We propose a finite element framework to analyze the diffusion-induced mechanical degradation in graphite active particles (APs) due to bulky anion intercalation in dual-graphite batteries (DGBs). Finite strain formulation is considered to account for the large volume expansion that typically occurs in graphite cathodes. The proposed model considers chemo-mechanical coupling, including the effect of the particle volume changes due to the penetration of ions and its eventual fracture, modeled using a phase-field fracture approach. To account for the stochastic nature of graphitic microstructures, the mechanical properties are described by means of a Weibull distribution function. Our model is able to reproduce realistic cracking patterns that take place during the charging and discharging processes in APs. Finally, we use the model to simulate different galvanostatic charging rates and particle sizes to provide insight into the mechanical degradation of graphite APs during PF 6 ⁻ intercalation. We use this information to provide design rules for improved graphite cathodes or better operation strategies in DGBs.
Ammonia, which is widely used for the production of fertilizers, is becoming increasingly important as a hydrogen-containing energy vector. Typically, the ammonia synthesis activity of non-noble cheap metal-based catalysts (e.g., Ni) is well below that of ruthenium or cobalt. In this work, we unveil the performance of bulk CeNix alloys as compact bimetallic catalysts for ammonia synthesis. The spontaneous formation of a crystalline CeN surface layer was responsible for the higher activity of CeNi2 over CeNi5 (1.012 and 0.067 mmol g–1 h–1, respectively) at 400 °C and 0.9 MPa. The CeN layer was key since it served as a second active center for nitrogen dissociation, enhancing the ammonia synthesis rate to levels comparable to other rare earth-based alloys. Significant differences in the global kinetic mechanism were also found: CeNi2 showed significantly lower apparent activation energies than CeNi5 (55.3 vs 79.5 kJ mol–1, respectively). Furthermore, CeNi2 showed synthesis rates 1 order of magnitude higher than pure bulk CeN, thereby stressing the key role of Ni as an additional center for hydrogen and hydrogen-containing species (NHx) activation. We also demonstrated that the chemical state of cerium (oxide vs nitride) is key for enhancing the ammonia synthesis reaction. We found that Ce is required to be in the form of nitride for enhancing the activity of CeNi2, as revealed by the poor kinetic behavior (high activation energy, strong hydrogen poisoning, and poor affinity toward NHx species) and low synthesis rates found for a nanopowder Ni/CeO2 catalyst.
The adoption of the 2030 Agenda has favoured a profound shift in the development aid system with the consolidation of new actors, goals and instruments. While the Sustainable Development Goals are a sound proposal to address the development problems in this new scenario, there is no agreement on many other topics, such as the most accurate instruments to finance the Agenda. Despite consensus on concerns about the effectiveness of official development assistance (ODA), no alternative proposals have yet been consolidated, and debate persists on how to finance the Agenda. However, the literature does not sufficiently address the fact that countries are pursuing divergent financing strategies that complicate the necessary consensus, especially after the negative impact of COVID-19 on international co-operation. To contribute to filling this gap in the literature, we focus on donor countries, scrutinising the variety of financing for development (FfD) strategies they support through their public policies, either promoting ODA flows, remittances, philanthropic donations or a policy coherence for development approach. Although there is still no international agreement on the role that these four instruments should play in financing the 2030 Agenda, data evidence shows how donor countries rely more on one or another of such instruments. Our hypotheses are that it is possible to find similar strategic patterns throughout different groups of countries and that there are significant differences in the FfD strategy implemented by each group. To test them, we propose a hierarchical cluster analysis to classify main donor countries according to the different FfD strategies they are actually carrying out. The analysis confirms our hypotheses, identifying four groups of countries according to their FfD strategy. Countries in each group share similar strategic approaches to financing the fight against poverty, while groups deeply diverge from one another. These results could explain the delay in addressing the unavoidable FfD debate in the 2030 Agenda, and they even question whether a common and shared FfD approach would be feasible if not appropriately addressed.
The purpose of this article is to present the results of a study conducted on a population of students from two educational institutions in western Mexico. The intention is to identify how students perceive their level of systemic thinking, focusing primarily on women. Thus, this article seeks to identify differences not only on the basis of gender (men–women) but also on the basis of social status (public and private institutions). Methodologically, a descriptive statistical analysis was carried out with which it was possible to conclude that, although statistically significant differences between men and women are not identified, they are found between groups of women in public and private institutions. This article invites reflection on the need to study possible gender gaps from an intersectional perspective, which considers the differences between genders and the various dimensions and relations of women in their educational process.
