Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero
Recent publications
Background High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is the main cause of cervical cancer, but additional alterations are necessary for its development. Abnormal DNA methylation has an important role in the origin and dissemination of cervical cancer and other human tumors. In this work, we analyzed the methylation of eight genes (AJAP1, CDH1, CDH13, MAGI2, MGMT, MYOD1, RASSF1A and SOX17) that participate in several biological processes for the maintenance of cell normality. We analyzed DNA methylation by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and HPV infection using the INNO‑LiPA genotyping kit in 59 samples diagnostic of normal cervical tissue (non-SIL), 107 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), 29 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) and 51 cervical cancers (CCs). Results We found that all samples of LSIL, HSIL, and CC were HPV-positive, and the genotypes with higher frequencies were 16, 18, 51 and 56. In general, the genes analyzed displayed a significant tendency toward an increase in methylation levels according to increasing cervical lesion severity, except for the CDH13 gene. High CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was associated with a 50.6-fold (95% CI 4.72–2267.3)-increased risk of HSIL and a 122-fold risk of CC (95% CI 10.04–5349.7). Conclusions We found that CIMP high was significantly associated with HSIL and CC risk. These results could indicate that CIMP together with HR-HPV infection and other factors participates in the development of HSIL and CC.
Let G=(V,E) be a simple graph with vertex set V and edge set E. Let D be a subset of V, and let B(D) be the set of neighbors of D in V∖D. The differential ∂(D) of D is defined as |B(D)|−|D|. The maximum value of ∂(D) taken over all subsets D⊆V is the differential of G, denoted by ∂(G). The line graph L(G) of G=(V,E) is the graph whose vertex set is E, and two vertices in L(G) are adjacent if and only if their corresponding edges in G have a common end vertex. In this work we prove that ∂(L(G))≥∂(G)−1 for any graph G, and that ∂(L(G))≥∂(G) for any graph G different from a tree. Moreover, we give a characterization of all trees T such that ∂(L(T))=∂(T)−1.
We consider the equations of motion of a bar, with given density, infinite in both directions, subjected to longitudinal vibrations under the action of an external load, and a stress-strain relation represented by a fractional order operator. Using three types of fractional operators, the initial-boundary value problems associated with the described phenomenon are posed and solved. Through the bivariate Mittag-Leffer function, which has been recently introduced, we find the fundamental solution of these problems and calculate their moments.
In recent decades, nanostructured metal sulphides (MSs) have gained great interest due to their extensive applications ranging from optoelectronic devices to biomedical applications. Significant efforts are being focused on low toxicity MSs in response to the notable interest of the scientific community in pursuing more environmentally friendly alternatives. The controlled synthesis of MS nanostructures is crucial for providing control of their optoelectronic properties and potential applications. Among the various methods for synthesis of MSs, the microwave-assisted heating approach seems to be a viable option to conventional heating techniques for producing nanostructures using green routes, because of its homogeneous heating, greatly reduced synthesis time, as well as uniform morphology and higher phase purity of the produced materials. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of microwave-assisted heating and highlight its utility in the synthesis of MSs nanostructures. We address the synthesis of six environmentally friendly binary MSs that have been obtained by microwave-assisted heating: ZnS, SnSx (x = 1,2), CuS, Fe2S, Bi2S3, and Sb2S3. Herein, the most relevant findings related to the impact of microwaves on the morphology, dimensions, and properties of MS nanostructures have been summarised, emphasising the role of the dielectric constant. We conclude that materials with a large dielectric constant tend to grow in all directions with a proclivity towards a spherical shape, while materials with a small dielectric constant often grow unidirectionally, forming rod-like crystals. Finally, we evaluate the limitations, advantages, and prospects of microwave-assisted heating for the synthesis of nanostructures.
