Universidad Internacional de La Rioja
Recent publications
The objective of this study was to analyze the perceived barriers to dual career success and athletic identity of student-athletes according to disability type and level of professionalization. The final sample consisted of 203 student-athletes with disabilities from five European countries. The questionnaires used were ESTPORT, EBBS and AIMS. Depending on disability type, it was found that student-athletes with hearing and physical impairment showed the highest difficulty in reconciling sports and studies (p = 0.001); that student-athletes with a hearing impairment showed the highest score in the barrier ‘the cost of education is high’ (p = 0.023); that student-athletes with a physical impairment had the highest scores in the barrier ‘Exercise tires me’ (p = 0.013); that student-athletes with cerebral palsy showed the highest scores in the barrier ‘I do not have enough university/educational institution support’ (p = 0.014) and ‘Exercise facilities do not have convenient timetables for me’ (p = 0.001). Depending on sports professionalization level, semi-professional student-athletes showed the highest values in the barrier ‘the university/educational institution is far from my training center’ (p = 0.040); while professional student-athletes had the highest score in the barrier ‘exercise takes too much time from family responsibilities’ (p = 0.034). In most of the variables related to identity as athletes, professional student-athletes showed the highest values, followed by semi-professional athletes (p = 0.043- < 0.001). In conclusion, the self-perception of barriers is quite relevant, with differences arising from disability type and level of professionalization, whereas the identity as an athlete is only different according to the level of professionalization.
Multimedia content’s development and technological evolution have enhanced and even facilitated the application of steganography as a means to introduce hidden messages for cybercrime-related purposes. Artificial intelligence models have been widely implemented as a way to detect the presence of these messages in image content. However, the possibility of applying explainability techniques in order to provide visual representations of the signatures of different steganography algorithms has not been studied yet. This work presents a novel steganalysys methodology, STEG-XAI, not only for detecting steganography in images but also for explaining the machine learning model’s findings, and extracting the steganography algorithm’s signature. A convolutional neural network with EfficientNet architecture is implemented, along with the explainability algorithms LIME and Grad-CAM. The model is trained with a dataset of images modified by UERD, a steganography method designed for JPEG images, and achieves a weighted AUC of 0.944, displaying a high level of discrimination between original and tampered images. Furthermore, the explanation methods enable visualizing both the image modifications identified by the neural network, and a signature of the UERD algorithm.
The study aimed to identify group cohesion profiles in athletes and examine whether athletes from distinct profiles significantly differed in affects and coping in competition. A total of 296 competitive athletes participated in the study and completed a series of self-report questionnaires in a temporal design with different measurement points. The athletes completed the questionnaires 2 days before competition, 2 h prior to competition and 2 h after competition. Results from latent profile analysis (LPA) model revealed that three profiles were the most suitable solution: (a) Low group cohesion profile, (b) a mixed group cohesion profile and (c) a high cohesion profile. In particular, (c) athletes from the high group cohesion profile revealed lower scores in intensity of negative affects after the competition, lower precompetitive relaxation, lower precompetitive mental distancing, lower precompetitive mental distraction, lower intracompetitive relaxation, lower intracompetitive logical analysis, lower intracompetitive mental distancing, lower intracompetitive mental distraction and lower intracompetitive disengagement. As a whole, the (b) mixed group cohesion profile revealed the worst combination of the three profiles in terms of coping strategies, which may be a profile at risk of not performing in competition. Thus, it is necessary to understand group cohesion as a multivariate experience for a better comprehension of this phenomenon.
Healthcare workers have been a vulnerable group during the pandemic. Even today, they continue to deal with the virus and its consequences. Such sustained stress over time has led to the development of mental health problems that may still be present in this population. These may be related to the coping strategies that are being implemented to manage this situation. This study aimed to examine the mental health of health professionals after the end of the acute phase of the pandemic and investigate which coping strategies predicted levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and burnout. A total of 285 healthcare workers were assessed. Descriptive and multiple regression analyses were performed. The result showed (a) levels of mild-to-moderate depressive symptomatology, moderate levels of stress and anxiety symptomatology, and a medium level of burnout; and (b) acceptance, behavioral disengagement, negation, substance use, and active coping as the strategies most implicated in this symptomatology. Interventions that help health professionals to develop adaptive coping strategies, thus avoiding or reducing the development of psychological symptoms, should be implemented.
