Objetivo: identificar las implicaciones de la pandemia de COVID-19 en la trata de personas en Chihuahua durante 2020 y 2021, teniendo en cuenta los derechos humanos y el modelo ecológico. Metodología: cualitativa mediante la exploración de casos reales y la revisión de la literatura. Resultados: se describe la trata de personas en Chihuahua durante la pandemia y su relación con la violencia familiar, el hacinamiento y la pobreza debidos al confinamiento, factores que actúan como agentes facilitadores de dicho crimen. Valor: se enumeran los factores de riesgo, se identifican los municipios con mayor cantidad de casos y se describen las estrategias de reclutamiento. Limitaciones: la ausencia de bases de datos confiables. Conclusiones: hay una clara discrepancia entre las cifras de las instituciones gubernamentales y las de la sociedad civil. Las modalidades predominantes de la trata son la sexual y la laboral. Las estrategias de reclutamiento se facilitan a través de las redes sociales virtuales y de los videojuegos.
In this paper, the inefficiency of the studied energy conversion system is identified to reduce losses and improve performance. A conventional exergy analysis has limitations that it is not able to detect and this detection is done with advanced exergy analysis. The main role of advanced exergy analysis is to help engineers improve system design and performance by providing information. This provision of information is done by isolating the exergy destruction. Separation of exergy destruction into endogenous/exogenous and unavoidable/avoidable components presents a new development in the exergy analysis of energy conversion systems, which in this paper combines both concepts. This separation increases the accuracy of the exergy analysis and facilitates the improvement of a system. The method used in this paper for separation is the thermodynamic cycle method, which is based on determining the temperature levels for ideal and irreversible cycles. Graphical Abstract
The use of new energy sources, such as geothermal energy, is rapidly expanding worldwide , and it is a viable alternative to fossil fuels. This paper proposes a geothermal power generation system (combined single flash geothermal cycle with transcritical carbon dioxide recovery cycle). To improve system performance, a recuperator is used to recover some of the heat loss. The proposed system simulation is performed in EES software and then validated by previous research. The proposed system is analyzed from the perspective of energy and exergy. The effects of the proposed system separator pressure, carbon dioxide turbine inlet pressure and carbon dioxide condenser outlet temperature on energy efficiency, exergy efficiency and system net power output have been investigated. Findings show that the proposed system in recovery mode has a net power output of 401.40 kW, energy efficiency of 53.6 percent, and exergy efficiency of 46.32 percent, which are significantly higher than the basic mode's values of 149.9 kW, 2.39 percent, and 12.12 percent, respectively. Ó 2022 THE AUTHORS. Published by Elsevier BV on behalf of Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Lately, Open Data (OD) has been promoted by governments around the world as a resource to accelerate innovation within entrepreneurial ventures . However,it remains unclear to what extent OD drives innovative entrepreneurship. This paper sheds light on this open question by providing novel empirical evidence on the relationship between OD publishing and (digital) entrepreneurship at the country-level. We draw upon a longitudinal dataset comprising 90 countries observed over the period 2013–2016. We find a significant and positive association between OD publishing and entrepreneurship at the country level. The results also show that OD publishing and entrepreneurship is strong in countries with high institutional quality. We argue that publishing OD is not sufficient to improve innovative entrepreneurship alone, so states need to move beyond a focus on OD initiatives and promotion, to focus on a broader set of policy initiatives that promote good governance.
At the end of 2018, a call for papers was made for the Special Issue called “Applied Engineering to Lean Manufacturing Production Systems”, whose objective was to bring together different articles with industrial applications of the different lean manufacturing (LM) tool theories for problem-solving and case studies that improve the indices of the production systems [...]