In this work, a stochastic modelization of wind and photovoltaic power productions is coupled with a two-level optimization in which the operating costs of a hybrid and isolated microgrid are minimized. First, the power demand is modeled and predicted using an autoregressive moving average model (ARMA), and the renewable productions are modeled using Markov reward processes. Then, the optimization problem is solved through a stochastic unit commitment and an economic dispatch. The results show that the stochastic models correctly capture the behavior of renewable sources in all system configurations proposed in the different scenarios. Furthermore, the different impacts caused by wind and photovoltaic sources and battery energy storage system on operating costs are also highlighted, which is more punctual for the first and more regular and smoother for the second.
Aluminum (Al) is one of the most abundant trace mineral elements in the earth's crust. Al is considered a potent neurotoxicant. Physical exercise could cause modifications in some trace mineral elements. On the other hand, there could be sex differences in the exposure and deposits of toxic mineral elements. The aim of the present study was to compare sex and seasonal differences in ex-tracellular and intracellular Al concentrations in football players. The study involved 22 male and 24 female football players from the fifth and second national category, respectively. Three assessments were carried out during the season (beginning, middle and end). Al concentrations in plasma, urine, erythrocytes and platelets were determined. Male football players ingested more Al (p < 0.05). Higher plasma Al concentrations were reported in male football players (p < 0.01). On the other hand, in both groups, increases and decreases in Al in the plasma and urine were observed in the second and third assessment, respectively (p < 0.01). There were sex differences in platelet Al concentrations (p < 0.05). Plasma and platelet Al concentrations may be different between the sexes. Al concentrations may change over the course of a season in football players.
The growing interest in green ammonia production has spurred the development of new catalysts with the potential to carry out the Haber–Bosch process under mild pressure and temperature conditions. While there is a wide experimental background on new catalysts involving transition metals, supports and additives, the fundamentals behind ammonia synthesis performance on these catalysts remained partially unsolved. Here, we review the most important works developed to date and analyze the traditional catalysts for ammonia synthesis, as well as the influence of the electron transfer properties of the so-called 3rd-generation catalysts. Finally, the importance of metal–support interactions is highlighted as an effective pathway for the design of new materials with potential to carry out ammonia synthesis at low temperatures and pressures.
The current study assessed and demonstrated the impact of perceived knowledge and perceived susceptibility about COVID-19 on travelers' intentions for safe destination choice in case when the COVID-19 pandemic is being controlled by crowdedness (i.e., human crowdedness and spatial crowdedness) and monetary promotions. The reliability and validity of the proposed research model were tested by using regression analysis and covariance structural equation modeling. The results revealed a significant effect of perceived knowledge and perceived susceptibility on behavioral intention. It was evidenced that increasing knowledge and susceptibility of COVID-19 is necessary. The moderating effects of human crowdedness, spatial crowdedness, and monetary promotions were also examined through SPSS Process Macro v3.5 and invariance test. In addition , differences in demographic variables (gender, age, annual income, marital status, and ethnic background) on the research model were unveiled. Lastly, both theoretical values and practical implications of this study were discussed.
The study analysed the difference in change of direction (COD) deficit among young male basketball players of different age groups and biological ages and analysed the relationships in COD performance (time and deficit) across single and multiple CODs depending on their biological age. Fifty-four highly-trained male players (U-13 and U-17) were tested on sprinting (25-m) and COD ability over single and multiple CODs through total times and the percentage-based COD deficit (CODD). Results showed that older age groups performed significantly (ES= 0.43-2.32, p<0.05) better in linear and COD times, especially those players with post-peak height velocity (PHV) (ES= 0.89-1.90). Controlling for age at PHV, no significant differences were found in any group or inter-limb asymmetries. Moderate relationships were found between CODD in the pool data (r= 0.36 to 0.50). All CODD and time relationships in any test (i.e., 180º COD and V-cut) were considerably lower (r= -0.27 to 0.32) across individual biological groups. The study highlights the impact of maturation on COD performance, whereas CODD seems to be not affected. Interestingly, the CODD is independent, highlighting this measurement's specific nature. Practitioners should use common distances, angles, and the number of CODs linked to biological status to create a COD profile.
