Fault barriers are key structures for studying seismic hazard in regions of intense brittle deformation. The interaction between fault sets affects their seismogenic behavior, if some of them act as barriers. The Granada Basin, in the Betic Cordillera, is a region affected by shallow brittle deformation, as it was the scenario for the recent Granada 2021 seismic sequence. This seismicity presented a swarm behavior at the beginning of the sequence, followed by mainshock‐aftershock features. Geological and gravity data presented here reveal that the basement is affected by two sets of NW‐SE and NE‐SW normal faults and intensely deformed by vertical NW‐SE joints. Improved relocation of the Granada 2021 seismicity reveals a confined chimney‐shape seismicity caused by the activity of a 2 km long NW‐SE normal fault segment. The confinement of the sequence is associated with the NE‐SW fault set acting as a barrier that restricts the rupture area, limiting the maximum magnitude, and favoring the recurrence of events with smaller magnitude. The chimney‐shape of the seismic sequence suggests that the deformation is propagated vertically to the surface, facilitated by preexisting fractures. The shallow extensional deformation during the uplift of the central Betic Cordillera drove the activity of the local structures obliquely to the regional extensional trends, as evidenced by the seismic sequence. This multidisciplinary study improves the knowledge on the origin of the Granada Basin and underlies the important role of preexisting fractures on fault segmentation and seismic propagation, decreasing the seismic potential of this area.
This article traces the presence of the concept digital semiotics in scientific literature with the aim of constituting a corpus of study that would allow to identify its goals and fields of interest. We undertook a systematic review of the term in the most important academic databases. We obtained 389 records and analyzed each of them in terms of publication date, type, content, and synthesis of contributions that develop distinct lines of investigation in digital semiotics. The results show a reduced number of first level publications that approach in detail this object of inquiry while establishing multimodal semiotics and social semiotics as the most consolidated branches. However, we found an increasing amount of gray literature that paves the way towards a deeper semiotic research tradition in the 21st century. We conclude by calling for a revision of semiotics, understood as a field of study that brings together interdisciplinary relationships and methodological solutions that interrogate the digital culture.
Provision of CLIL teachers in Spain has outpaced the growth of the so-called bilingual programs, as there are no specific training requirements for CLIL teachers who are either content or language specialists. So, CLIL teachers have a pre-existent teacher identity that could influence their pedagogical choices. This study examines how teachers negotiate their existing teacher identities in a CLIL environment and how they exercise those identities in the classroom. The study adopts a qualitative case study methodology using interviews and questionnaires. Findings show that the way that teachers negotiated their identities was affected by their former personal and professional experiences as well as by their conceptualization of the imagined community and their investment in that community. The findings have implications for the creation of in-service training programs that focus on enhancing teachers’ language awareness in CLIL and their association with the community.
Contact geometry allows us to describe some thermodynamic and dissipative systems. In this paper we introduce a new geometric structure in order to describe time-dependent contact systems: cocontact manifolds. Within this setting we develop the Hamiltonian and Lagrangian formalisms, both in the regular and singular cases. In the singular case, we present a constraint algorithm aiming to find a submanifold where solutions exist. As a particular case we study contact systems with holonomic time-dependent constraints. Some regular and singular examples are analyzed, along with numerical simulations.
A highly sensitive electrochemical methodology for end-point detection of loop-mediated isothermal nucleic acid amplification reactions was developed. It is based on the oxidation process of phenol red (PR), commonly used as a visual indicator. The dependence of its redox process on pH, which changes during amplification, allows performing quantitative measurements. Thus, the change in the oxidation potential of PR during the amplification is used, for the first time, as the analytical signal that correlates with the number of initial DNA copies. As a proof-of-concept, the amplification of the pneumolysin gene from Streptococcus pneumoniae, one of the main pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia, is performed. Combination of isothermal amplification with electrochemical detection, performed on small-size flexible electrodes, allows easy decentralization. Adaptation to the detection of other pathogens causing infectious diseases would be very useful in the prevention of future epidemics.
Background and Hypothesis Despite the accepted link between childhood adversity (CA) and psychotic disorders, evidence on the relationship between CA and poor functional outcome remains less consistent and has never been reviewed quantitatively. The aim of this meta-analysis was to systematically examine the association between CA and functional outcomes in people with psychotic disorders. Study Design The study protocol was registered on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42021254201). A search was conducted across EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Libraries (CENTRAL) using search terms related to psychosis; CA (general, sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect); and functional outcomes (social, occupational, and general functioning [GF]). We conducted random-effects models, sensitivity and heterogeneity analyses, meta-regressions, and we assessed quality. Study Results Our meta-analysis comprised 35 studies, including 10 568 cases with psychosis. General CA was negatively associated with GF (28 studies; r = −0.109, 95%CI = −0.161 to −0.05, P < .001), with greater effects in prospective data (10 studies; r = −0.151, 95% CI = −0.236 to −0.063, P = .001). General CA was also associated with social functioning (r = −0.062, 95% CI = −0.120 to −0.004, P = .018) but not occupational outcomes. All CA subtypes except sexual abuse were significantly associated with GF, with emotional and physical neglect showing the largest magnitudes of effect (ranging from r = −0.199 to r = −0.250). Conclusions This meta-analysis provides evidence for a negative association between general CA, specific subtypes, and general and social functional outcomes in people with psychosis.