Açaí, lychee, mamey, passion fruit and jackfruit are some lesser-consumed tropical fruits due to their low commercial production. In 2018, approximately 6.8 million tons of these fruits were harvested, representing about 6.35% of the total world production of tropical fruits. The present work reviews the nutritional content, profile of bioactive compounds, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity of these fruits and their by-products, and their ability to modulate oxidative stress due to the content of phenolic compounds, carotenoids and dietary fiber. Açaí pulp is an excellent source of anthocyanins (587 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents/100 g dry weight, dw), mamey pulp is rich in carotenoids (36.12 mg β-carotene/100 g fresh weight, fw), passion fruit peel is rich in dietary fiber (61.16 g/100 dw). At the same time, jackfruit contains unique compounds such as moracin C, artocarpesin, norartocarpetin and oxyresveratrol. These molecules play an important role in the regulation of inflammation via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (including p38, ERK and JNK) and nuclear factor κB pathways. The properties of the bioactive compounds found in these fruits make them a good source for use as food ingredients for nutritional purposes or alternative therapies. Research is needed to confirm their health benefits that can increase their marketability, which can benefit the primary producers, processing industries (particularly smaller ones) and the final consumer, while an integral use of their by-products will allow their incorporation into the circular bioeconomy.
Learning adaptation patterns scale (PALS) have been used around the world to measure some students’ aspects in learning development, in order to know what behaviors the students have in their academic performance. The instrument was created in United States, but it is necessary to validate it in other samples in order to measure students’ performance. The objective of this study was to validate some scales of the instrument (PALS) in the Mexican population, since there is not validation of the PALS in Mexico’s population. This article contains two main studies, an exploratory analysis and confirmatory analysis; it also includes a chi-square analysis between age and sex and a divergent validity analysis between the scales applied in this study. For the exploratory analysis, 380 elementary school children participated; for the confirmatory analysis, 100 elementary school children participated. The following scales were applied: Mastery goal orientation, performance-approach goal orientation, performance-avoid goal orientation, cheating behavior, disruptive behavior, dissonance between home and school, parent’s mastery goals, parent’s performance goals, and dissonance between school and home. The validation of six of the eight scales used in this study was concluded for the fourth, fifth and sixth-grade scholars in elementary schools in this sample. The distribution between the age and sex of participants were homogeneous. More research is necessary in Hispanic samples to validate more scales of the PALS, and to generalize the results to the Mexican population; there were some limitations in the study about the sample analysis. Those are presented in the discussion.
This paper proposes and evaluates an integrated energy production system using two forms of renewable energy, solar and wind, in order to deliver cooling, heating, electricity, and water desalination. Along with organic Rankine cycle components (ORC), this diversified energy system includes an absorption refrigeration system, steam Rankine cycle (SRC), thermoelectrics, reverse osmosis, wind turbines, and parabolic-linear solar collectors. This study contains several innovations, including using thermoelectrics in the Rankine organic cycle instead of a condenser that gives the system a high capacity, utilizing parabolic solar collectors, and implementing wind energy as the direct source of electricity for such system. Energy, Exergy, and Exergoeconomic analysis approach is performed for the evaluation approach. EES software is used to model and analyze the data. As part of the validation process, the results are compared with those published previously and are found to be relatively consistent. The research results revealed four points. First, with the increase in solar radiation, the amount of freshwater produced for the system increased from 69.15 to 75.23 m³/h. Second, the total exergy efficiency increased from 54.24 to 77.27% when the steam turbine's inlet pressure was increased. Third, the system's total cost decreased from 77.27 to 28.30 $/h with increasing ambient temperature. Fourth, the highest exergy loss is associated with solar energy with a central receiver. Based on exergy losses, it was determined that a solar system with 60% and a wind turbine with 17% have the highest losses.
The availability of rich data sets from several sources poses new opportunities to develop pattern recognition systems in a diverse array of industry, government, health, and academic areas [...]
In industrial production processes, different techniques, tools, philosophies, and methodologies are applied to facilitate their management and control [...]