In vitro culture of any plant tissue requires stringent aseptic conditions to thrive within a microorganism-free environment. This is particularly difficult since culture media inherently contain an optimal and sufficient nutrient concentration for numerous microorganisms, thereby impeding the correct development of the explants. In this study, we assessed the antimicrobial and antifungal efficacy of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and the chemical inhibitor of contamination, 1-phenyl-1- (N-phenyl-N’-ethyl-guanil)-3-ethyl-thiocarbamide (Plant Tissue Culture Contamination Control, PTC3) during the propagation of “mashua” MAC003 morphotype (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz & Pavón). We successfully demonstrated the use of these compounds in the medium obviating the need for an autoclaving procedure. To achieve this, we employed a gradient of concentrations of both agents. Murashige and Skoog (MS) culture medium with 3% sucrose and 0.7% agar at pH 5.6 was supplemented with AgNPs nanoparticles at 20, 50, and 100 ppm, alongside PTC3 at 0.2, 2 and 3 ppm concentrations. Both AgNPs and PTC3 exhibited inhibitory effects on microbial and fungal growth across all tested concentrations. Statistical analysis of the biometric parameters measured in explants over 4 week period indicated that the optimal AgNPs concentration was 20 ppm. Additionally, the growth and development outcome of Tropaeolum tuberosum explants were most favorable with PTC3 concentration of 0.2 ppm, as discerned through a comparative analysis of the two compounds. This study proposes the use of PTC3 as a novel compound of choice for avoiding the autoclaving process within in vitro plant tissue culture techniques.
Candida is the largest genus of medically significant fungi. Although most of its members are commensals, residing harmlessly in human bodies, some are opportunistic and dangerously invasive. These have the ability to cause severe nosocomial candidiasis and candidemia that affect the viscera and bloodstream. A prompt diagnosis will lead to a successful treatment modality. The smart solution of biosensing technologies for rapid and precise detection of Candida species has made remarkable progress. The development of point-of-care (POC) biosensor devices involves sensor precision down to pico-/femtogram level, cost-effectiveness, portability, rapidity, and user-friendliness. However, futuristic diagnostics will depend on exploiting technologies such as multiplexing for high-throughput screening, CRISPR, artificial intelligence (AI), neural networks, the Internet of Things (IoT), and cloud computing of medical databases. This review gives an insight into different biosensor technologies designed for the detection of medically significant Candida species, especially Candida albicans and C. auris, and their applications in the medical setting.
Eating disorders (ED) in men are the great unknown. Although several studies have been carried out, it is still understood how men develop these disorders. In this regard, this paper explores the relationship between body and appearance-related self-conscious emotions and ED symptoms and the mediating role of emotional regulation strategies in this association. Participants were 127 (S1) and 163 (S2) adult men who responded to an online questionnaire at two different times and were classified into risk groups (general, high, and low) and healthy groups. Body shame and body guilt were positively related to ED symptoms and maladaptive strategies, whereas they were negatively associated with adaptive strategies. In contrast, authentic and hubristic body pride were negatively associated with ED symptoms (except for authentic body pride in S1), maladaptive strategies such as emotional suppression (S1), psychological withdrawal (S2) and upward social comparison (S2), and positively with adaptive strategies. Likewise, those at risk, compared to the healthy, presented more body shame and body guilt and less hubristic body pride (S2) and used more maladaptive and less adaptive strategies. Finally, maladaptive strategies partially mediated the effect of body shame and body guilt on ED symptoms (in the case of BG also adaptive ones), whereas in the case of the relationship between body pride and ED symptoms, only adaptive strategies and emotional suppression mediated. Our findings show the importance of reducing risk factors (e.g., maladaptive strategies) as well as enhancing protective factors (e.g., adaptive strategies) in prevention and intervention programs.
Quality of life (QoL) is a major patient reported outcome used to measure the psychological treatments success in people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. To date, the specific impact of different interventions on QoL remains undefined. A meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) was carried out for this purpose. We searched Proquest, PUBMED/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, WOS, Scopus, the Cochrane Library for RCTs published until January 2023. We used multilevel meta-analysis to examine differences between intervention effectiveness of experimental and control conditions whilst accounting for data dependencies. By means of subgroup analyses, we investigated influences of intervention types (i.e. psychoeducation v. CBT v. cognitive v. combination of several types v. other, such as psychodynamic, systemic, etc.) and continuous moderators were examined with precision-weighted meta-regressions. The generalizability of results across moderators, their combinations, and analytical approaches was investigated with multiverse meta-analyses. We examined data of 60 independent studies, reporting intervention effects for objective and subjective QoL (k = 19 and 70 effect sizes based on N = 1024 and 6254 participants, respectively). Overall, psychological interventions seemed to be more effective for objective than for subjective QoL. However, specific intervention results were differentiated, suggesting largest effects of psychoeducation on objective and combined interventions on subjective QoL. Our findings suggest that QoL is a valid outcome criterion for testing intervention effectiveness , as it is sensitive to change. Additionally, psychological interventions can improve patients' QoL, though the effects are small. Further testing of less widely used interventions and a shift toward the multidimensional nature of QoL is still necessary.