Climate change, urbanization, and population growth, particularly in urban areas such as Acapulco, Mexico, put pressure on water availability, where although surrounded by water, the inhabitants lack enough good-quality water, especially in the rainy season. In addition, water scarcity, socioeconomic factors, and infrastructure problems limit the satisfaction of water demand in this context, e.g., operational issues in the water treatment plants and problems in the distribution network caused by hurricanes. The objectives of this research were: (i) to determine the rainwater quality in Acapulco, Mexico; (ii) to propose a domestic water efficiency retrofit (WER) design implementing a rainwater harvesting system (RWHS); and (iii) to determine the RWHS efficiency in terms of economic savings, considering rainwater’s social acceptance for domestic consumptive uses. The WER design was developed in an SFH in Acapulco, Mexico. The RWHS catchment surface area was 29 m2. The device comprises a first-rain separator (20 L) and a storage tank (1200 L). The rainwater harvesting potential (RWHP) was evaluated during the 2020 and 2021 rainy seasons, whereas the harvested rainwater quality (HRWQ) was analyzed in samples from 2021. Alkalinity, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, chlorides, nitrates, sulfates, and heavy metals and potentially toxic metalloids were analyzed. Additionally, 168 surveys were applied to SFH owners to evaluate WER acceptance. Results showed that the RWHP was ca. 44 and 21 L/m2 in 2020 and 2021, respectively. All the rainwater quality parameters met the World Health Organization guidelines for consumptive uses except for drinking water. The perception study showed a 95% willingness to adopt the WER. Due to the RWHP and the HRWQ, the WER of SFHs is a promising solution to address Acapulco hydric stress under the nature-based solutions approach.
Citrullination is catalyzed by the peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) enzyme, encoded by the PADI4 gene. Increased PAD4 activity promotes the onset and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aimed to evaluate the association of PADI4 haplotypes with RA risk, mRNA expression, and the PAD4 activity in patients with RA from Mexico. Methodology: 100 RA patients and 100 control subjects (CS) were included. Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP method, PADI4 mRNA expression was quantified by real-time PCR, the contribution of PADI4 alleles (PADI4_89 G>A, PADI4_90 T>C, and PADI4_92 G>C) to mRNA expression by the ASTQ method, and PAD4 activity by HPLC. Also, the anti-CCP and anti-PADI4 antibodies were quantified by ELISA. Results: The three PADI4 polymorphisms were associated with RA susceptibility (OR = 1.72, p = 0.005; OR = 1.62; p = 0.014; OR = 1.69; p = 0.009; respectively). The 89G, 90T, and 92G alleles have a higher relative contribution to PADI4 mRNA expression from RA patients than 89A, 90C, and 92C alleles in RA patients. Moreover, the GTG/GTG haplotype was associated with RA susceptibility (OR = 2.86; p = 0.024). The GTG haplotype was associated with higher PADI4 mRNA expression (p = 0.04) and higher PAD4 enzymatic activity (p = 0.007) in RA patients. Conclusions: The evaluated polymorphisms contribute to PADI4 mRNA expression and the enzymatic activity of PAD4 in leukocytes. Therefore, the GTG haplotype is a genetic risk factor for RA in western Mexico, and is associated with increased PADI4 mRNA expression and higher PAD4 activity in these patients.
Thirty accessions of cotton (Gossypium) in the INIFAP genebank in the Iguala Experimental Field were analyzed for resistance to eriophyid mites. Vegetative structures such as leaves and petioles and reproductive structures such as the bract calyx with galls were collected from cotton plants. Galls were cut into cross section to locate mites; taxonomic keys were used to identify the mites. Damage to accessions of cotton was evaluated on a scale of six classes. Damage by eriophyid mites was analyzed with PROC RANK, subjecting it to analysis of variance with PROC GLM, and mean comparison by Tukey (P = 0.05) using statistical software SAS® 9.2. Eriophyidae was reported associated with formation of galls in cotton. Severity of damage was 0 to 85%, but cotton accessions TOA-06, FZ-06, GOS-16, GOS-34, TOA-09, TOA-02, GOS-17, TOA-04, and TOA-05 were resistant. More studies of biology and ecology and molecular analysis are needed to better understand and develop management strategies against mites in cotton.