Purpose Preventing weight regain can only be achieved by sustained changes in energy balance-related behaviors that are associated with weight, such as diet and physical activity. Changes in motivation and self-regulatory skills can support long-term behavioral changes in the context of weight loss maintenance. We propose that experiencing a supportive climate care is associated with enhanced satisfaction of basic psychological needs, intrinsic goals, and autonomous motivation. These factors are expected to be associate with the utilization of self-regulation skills, leading to more sustained behavior changes and ultimately preventing weight regain. This hypothesis was tested in this ancillary analysis of the NoHoW trial, where the study arms were pooled and followed for 12 months. Methods The NoHoW was a three-center, large-scale weight regain prevention full factorial trial. In this longitudinal study, data were collected in adults who lost > 5% weight in the past year ( N = 870, complete data only, 68.7% female, 44.10 ± 11.86 years, 84.47 ± 17.03 kg) during their participation in a 12-month digital behavior change intervention. Weight and validated measures of motivational- and self-regulatory skills-related variables were collected at baseline, six- and 12 months. Change variables were used in Mplus’ path analytical models informed by NoHoW’s logic model. Results The bivariate correlations confirmed key mediators’ potential effect on weight outcomes in the expected causal direction. The primary analysis showed that a quarter of the variance ( r 2 = 23.5%) of weight regain prevention was achieved via the mechanisms of action predicted in the logic model. Specifically, our results show that supportive climate care is associated with needs satisfaction and intrinsic goal content leading to better weight regain prevention via improvements in self-regulatory skills and exercise-controlled motivation. The secondary analysis showed that more mechanisms of action are significant in participants who regained or maintained their weight. Conclusions These results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms of action leading to behavior change in weight regain prevention. The most successful participants used only a few intrinsic motivation-related mechanisms of action, suggesting that habits may have been learned. While developing a digital behavior change intervention, researchers and practitioners should consider creating supportive climate care to improve needs satisfaction and intrinsic goal contents. Trial registration ISRCTN, ISRCTN88405328 , registered 12/22/2016.
We conduct a systematic literature review of the academic literature on activities organised by Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) with the aim of improving skills associated with employability and facilitating labour market outcomes. The search resulted in 87 papers followed by an iterative evaluation of their relevance. Papers in the corpus were analysed using an evaluation research framework and classified in terms of the activities, outputs, and outcomes. The reviewed literature is centred on one of three stakeholders: HEIs, students or employers. It suggests all stakeholders value employability activities for similar reasons. Generally, they are seen as a vital part of HEI education programmes, facilitating the development of diverse skills that are desirable in the labour market as well as de-risking labour market entry for students and appointments for employers by alleviating information asymmetries. The evidence base is dominated by small-scale case studies and evaluations that are not sufficiently robust to infer about causal impacts of employability activities on students' development and labour market outcomes. Moreover, the corpus is skewed towards studies of Work-Related Learning. We set out avenues for future research and argue for a comprehensive evidence base encompassing diverse forms of employability activities, such as larger scale 'embedded employability' activities; a more contextual understanding of employability as an interplay between individual and a particular labour market and education system; and a more robust evidence base tracking students from education into the labour market, allowing for selection effects and identifying heterogeneity of impacts across different activities and demographics. ARTICLE HISTORY
Food advertising, especially on packaging, impacts children’s choices. Food companies make different claims on packaging as a marketing techniques to make their products more appealing, enhancing their perceived healthiness, even in unhealthy products. Although the use of some claims is regulated, there are legal loopholes that could confuse young consumers and that concern global authorities. To shed light on the matter, it is necessary to have a comprehensive understanding of the performance of all types of claims made by food companies in food products targeting children. We examined 458 products from Spanish markets in two periods through a cross-sectional content analysis. Our findings reveal that existing policies are working due to the decrease in nutrition claims, but there is a growth in soft claims that are unregulated and potentially confusing and attractive to children. Considering that most of the products analyzed are unhealthy, this emphasizes the importance of implementing stricter regulations to create a healthier and more reliable food environment for children.
Purpose We examine an integrative model associating entrepreneurial motivation and job satisfaction with basic psychological needs satisfaction and the psychological well‐being (PWB) and health problems of European entrepreneurs. In contrast with previous literature that focuses mainly on hedonic well‐being, this study examines well‐being by using a eudaimonic perspective and the link between entrepreneurial motivation and entrepreneurs' PWB. Design/methodology/approach Based on the self‐determination theory (SDT) and using structural equation modeling, this study examines a European representative sample composed of 7,878 entrepreneurs from the sixth European Working Conditions Survey (6th EWCS; Eurofound  database). Findings This study finds a positive relationship between the satisfaction of the need for autonomy and competence and opportunity motivation, which in turn is positively associated with job satisfaction. This study also finds that need satisfaction is positively associated with entrepreneurs' PWB and job satisfaction, which in turn is positively associated with entrepreneurs' PWB and health. Results highlight the relevance of SDT, opportunity motivation, and job satisfaction to understanding entrepreneurs' PWB and health. Originality To the best of our knowledge, this is the first integrative model relating satisfaction of basic psychological needs (autonomy and competence) and diverse individual outcomes related to work (job satisfaction, PWB, and health) of European entrepreneurs by considering entrepreneurial motivation. This study examines a large and representative European sample, in contrast with previous research focusing on the Anglosphere nations.