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have become the second in the global rating of infectious diseases after respiratory infections. Globally, over 1 million, new STI is diagnosed every day. Although four conditions are the most representative and of obligatory declaration (gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia, and human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]), there are many other prevalent STI, including trichomona, herpes simplex, papillomavirus, and viral hepatitis. Herein, we perform a narrative and retrospective review, analyzing information from public databases from distinct Spanish government institutions. STI significantly declined in Spain during 2020 as a result of lockdown and social isolation measures dictated in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. After releasing restrictions, a major STI rebound occurred in 2021. Increases were 49% for gonorrhea, 45% for HIV, 39% for chlamydia, and 32% for syphilis. Based on nationwide statistics, we build a narrative review of the recent STI surge after COVID-19. In summary, we propose a holistic approach to confront the current re-emergence of STI. On one hand, new innovative medical advances must be implemented, including new rapid tests, novel vaccines, pre-exposure prophylaxis beyond HIV, and long-acting antivirals. On the other hand, information to citizens needs to be reformulated with interventions aimed to build a healthier society, alike it has been undertaken with tobacco, alcohol, diet, and lifestyle. STI determines important sexual, reproductive, and maternal-child health consequences. To promote human well-being or flourishing, the education of adolescents and young adults should be aligned with human ecology. Therefore, it is urgent to address new approaches in sexual health that represent a clear benefit for individual persons and society. In this way, favoring a cultural evolution aimed to delay the age of first sexual intercourse and the avoidance of multiple sex partners should be prioritized.
Background Accumulation of bilirubin above normal levels is considered a neurological risk factor for both premature and full-term newborns. This systematic review aimed to determine the effect of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia on neurodevelopment in preterm and full-term newborns. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Scopus and Lilacs databases were searched for articles published until 1 June 2022. The quality of cohort and case–control studies was assessed with the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale, and the MINCir scale was used to evaluate the methodological quality of therapy studies or the therapeutic procedures. Premature neonates without neurological conditions and those born at term with hyperbilirubinemia as the sole risk factor were included. Studies reporting one or more neurodevelopmental outcomes were included with an inter-group comparison of a hyperbilirubinemia group versus a non-hyperbilirubinemia or non-pathological hyperbilirubinemia group. The main outcomes were auditory function, visual function, cognitive function, motor function, behavior, global development and neurological risk. Results The search identified 951 studies, 19 of which (n = 2210 newborns) were finally included. Fifteen of the cohort and case–control studies presented low risk of bias, and six studies showed high methodological quality. Within the preterm population, hyperbilirubinemia as the sole risk factor was not shown to affect neurodevelopment. Auditory, neurological and motor development alterations were found in the population of full-term newborns with hyperbilirubinemia, which were more evident during the first year of life. Conclusions Elevated bilirubin levels may be a trigger for the onset of neurodevelopmental disorders in full-term infants during the first year of life. More studies are warranted in the preterm population with hyperbilirubinemia to draw conclusions about its impact on their neurodevelopment.
Although 1–14% of adolescents may experience problematic pornography use (PPU), psychometrically sound instruments for assessing PPU in Spanish-speaking adolescents are scarce. Given the advantages of the different forms of the Problematic Pornography Consumption Scale (PPCS), the aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of the PPCS and PPCS-6, and to examine associations between PPU and age among boys and girls. Two school-based adolescent samples were recruited in Spain (n = 650; Mage = 16.0 [SD = 1.1]; 50% girls and 50% boys) and Mexico (n1, 160; Mage = 15.8 [SD = 1.1]; 68% girls) to assess the psychometric properties of the PPCS and PPCS-6. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied and convergent and discriminant validity with other measures related to PPU was also tested. The results provided empirical support for the six-factor structure of the PPCS and the one-factor structure of the PPCS-6. Boys with older age showed higher levels of tolerance than girls on the PPCS in both countries. Both the PPCS and the PPCS-6 may be considered valid psychometric instruments for the assessment of PPU in Spanish-speaking adolescents from Spain and Mexico.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the legal regime of religious assistance in the health field in three different countries: Germany, Italy and Portugal. After a brief exposition of the treatment of the religious phenomenon in each territory, attention is given to the organization and limits of the exercise of religious assistance. It is verified, in the three States analyzed, the recognition of the right in favor of patients and the guarantee of access to hospital centers for religious ministers, upon request; however, although they coincide in terms of its foundation –the right to religious freedom–, they differ in their organization and the range of regulations in which it is collected. El presente trabajo tiene como objeto el análisis del régimen jurídico de la asistencia religiosa en el ámbito sanitario en tres distintos países: Alemania, Italia y Portugal. Tras una breve exposición del tratamiento del fenómeno religioso en cada territorio, se atiende a la organización y límites del ejercicio de la asistencia religiosa. Se verifica, en los tres Estados analizados, el reconocimiento del derecho a favor de los pacientes y la garantía de acceso a los centros hospitalarios de los ministros religiosos, previa solicitud; no obstante, si bien coinciden en cuanto a su fundamento –el derecho de libertad religiosa–, difieren en su organización y el rango de las normas en las que queda recogido.