This study aimed to evaluate the long-term effect of oral administration of Caesalpinia coriaria Jacq (Cascalote) wild fruit extract to lambs on ruminal methane, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide production and in vitro fermentation profile. Rumen liquor (RL) was collected from lambs administered with 0- (RL0), 30- (RL30), and 60- (RL60) mL of aqueous extract of the C. coriaria fruit for 60 days per lamb, as well as during incubation, 0-, 0.6-, 1.2-, and 1.8- mL of C. coriaria fruit extract was added to each RL type. There was a dose-dependent increase in gas production with increasing levels of C. coriaria extract. The RL30 lambs had the lowest (P = 0.013) methane output (g CH4/kg DM) at 24 h, and RL30 with 1.8 mL/g DM had the lowest (P = 0.031) CH4 (g CH4/kg DM) at 48 h. Furthermore, diets fermented with RL0 produced the highest (P = 0.001) short-chain fatty acid (SCFA, mmol/g DM) and metabolizable energy (ME, MJ/kg DM 24 h), while diets incubated with RL30 produced the lowest. Without plant extract addition, 30 mL oral supplementation of C. coriaria fruit extract/day/lamb was optimal for digestion, ME, and SCFA. Therefore, 60 mL/d/lamb containing 1.2–1.8 mL fruit extract/g DM seemed to be a feasible means of decreasing emissions of gas production, ME, SCFA, CO, H2S, and CH4. Graphical abstract
Background Cultural safety training is not yet standard in Colombian medical education. If incorporated, it could address currently adversarial interactions between health professionals and the 40% of people who use traditional medicine practices. In 2019, a randomised controlled trial tested the impact of cultural safety training for medical students using participatory serious game design. The quantitative evaluation showed improved cultural safety intentions of Colombian medical trainees. We report here a qualitative evaluation of the most significant change perceived by trial participants. Methods This qualitative descriptive study used the most significant change technique. We invited the trial participants engaged in clinical settings to describe stories of change in their supervised clinical practice that they attributed to the intervention. Using a deductive thematic analysis based on a modified theory of planned behaviour, two independent reviewers coded the stories and, by consensus, created themes and sub-themes. Results From 27 stories of change, we identified seven themes and 15 subthemes: (a) Conscious knowledge: benefits of cultural safety training, consequences of culturally unsafe behaviour, cultural diversity and cultural practices; (b) Attitudes: respect and appreciation for cultural diversity, openness, and self-awareness; (c) Subjective norms: positive perception of cultural practices and less ethnocentrism; (d) Intention to Change; (e) Agency to accept cultural diversity and to prevent culturally unsafe actions; (f) Discussion; and (g) Action: better communication and relationship with patients and peers, improved outcomes for patients, physicians, and society, investigation about cultural health practices, and efforts to integrate modern medicine and cultural health practices. Conclusion The narratives illustrated the transformative impact of cultural safety training on a results chain from conscious knowledge through to action. Our results encourage medical educators to report other cultural safety training experiences, ideally using patient-related outcomes or direct observation of medical trainees in clinical practice. Trial registration Registered on ISRCTN registry on 18/07/2019. Registration number: ISRCTN14261595.
SARS-CoV-2 contains four structural proteins, two of which, the spike and nucleocapsid, are commonly used for the standardization of novel methods for antibody detection; however, some limitations in their use have been observed due to the homology of this virus with other phylogenetically-related viruses. We performed in silico analysis to search for novel immunogenic and antigenic peptides. A total of twenty-five peptides were preliminarily selected, located in the 3D structure of both proteins. Finally, eight peptides were selected: one located in the N protein and seven in the S1 domain of the spike protein. Additionally, the localization of selected peptides in 2D structures and possible changes in the sequences of these peptides in SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern were analyzed. All peptides were synthetized in MAP8 format, and recombinant S (trimer and RBD) and N proteins were used as antigens to search for antibodies in serum samples derived from COVID-19 patients, and for antibody response in New Zealand rabbits. Results showed high recognition of the serum derived from COVID-19 patients to all selected peptides; however, only the RBD3 peptide induced antibody production. In conclusion, this work provides evidence for a new strategy in peptide selection and its use for antibody detection or antibody production in animals.