Legal documents serve as valuable repositories of information pertaining to crimes, encompassing not only legal aspects but also relevant details about criminal behaviors. To date and the best of our knowledge, no studies in the field examine legal documents for crime understanding using an Artificial Intelligence (AI) approach. The present study aims to fill this research gap by identifying relevant information available in legal documents for crime prediction using Artificial Intelligence (AI). This innovative approach will be applied to the specific crime of Intimate Partner Femicide (IPF). A total of 491 legal documents related to lethal and non-lethal violence by male-to-female intimate partners were extracted from the Vlex legal database. The information included in these documents was analyzed using AI algorithms belonging to Bayesian, functions-based, instance-based, tree-based, and rule-based classifiers. The findings demonstrate that specific information from legal documents, such as past criminal behaviors, imposed sanctions, characteristics of violence severity and frequency, as well as the environment and situation in which this crime occurs, enable the correct detection of more than three-quarters of both lethal and non-lethal violence within male-to-female intimate partner relationships. The obtained knowledge is crucial for professionals who have access to legal documents, as it can help identify high-risk IPF cases and shape strategies for preventing crime. While this study focuses on IPF, this innovative approach has the potential to be extended to other types of crimes, making it applicable and beneficial in a broader context.
Orgasm is a phase of the human sexual response, and the possible discrepancies between male and female ways to experience it are still not clear in the literature. There is a lack of tools to adequately assess orgasm perception. This study aims to develop an instrument and verify possible differences between males and females. We constructed the Orgasmic Perception Questionnaire (OPQ) through different stages: first, 316 items selection was conducted on a sample of 96 people, where items came mainly from written descriptions of orgasm perception; second, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on 674 Italian adults with a 63-item OPQ; finally, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on 1100 Italian adults with a 47-item OPQ. In the first study, 63 items fitted an equidistributional pattern and were to form the 63-item OPQ used for EFA. The EFA showed that five factors out of 47 explained 44.01% of the total variance and were named: Ecstasy, Contractions, Relaxation, Power, and Sensations. The confirmatory factor analyses run on the 47-item OPQ confirmed that the five-factor structure fits. Moreover, females scored higher than males with an adequate effect size in two factors: Contractions and Sensations. In conclusion, the OPQ could be a useful tool in both clinical settings and research studies to investigate the perception of orgasmic experience in its totality.
Background Long-term mental health (MH) policies in Finland aimed at investing in community care and promoting reforms have led to a reduction in the number of psychiatric hospital beds. However, most resources are still allocated to hospital and community residential services due to various social, economic and political factors. Despite previous research focussing on the number and cost of these services, no study has evaluated the emerging patterns of use, their technical performance and the relationship with the workforce structure. Objective The purpose of this study was to observe the patterns of use and their technical performance (efficiency) of the main types of care of MH services in the Helsinki-Uusimaa region (Finland), and to analyse the potential relationship between technical performance and the corresponding workforce structure. Methods The sample included acute hospital residential care, non-hospital residential care and outpatient care services. The analysis was conducted using regression analysis, Monte Carlo simulation, fuzzy inference and data envelopment analysis. Results The analysis showed a statistically significant linear relationship between the number of service users and the length of stay, number of beds in non-hospital residential care and number of contacts in outpatient care services. The three service types displayed a similar pattern of technical performance, with high relative technical efficiency on average and a low probability of being efficient. The most efficient acute hospital and outpatient care services integrated multidisciplinary teams, while psychiatrists and nurses characterized non-hospital residential care. Conclusions The results indicated that the number of resources and utilization variables were linearly related to the number of users and that the relative technical efficiency of the services was similar across all types. This suggests homogenous MH management with small variations based on workforce allocation. Therefore, the distribution of workforce capacity should be considered in the development of effective policies and interventions in the southern Finnish MH system.