At present, religious assistance in hospitals is regarded not only as a right, which makes part of the right to religious freedom, but also as part of the right to health. Organisational patterns to provide religious assistance in hospitals in France, Belgium and Poland depend, to a large extent, on the circumstances of contemporary history in those nations. All three of them had managed to combine the non-denominationality of the States with granting the rigth of the patients admitted in health centres, to receive spiritual care. The particular norms which grant such a grant are, formal and hierarchically, quite diverse. La asistencia religiosa en los hospitales en la actualidad no resulta considerada solamente como un derecho que se integra en el de libertad religiosa, sino también en el derecho a la salud. Los modelos organizativos de la asistencia religiosa hospitalaria en Francia, Bélgica y Polonia, responden en buena parte a las circunstancias de la historia contemporánea de estas naciones. Sin embargo, en las tres se ha sabido conjugar la aconfesionalidad de los respectivos Estados con la garantía del ejercicio del derecho de los enfermos ingresados en establecimientos de salud a ser atendidos espiritualmente. A esa garantía se ha llegado a través de normas formal y jerárquicamente bastante diversas.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a prevalent and potentially fatal disease categorized based on its high incidences and mortality rates, which raised the need for effective diagnostic strategies for the early detection and management of CRC. While there are several conventional cancer diagnostics available, they have certain limitations that hinder their effectiveness. Significant research efforts are currently being dedicated to elucidating novel methodologies that aim at comprehending the intricate molecular mechanism that underlies CRC. Recently, microfluidic diagnostics have emerged as a pivotal solution, offering non-invasive approaches to real-time monitoring of disease progression and treatment response. Microfluidic devices enable the integration of multiple sample preparation steps into a single platform, which speeds up processing and improves sensitivity. Such advancements in diagnostic technologies hold immense promise for revolutionizing the field of CRC diagnosis and enabling efficient detection and monitoring strategies. This article elucidates several of the latest developments in microfluidic technology for CRC diagnostics. In addition to the advancements in microfluidic technology for CRC diagnostics, the integration of artificial intelligence (AI) holds great promise for further enhancing diagnostic capabilities. Advancements in microfluidic systems and AI-driven approaches can revolutionize colorectal cancer diagnostics, offering accurate, efficient, and personalized strategies to improve patient outcomes and transform cancer management.
We aim to map the intellectual structure of destination image (DI) research and its theoretical development in two longitudinal periods: firstly, from 2001 and before the outbreak of Covid-19 and approval of vaccines (2001–2020); and secondly, during Covid-19 (2021–2023). This is the first article to use co-citation analysis that focuses solely on DI, identifying the main clusters, intellectual turning points, and citation burst papers in this field. Studying bibliometrics pre- and during Covid-19 can help to understand the impact of the pandemic on research output and the shift in research focus. This methodology expands tourism science by recognising the intrinsic nature of DI from an evaluative and relational point of view. Co-citation refers to the cited not the citing papers. The results in the first period show: 1) theoretical background on DI associated with branding from Destination Management Organisations (DMO); 2) the components of DI and their relationship with visitor behaviour; 3) how the Internet and User-Generated Content (UGC) have become the main sources to perceive DI. Whereas, in the second period, two main shifts have been identified: 1) the impact of the pandemic on tourism and perceived travel risk; 2) the emergence of a new approach focusing on the engagement of people with the destination through life experiences. The conclusions could help suppliers, DMOs, and policymakers to understand the components of DI before and during the pandemic, as well as provide valuable insights for the tourism industry to adapt to the new normal.
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Oscar Sanjuán
  • Engineering
Pablo Moreno Ger
  • School of Engineering
Asier Jayo
  • Department of Education
Rafael Repiso
  • UNIR Research
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