Youth binge drinking is an important health problem with notable psychosocial consequences. This study estimated the prevalence of and identified factors associated with binge drinking among high school students in Acapulco, Mexico. A cross-sectional study included 5177 students from five high schools. After informed consent, participants received a supervised self-administered questionnaire that collated demographic, socioeconomic, and psycho-affective variables. Bivariate and cluster-adjusted multivariate analysis identified factors associated with binge drinking; the odds ratio adjusted by cluster (ORa) with the Mantel–Haenszel procedure and 99% confidence intervals (CIs) cluster-adjusted (99% CIcla). Period prevalence of binge drinking in the last year was 17.9% (925/5177). Nighttime leisure activities modified the key associations. Among youth with nighttime-leisure, risk factors included history of attempted suicide (ORa 1.82), employee and students (ORa 1.90); and both parents consumed alcohol (ORa 1.47). Risk factors among the group without nocturnal leisure included: age 17 years or more (ORa 1.75); lower grade average ≤8.5 (ORa 1.71); and having a partner (ORa 1.43). Understanding this constellation can help to strengthen local actions aimed at preventing binge drinking and reducing its impact.
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in patients worldwide, where invasion and metastasis are directly responsible for this statement. Although cancer therapy has progressed in recent years, current therapeutic approaches are ineffective due to toxicity and chemoresistance. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate other treatment options, and natural products are a promising alternative as they show antitumor properties in different study models. This review describes the regulation of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) expression and the role of flavonoids as molecules with the antitumor activity that targets TIMPs therapeutically. These inhibitors regulate tissue extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover; they inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), cell migration, invasion, and angiogenesis and induce apoptosis in tumor cells. Data obtained in cell lines and in vivo models suggest that flavonoids are chemopreventive and cytotoxic against various types of cancer through several mechanisms. Flavonoids also regulate crucial signaling pathways such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), nuclear factor κB (NFκB), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) involved in cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. All these data reposition flavonoids as excellent candidates for use in cancer therapy.
Inequalities play an important role in pure and applied mathematics. In particular, Jensen’s inequality, one of the most famous inequalities, plays the main role in the study of the existence and uniqueness of initial and boundary value problems for differential equations. In this work, we prove some new Jensen-type inequalities for m-convex functions and apply them to generalized Riemann-Liouville-type integral operators. Furthermore, as a remarkable consequence, some new inequalities for convex functions are obtained.
Traditionally, research on addictive behaviors has been based on the study of their risk factors, with impulsivity being the main risk factor. However, this study aims to approach this topic from the analysis of decision making. According to the prospect theory, low levels of loss and risk aversion will increase the probability of showing addictive behaviors. A systematic review of the possible relationships between these behaviors and prospect theory was carried out. To this end, the works that have studied loss and risk aversion in populations with addictive behaviors to date (N = 15) were compiled. Apart from other eligibility criteria, the selection process was only performed with studies that included the prospect theory or cumulative prospect theory, in English or Spanish, since 1979. WoS, Scopus, Dialnet and PsycInfo were the information sources selected. For this purpose, PRISMA guidelines have been followed. It was found that users of addictive substances show less loss aversion than nonusers. These results cannot be transferred to pathological gamblers. The significance of this work for future research and the implementation of prevention and intervention programs is highlighted. The results show an approach to addictions from a novel perspective.
The Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) aims to find the shortest tour for a salesman who starts and ends in the same city and visits the remaining n−1 cities exactly once. There are a number of common generalizations of the problem including the Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem (MTSP), where instead of one salesman, there are k salesmen and the same amount of individual tours are to be constructed. We consider the Euclidean version of the problem where the distances between the cities are calculated in two-dimensional Euclidean space. Both general the TSP and its Euclidean version are strongly NP-hard. Hence, approximation algorithms with a good practical behavior are of primary interest. We describe a general method for the solution of the Euclidean versions of the TSP (including MTSP) that yields approximation algorithms with a favorable practical behavior for large real-life instances. Our method creates special types of convex hulls, which serve as a basis for the constructions of our initial and intermediate partial solutions. Here, we overview three algorithms; one of them is for the bounded version of the MTSP. The proposed novel algorithm for the Euclidean TSP provides close-to-optimal solutions for some real-life instances.