Long-term storage capability is often claimed as one of the distinct advantages of the calcium looping process as a potential thermochemical energy storage system for integration into solar power plants. However, the influence of storage conditions on the looping performance has seldom been evaluated experimentally. The storage conditions must be carefully considered as any potential carbonation at the CaO storage tank would reduce the energy released during the subsequent carbonation, thereby penalizing the round-trip efficiency. From lab-scale to conceptual process engineering, this work considers the effects of storing solids at low temperatures (50–200 °C) in a CO2 atmosphere or at high temperatures (800 °C) in N2. Experimental results show that carbonation at temperatures below 200 °C is limited; thus, the solids could be stored during long times even in CO2. It is also demonstrated at the lab scale that the multicycle performance is not substantially altered by storing the solids at low temperatures (under CO2) or high temperatures (N2 atmosphere). From an overall process perspective, keeping solids at high temperatures leads to easier heat integration, a better plant efficiency (+2–4%), and a significantly higher energy density (+40–62%) than considering low-temperature storage. The smooth difference in the overall plant efficiency with the temperature suggests a proper long-term energy storage performance if adequate energy integration is carried out.
We aimed to investigate the effect of three types of exercise interventions on memory (i.e., immediate memory (IM), long‐term memory (LTM), and recognition). We also investigated whether exercise‐induced changes in circulating S‐Klotho and 1,25‐dihydroxivitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) levels were related to those observed in memory in healthy middle‐aged sedentary adults. A 12‐week randomized controlled trial was performed with a parallel‐group design. Seventy‐four participants (45–65 years old: 53% women) were randomly assigned to (1) no exercise (control) group, (2) concurrent training based on the international physical activity recommendations (PAR) group, (3) high‐intensity interval training (HIIT) group, or (4) HIIT plus whole‐body electromyostimulation (HIIT‐EMS) group. Memory outcomes were assessed using the Wechsler Memory Scale‐third edition. S‐Klotho plasma levels were determined according to a solid‐phase sandwich enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay kit while 1,25(OH)2D plasma levels were measured using a DiaSorin‐Liaison immunochemiluminometric analyzer. IM‐Verbal Paired Associates (IM‐VPA) and IM‐Logical Memory (IM‐LM) were improved in both the HIIT and HIIT‐EMS groups compared with the control group (all p ≤ 0.045). Exercise‐induced changes in S‐Klotho plasma levels were positively associated with those observed in IM, LTM, and recognition (all p ≤ 0.007), whereas exercise‐induced changes in 1,25(OH)2D plasma levels were directly related to changes in IM and LTM (all p ≤ 0.048). In conclusion, a 12‐week HIIT intervention with or without WB‐EMS seems to be the most effective exercise program to improve IM. The significant and positive associations between exercise‐induced changes in S‐Klotho and 1,25(OH)2D levels with those observed in memory outcomes suggest that these factors may be potentially related to exercise‐induced improvements of memory in middle‐aged adults.
Introduction Paternal peripartum depression (P-PPD) is a serious and understudied public health problem associated with impaired family functioning and child development. The lack of recognition of P-PPD may result in limited access to both information and professional help. Objective The aim of the study was to review studies on paternal peripartum depression and to identify issues and questions where future research and theory formation are needed. Methods A literature search for systematic reviews, meta-analyses and primary studies was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, Medline, PsychInfo and Informit databases. Key results within the retrieved articles were summarised and integrated to address the review objectives. Results Based on the literature, the knowledge related to prevalence, screening, risk factorsunique to fathers, management strategies and outcomes of P-PPD is lacking. Currently, there is no consensual understanding of the definition of P-PPD and recommendations for dealing with P-PPD. Limited data were available regarding the barriers preventing fathers from accessing support systems. Conclusion Emerging issues that need to be addressed in future research include: P-PPD definition and pathogenetic pathways; prevention strategies and assessment tools; self-help seeking and engagement with interventions; the cost-effectiveness of P-PPD management; needs of health professionals; effect on child development, and public awareness. Future studies and clinical practice should account the complexities that may arise from the father’s perceptions of health care services. Results from this review highlights the critical issues on how to plan, provide and resource health services, to meet the health needs of fathers.
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Campus Sevilla: Avda. de las Universidades, s/n 41704 Dos Hermanas (Sevilla) & Campus Córdoba: C/ Escritor Castilla Aguayo, 4 14004 Córdoba, Sevilla, Andalusia, Spain
Head of institution
Gabriel Mª Pérez Alcalá
+34 955 641 600