The study aimed to identify precompetitive anxiety profiles and analyze the impact of those profiles in their reasons to adhere to running. A sample of 473 Spanish Amateur Athletes participated in the study. Results revealed the emergence of three profiles: (a) a high precompetitive anxiety profile characterized by high cognitive and somatic anxiety and low self-confidence; (b) a precompetitive medium-low anxiety profile characterized by medium-low scores in cognitive and somatic anxiety and medium self-confidence; (c) a precompetitive low anxiety profile characterized by low scores in cognitive and somatic anxiety and medium self-confidence. Results showed that most of the working runners, who participate in ten-kilometer races, who practice three days a week, and most experienced runners, belonged to the extremely low anxiety profile. In conclusion, the precompetitive low anxiety profile reported the most suited outcomes which mean that is a more adaptive profile.
Given the theoretical and applied importance of self-regulation in learning, our study aimed to report the internal structure of the psychometric properties of the Learning Self-Regulation Questionnaire. Five hundred and ninety-six Peruvian university students participated in their first to tenth semesters on campuses in Lima, Trujillo, and Cajamarca. Nonparametric scalability, dimensionality, reliability (score and item levels), and latent invariance were analyzed. The results showed that reducing the number of response options was necessary. Reducing the number of items also produced better scaling. Two slightly related dimensions were strong internal validity and acceptable item reliability; furthermore, reliability was adequate. Age and gender had trivial correlations in item variability. Finally, differences between the semesters were obtained in the means, variances, and latent correlations. In conclusion, we propose a better definition of the constructs of autonomy and control measured by the SRQ-L. This article also discusses the limitations and implications of the study.
Despite the increasing number of data visualization authoring systems in recent years, it remains a challenge to simultaneously achieve high expressive power and ease of use in a single tool. In this paper we present SCImago Graphica, a no-code tool which allows the creation of complex visualizations by simple drag-and-drop interactions. Users bind the data variables to the different encoding channels, and specify the settings of each binding, from which the tool generates the interactive graphical display. Due to its efficiency of use, SCImago Graphica is not only suitable for visually communicating data, but also for exploratory data analysis. We evaluate the expressiveness and ease of use of SCImago Graphica through various examples of chart construction and a catalog of visualizations. The results show that SCImago Graphica makes it possible to create a wide variety of data visualizations quickly and easily.
This paper addresses malware classification into families using static analysis and a convolutional neural network through raw bytes. Previous research indicates that machine learning is an interesting approach to malware classification. The neural network used was based on the proposed Malconv , a convolutional neural network used for malware classification by training the network with the whole binary. Minor modifications were made to get better results and apply them to a multi-classification problem. Four models were trained with data extracted from Portable Executable malware samples labeled into nine families.These data were extracted in two ways: according to the semantic variation of bytes and using the entire file. The trained models were used for testing to check generality. The results from these four proposed models were compared and analyzed against models trained according to similar research. We concluded that the header is the most important part of a PE for malware identification purposes.
The notion of lower bound on awards has been introduced in the literature to analyze the establishment of guarantees that ensure a minimum award to each agent involved in situations of conflicting claims, such as the rationing of a resource or the distribution of the assets of a bankrupt firm. Indeed, this concept has a core role in many approaches related to the problem of fair allocation (Thomson in Math Soc Sci 74:41–59, 2015) and a range of such lower bounds have been proposed: the minimal right (Curiel et al. in Z Oper Res 31:A143–A159, 1987), the fair bound (Moulin in Handb Soc Choice Welf 1:289–357, 2002), securement (Moreno-Ternero and Villar in Math Soc Sci 47(2):245–257, 2004) and the $$\min $$ min bound (Dominguez in mimeo, 2006). In this context, the key contribution of the current paper is to show that there is a correspondence between lower bounds and rules; i.e., associated to each particular lower bound, we find a specific way of distributing the resources. In doing so, we provide new characterizations for two well known rules, the constrained equal awards and Ibn Ezra’s rules. A dual analysis, by using upper bounds on awards will provide characterizations of the dual of the previously mentioned rules: the constrained equal losses rule and the dual of Ibn Ezra’s rule.
