricity. In view of the fact that most people in those areas live from fishing, livestock, agriculture, and tourism. Access to cooling systems can improve life quality and economic prosperity in these regions. Solar powered absorption systems are a viable means to bring cooling to the non-interconnected zones of the country, as they nearly don’t use electricity and rely mostly on heat to function. This heat can be harnessed from the sun by using solar collectors, thus making these systems renewable and independent from the grid. The tropical location of the country means that within the territory, there is a very diverse mixture of different climatic conditions that can affect the performance of the systems. This research focuses on detailing the viability of solar powered absorption cooling on the Colombian territory, presenting the results in the form of maximum amount of cooling achieved and system efficiency maps.
Objective: Mean arterial pressure (MAP) drives ocular perfusion. Excessive 24-h MAP variability relates to glaucoma, however, whether this is due to dips or increases in the blood pressure (BP) is undocumented. We investigated the association of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in relation to the five largest MAP dips/increases over 24-h, henceforth called dips/blips. Design and method: In the Maracaibo Aging Study (MAS), 93 participants aged 40y or older (women, 87.1%; mean age, 61.9y) underwent baseline ophthalmological and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring assessments. OAG was the presence of optic nerve damage and visual field defects. Statistical methods included logistic regression and the generalized R2 statistic. For replication, 48 OAG cases at the Leuven Glaucoma Clinic were matched with 48 controls recruited from Flemish population. Results: In MAS, 26 had OAG. OAG compared to non-OAG participants experienced longer and deeper dips (116.5 vs. 102.7 minutes; to 60.3 vs. 66.6 mmHg; 21.0 vs. 18.0 mmHg absolute or 0.79 vs. 0.81 relative dips compared to the preceding reading). The adjusted odds ratios associated with dip measures ranged from 2.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-4.85; P = 0.009) to 3.39 (95% CI, 1.36 8.46; P = 0.008). On top of covariables and 24 MAP level/variability, the dip measures increased the model performance (P values below 0.025). Blips did not associate with OAG. The case-control study replicated the MAS observations. Conclusions: Dips rather than increases in the 24-h MAP level were associated with increased risk for OAG. An ophthalmological examination combined with 24-h BP monitoring might be precautious steps required in normotensive and hypertensive patients at risk of OAG.
Objective: 24-h and nighttime blood pressure (BP) levels are the strongest BP measurements associated with cardiovascular risk. However, it remains undocumented which of the ambulatory BP measurements have the strongest association and predictive information in relation to the presence of cerebral small vessel diseases (CSVD). Design and method: A subset of Maracaibo Aging Study with 429 participants [aged 40 years or older (women, 73.7%; mean age, 59.3y)] underwent baseline brain magnetic resonance imaging to visualize CSVD, which included log-transformed white matter hyperintensities (log-WMH), the presence (yes/no) of silent brain infarcts (SBI), cerebral microbleeds (CMB), or enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS). Linear and logistic regression models were applied to examine the association between CSVD and each + 10 mmHg increment in the office and ambulatory systolic BP. Improvement in the fit of nested logistic models was assessed by the log-likelihood ratio and the generalized R2 statistic. Results: Office and ambulatory systolic BP measurements were related to log-WMH (beta correlation coefficients above 0.08; P < 0.001). SBI and CMB were only associated with ambulatory systolic BP measurements (odds ratios [OR] ranged from 1.31 [95% confidence interval, 1.10 1.55] to 1.46 [1.17-1.84], P < 0.003). Accounted for daytime systolic BP, both the 24-h (beta correlation, 0.170) and nighttime (beta, 0.038) systolic BP measurements remained related to log-WMH. When accounted for 24-h or daytime systolic BP levels, the nighttime systolic BP retained the significant association with SBI (ORs, 1.05-1.06; 95% CIs, > = 1.01to< = 1.13), whereas the 24-h and daytime systolic BP levels were not associated with SBI after adjustments for nighttime systolic BP (ORs, < = 0.88; 95% CI, > = 0.77to< = 1.14). On top of covariables and office systolic BP, ambulatory systolic BP measurements significantly improved model performance (R2<3.82%). Compared to 24-h and daytime SBP, nighttime systolic BP had the strongest improvement in the model performance; for WMH (1.46% vs. 1.05%) and SBI (3.06% vs. below 2.05%). Conclusions: 24-h and nighttime systolic BP were the more robust BP measurements associated with CSVD, but for log-WMH and SBI, the nighttime systolic BP level had the strongest association. Controlling ambulatory BP levels might provide additional improvement in the prevention of CSVD.
The effect of diets with varying crude protein-to-precooked cornstarch (P:S) ratios on growth performance, feed efficiency, carbohydrase activity, and blood chemistry of juvenile Lutjanus guttatus was evaluated. Four isoenergetic (19.0 kJ g-1) diets containing different P:S ratios (46:18, 38:30, 34:35, and 31:40) were formulated to feed fish for ten weeks in triplicate. Each diet was tested in triplicate in groups of 35 fish per tank (average body weight 19.4 ± 0.3 g) to apparent satiation three times a day. The weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed conversion ratio obtained with P38S30 and P34S35 were not significantly different vs. P46S18. Survival does not present significant differences among treatments. Biological indices (condition factor, hepatosomatic index, viscerosomatic index, and intraperitoneal fat rate) showed no significant differences among treatments. Body protein content decreased significantly with increasing precooked cornstarch concentration, while body lipid levels increased. Blood chemistry values were within those of healthy juveniles, except for glucose values. An increase in pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase blood chemistry values were within those of healthy juveniles, except for glucose values. An increase in pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase levels concomitant with increasing precooked cornstarch concentration showed the capacity of juvenile L. gutattus to digest high precooked cornstarch levels. Growth performance, biological indices, and hematological parameters showed that L. guttatus could digest and metabolize up to 35% of precooked cornstarch through increased plasma glucose levels and the α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Without negative effect on growth performance.
For the actual climate crisis, resilient agriculture is required to guarantee access to enough food, in quality and quantity, for a growing population. To face these challenges, innovative agricultural practices under organic or biological concepts for a sustainable crop production are required. To achieve the goal of sustainable agriculture, it is necessary to incorporate new models, agricultural supplies, and biotechnologies to enhance crop productivity. Plant biostimulants emerge as an innovative option to conventional chemical plant nutrition schemes. Active molecules in these compounds trigger complex physiological and metabolic responses in plants, enhancing plant performance and stress adaptation traits that ultimately result in an increased yield. Biostimulants based on protein hydrolysates (PH) are particularly relevant in the concept of plant stimulation. PH-based biostimulants are produced from different protein by-products and wastes by enzymatic processing, and the mixture of oligopeptides released during these proteolytic events is the main active compound associated with the stimulatory effects observed in different crops. This chapter describes the fundamentals in the technologies used in PH-based biostimulant productions, enzymatic processing, and recent advances in biostimulant research and development, as well as the incorporation of new phenomics and transcriptomic technologies to elucidate the mode of action of these biostimulants in a concept of rational design.
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