In this paper we prove several optimal inequalities involving the hyperbolicity constant of complementary prisms networks. Moreover, we obtain bounds and closed formulas for the general topological indices A(G)=∑ a(d,d) and B(G)=∑b(d) of complementary prisms networks.
The aim of this paper is to model the dynamics of the human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical epithelial cells. We developed a mathematical model of the epithelial cellular dynamics of the stratified epithelium of three (basale, intermedium, and corneum) stratums that is based on three ordinary differential equations. We determine the biological condition for the existence of the epithelial cell homeostasis equilibrium, and we obtain the necessary and sufficient conditions for its global stability using the method of Lyapunov functions and a theorem on limiting systems. We have also developed a mathematical model based on seven ordinary differential equations that describes the dynamics of HPV infection. We calculated the basic reproductive number ( R 0 ) of the infection using the next-generation operator method. We determine the existence and the local stability of the equilibrium point of the cellular homeostasis of the epithelium. We then give a sufficient condition for the global asymptotic stability of the epithelial cell homeostasis equilibrium using the Lyapunov function method. We proved that this equilibrium point is nonhyperbolic when R 0 = 1 and that in this case, the system presents a forward bifurcation, which shows the existence of an infected equilibrium point when R 0 > 1 . We also study the solutions numerically (i.e., viral kinetic in silico) when R 0 > 1 . Finally, local sensitivity index was calculated to assess the influence of different parameters on basic reproductive number. Our model reproduces the transient, acute, latent, and chronic infections that have been reported in studies of the natural history of HPV.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus (CoV)-2 infection in children and adolescents primarily causes mild or asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and severe illness is mainly associated with comorbidities. However, the worldwide prevalence of COVID-19 in this population is only 1%–2%. In Mexico, the prevalence of COVID-19 in children has increased to 10%. As serology-based studies are scarce, we analyzed the clinical features and serological response (SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins) of children and adolescents who visited the Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez (October 2020–March 2021). The majority were 9-year-old children without comorbidities who were treated as outpatients and had mild-to-moderate illness. Children aged 6–10 years and adolescents aged 11–15 years had the maximum number of symptoms, including those with obesity. Nevertheless, children with comorbidities such as immunosuppression, leukemia, and obesity exhibited the lowest antibody response, whereas those aged 1–5 years with heart disease had the highest levels of antibodies. The SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain-localized peptides and M and E proteins had the best antibody response. In conclusion, Mexican children and adolescents with COVID-19 represent a heterogeneous population, and comorbidities play an important role in the antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Little is known about the effect of serum amylase enzymatic activity on glucose metabolism. We investigated the association of serum amylase enzymatic activity with fasting plasma glucose, insulin resistance (IR), and the plasma glucose and insulin response to an oral starch test (OST) in Mexican children. Anthropometric data, glucose and insulin levels, and the serum enzymatic activity of total (AMYt), salivary (AMY1), and pancreatic (AMY2) amylase were analysed in 764 children (Nnormal weight = 427/Nobesity = 337). After categorization into low (LA) and high (HA) AMYt, an OST with commercial white bread was performed in 39 children (Nnormal weight = 17/Nobesity = 22). A positive association between serum enzymatic activity of AMY2 and IR was observed in children with obesity (p = 0.018). Children with normal weight had lower plasma glucose and insulin response to OST than children with obesity (Pglucose = 4.1 × 10−12; Pinsulin = 2.1 × 10−15). Compared with the LA group, children with HA showed lower plasma glucose and insulin response to OST (Pglucose ≤ 0.040; Pinsulin ≤ 0.015). Our results suggest that AMY2 is positively associated with IR. A high level of AMYt is related to lower glucose and insulin responses to OST in Mexican children, regardless of their weight status.
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1,241 members
josé luis Rosas
  • Centro de Ciencias de Desarrollo Regional
Gustavo Adolfo Alonso Silverio
  • Facultad de Ingeniería
Rodrigo Rosario-Cruz
  • BioSA Research Lab
Natividad Castro
  • Ciencias Químico Biológicas
Maria S Garcia González
  • Centro de Investigación en Matemática Educativa
Head of institution
Dr. Javier Saldaña Almazán
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