Although food addiction (FA) is a debated condition and it is not currently recognized as a formal diagnosis, it shares features with other addictions, such as gambling disorder (GD). However, the prevalence of FA in GD and the clinical correlates are incompletely understood, especially within women versus men. To investigate FA in patients presenting with GD. The sample included 867 patients diagnosed with GD (798 males and 69 females) attending a specialized behavioral addictions unit. FA was observed in 8.3% of GD patients (18.8% of women, 7.4% of men). More psychopathology and harm avoidance, greater body mass indices and less self-directedness and cooperativeness were associated with FA. In women, FA was associated with a longer GD duration. In men, FA was associated with earlier GD onset, greater GD and problematic alcohol use severities. Among patients with GD, FA was associated with more psychopathology and gambling patterns suggestive of more protracted or severe GD. Screening for and addressing FA condition in patients with GD may help optimize preventive and therapeutic approaches. Future studies should consider testing guidelines to improve healthy eating habits, increase physical exercise and better manage stress and other negative emotions in order to target FA in GD.
The automotive industry is expanding its efforts to develop new techniques for increasing the level of intelligent driving and create new autonomous cars capable of driving with more intelligent capabilities. Thus, companies in this sector are turning to the development of autonomous cars and more specifically developing software along with more artificial intelligent algorithms. However, to be able to trust these systems, they must be developed very carefully, and use techniques that can increase the level of recognition that will consequently improve the level of safety. One of the most important components in this respect for road users is the correct interpretation of traffic sings. This paper presents a deep learning model based on convolutional neural networks and image processing that can be used to improve the recognition of traffic sings autonomously. The results are focused on difficult cases such as images with lighting problems, blurry traffic sings, hidden traffic sings, and small images. Hence, real cases are used in this study for identifying the existing problems and achieving good performance in traffic signal recognition. Finally, as a result, the configuration of the neural architecture based on three phases of convolutions proposed shows a validation accuracy of 99.3% during the data training. Another comparison carried out with the model ResNet-50 obtained an accuracy of 88.5%. Thus, for this type of application, a high validation accuracy is required as the results of our model demonstrated.
Introduction COVID19 lockdown is having a significant impact on mental health, patients with eating disorders (ED) are particularly vulnerable. Objectives 1) To explore changes in eating and other psychological features due to confinement in patients with ED from various European and Asian countries; and 2) to assess differences related to diagnostic subtypes, age and geography. Methods The sample comprised 829 participants, diagnosed with an ED according to DSM-5 criteria from specialized ED units in Europe and Asia. Participants were assessed using the COVID19 Isolation Scale (CIES). Results On one hand, patients with Binge Eating Disorder experienced the highest impact on weight and ED symptoms due to confinement. Together with subjects diagnosed with Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders (OFSED), they also experienced a deterioration in general psychological state. On the other hand, there was less symptomatic impact on people with Bulimia Nervosa or Anorexia Nervosa and asian and younger individuals appeared to be more resilient in this situation. Conclusions The impact of COVID varied by cultural context and individual variation in age and form of illness. Services may need to target preventive measures and adapting therapeutic approaches for the most vulnerable patients. Disclosure No significant relationships.
Alejo Carpentier is a writer who handles a huge volume of intellectual and cultural nature, due to his exquisite competence in subjects as different as music, architecture, history, philosophy, anthropology, art and literature. Thanks to his polished education from childhood and the endless curiosity and capacity to wonder about the cultural phenomena that affect the transatlantic field, his novels are constantly nourished by intertextualities, quotes, reflections on history, art or music, which are combined adequately with its critical, social, political and formal purposes. But this erudition, typical of the presence of the baroque in his work, also causes the author to intrude on many occasions in the narrative, undoubtedly marking his presence in some characters, almost always protagonists, and in the narrators of his works, for what the distance between author and narrator or characters is sometimes narrowed to almost imperceptible limits. This occurs especially when certain historical figures combine negative attitudes that are the object of criticism, with admirable characteristics, related to knowledge, culture and sensitivity for art, such as the dictator of El recurso del método, who is rejected for his tyrannical tendencies while being admired for his musical, historical and artistic knowledge.
The sleep quality and quantity of an athlete who ran 28 consecutive marathons were analysed through three polysomnography sessions to explore the sleep-dependent recovery process. We observed differences in quantity, quality, and sleep distribution in all variables evaluated. In conclusion, high-intensity physical exercise negatively affects sleep without proper recovery.
Introduction Involving carers in the care of people with severe mental illness is known to bring positive treatment and psychosocial outcomes. However, evidence-based procedures to guide clinicians on how to involve carers in the acute care are lacking. Objectives To provide an online training to clinicians working in the acute care regarding the organisation of a standardised meeting with the service user and their carer within the first week of hospitalisation, and explore their views after its implementation. Methods We trained six clinicians across four urban and rural sites in England, asked them to incorporate the meeting in their routine care provision and interviewed them to explore their experiences. Results Clinicians reported training advantages such as ease of use, comprehensiveness and transferable skills, and meeting advantages such as shared goals development and acknowledgement of carer involvement value. They also mentioned challenges related to organisational/time constraints, expectations management, and distance to the hospital for carers. Clinicians suggested to further focus on carer motivation to engage, to use skills throughout admission rather than in a one-off session, and to provide a structured meeting summary. Those experiences were shared across sites, indicating similar benefits and challenges, not depending on the specific setting characteristics. Conclusions Providing structured training to clinicians may increase carer involvement in routine care in acute settings. Given the workload in such settings training endeavours should be brief and include skills that clinicians can apply to facilitate shared goal development and expectations management. The use of online meetings may allow increased carer participation in the acute care. Disclosure No significant relationships.
Introduction The COVID-19 related restrictions such as social distancing forced the search for feasible alternatives to the provision of care for patients with severe mental illness (SMI), with services opting for teletherapy as an substitute of face-to-face treatment. Objectives To examine the implementation of teletherapy (telephone, videoconference) with patients with SMI during the COVID-19 first wave, and explore its associations with reduced hospitalisations after the first wave was over. Methods We performed a retrospective assessment of 270 records of patients visiting fifteen outpatient mental health services across Spain during 2020. We retrieved sociodemographic and clinical data, including modality of received therapy (in-person, telephone, videoconference) in three time points (before, during and after the first COVID-19 wave) and hospitalisation rates two, four and six months later. Results During the first wave, services implemented teletherapy (telephone and videoconference) extensively, whilst they reduced face-to-face therapy, though this returned to previous levels after the first wave. Hospitalisations two months later did not differ between patients who received teletherapy, and those who did not ( p =.068). However, hospitalisations were lower for the first group of patients four ( p =.004) and six months later ( p <.001). Multilevel analyses suggested that receiving teletherapy by videoconference during the first wave was the factor that protected patients most against hospitalisations six months later (OR=0.25; p =.012). Conclusions Our findings suggest that teletherapy plays a protective role against hospitalisations, especially when face-to-face therapy is not feasible. Therefore, it can be considered a valid alternative to ensure continuity of care to patients with SMI. Disclosure No significant relationships.
Introduction The involvement of informal carers (family and friends) in the care of people with severe mental illness (SMI) contributes to positive clinical outcomes, such as relapse prevention and symptom reduction. To date, the care pathway between inpatient and community care is not clearly defined impeding the smooth transition for patients, whilst carers are still barely involved in shared decision-making processes. Objectives To investigate the views and experiences of patients with SMI, carers and clinicians regarding the transition from inpatient to community mental health services. Methods Four mixed focus groups were conducted with individuals with SMI (n=12), carers (n=10) and clinicians (n=9) across four different mental health catchment areas in England. Participants discussed their experiences and provided their views on facilitators, barriers and solutions for carer involvement during the transition between mental health services. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results All stakeholders highlighted that factors that impede carer involvement are related to: confidentiality issues, unmet (structural and organisational) needs, and carer expectations. Patients with SMI, carers and clinicians agreed that carer involvement can be improved by providing psychoeducation to carers and training to staff, having accessible and transparent clinical procedures, and allocating specialised staff to carers. Conclusions The study findings emphasise that carer involvement is still overlooked, particularly when adults with SMI transition between services. The results provide guidance for practice emphasising the need for systematic involvement of carers across inpatient care, and for future research proposing effective ways of maximising carer involvement in mental health care. Disclosure No significant relationships.
Introduction The prevalence of allergies in children has grown in last few decades. Allergies are very often associated with physical, mental, and emotional problems that could be detected through child’s behaviour and feelings. Objectives to describe and compare children’s behaviour (internalizing and externalizing) across a sample of children aged 6–11 years with and without allergic diseases. Methods This was a cross-sectional observational case-control study. A survey to 366 families (194 allergic cases and 172 controls), including a child behaviour checklist (CBCL) and a socio-demographic questionnaire with questions related to family, school education, health conditions and allergy symptoms, was administered. Results Children with a diagnosis of allergy showed higher scores in the overall CBCL score (standardised mean differences [SMD]= 0.47; confidence intervals [CI]: 0.26–0.68) and in the internalizing and externalizing factors (SMD=0.52 and SMD=0.36, respectively) than non-allergic children. Odds ratio (OR) analyses showed a higher risk (OR=2.76; 95% CI [1.61 to 4.72]) of developing a behavioural difficulty in children diagnosed with allergies. Age and level of asthma appear as modulatory variables. Conclusions Children aged 6–11 years diagnosed with allergies showed larger behavioural problems than non-allergic children. This relationship is stronger in internalizing behaviours. These findings suggest the importance of attending to them and treating them in the early stages of diagnosis to avoid future psychological disorders. Disclosure No significant relationships.
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