There are several equations based on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to estimate with high precision appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM). However, most of the external validation studies have reported that these equations are inaccurate or biased when applied to different populations. Furthermore, none of the published studies has derived correction factors (CFs) in samples of community-dwelling older adults, and none of the published studies have assessed the influence of the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) model on the validation process. This study assessed the agreement between six BIA equations and DXA to estimate ASM in non-Caucasian older adults considering the DXA model and proposed a CF for three of them. This analysis included 547 non-institutionalized subjects over 60 years old from the northwest of Mexico who were physically independent and without cognitive impairment: 192 subjects were measured using DXA Hologic, while 355 were measured by DXA Lunar. The agreement between each of the equations and DXA was tested considering the DXA model used as a reference method for the design of each equation, using the Bland and Altman procedure, a paired t test, and simple linear regression as objective tests. This process was supported by the differences reported in the literature and confirmed in a subsample of 70 subjects measured with both models. Only six published BIA equations were included. The results showed that four equations overestimated ASM DXA , and two underestimated it ( p < 0.001, 95% CI for Kim's equation:−5.86-−5.45, Toselli's:−0.51-−0.15, Kyle's: 1.43–1.84, Rangel-Peniche's: 0.32–0.74, Sergi's: 0.83–1.23, and Yoshida's: 4.16–4.63 kg). However, Toselli's, Kyle's and Rangel-Peniche's equations were the only ones that complied with having a homogeneous bias. This finding allowed the derivation of CFs, which consisted of subtracting or adding the mean of the differences from the original equation. After estimating ASM applying the respective CF, the new ASM estimations showed no significant bias and its distribution remained homogeneously distributed. Therefore, agreement with DXA in the sample of non-Caucasian was achieved. Adding valid CFs to some BIA equations allowed to reduce the bias of some equations, making them valid to estimate the mean values of ASM at group level.
Herein, we report the synthesis of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) in chitosan (CTS) solution by chemically reducing HAuCl4. CTS was further functionalized with glycidyl methacrylate (chitosan-g-glycidyl methacrylate/AuNP, CTS-g-GMA/AuNP) to improve the mechanical properties for cellular regeneration requirements CTS-g-GMA/AuNP. Our nanocomposites promote excellent cellular viability and a positive effect on cytokine regulation in the inflammatory and anti-inflammatory response of the skin cells. After 40 days of nanocomposite exposure to a skin wound, we proved that our films had better skin wound healing capacity in comparison with a commercial one (TheraForm®) and the presence of the collagen allows better cosmetic aspect in the skin regeneration in comparison with the nanocomposite with an absence of this protein. Electrical percolation phenomena in such nanocomposites were used as a guiding tool for best nano-composite performance. Our results suggest that chitosan-based Au nanocomposites show great potential for skin wound repair.
PurposeTo determine the viability of using fruit peels to supplement extruded snacks that are rich in phytochemicals, and of good sensory characteristics and acceptability, thereby minimizing agro-industrial waste while also obtaining a value-added product.Methods Corn extrudates with 15% mango or papaya peel and their combinations were formulated; phenolic compounds, total carotenoids, antioxidant capacity, physicochemical characteristics, sensory acceptability, bioaccessibility and apparent absorption of their bioactive compounds were analyzed.ResultsCorn extrudates with mango peel (15%) showed higher overall acceptability, their total phenolic content increased approximately fourteen times (from 0.24 to 3.33 mg GAE/g) and their antioxidant capacity up to 5.3 times, as compared to the control. They were also enriched with catechin, mangiferin and quercetin-3-β-glucoside, neither of which were found in control samples. Papaya peel increased their carotenoid concentration (17.46 µg β-CE/g). During in vitro digestion, the release of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity was highest during the intestinal stage. Extrudates that contained more mango peel showed higher percentages of bioaccessibility, apparent absorption of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity during in vitro digestion.Conclusion Mango and papaya peels can be successfully incorporated into corn-based extruded snacks, resulting in higher concentration of bioactive compounds and without compromising sensory acceptability.Graphical Abstract
Wound dressing composite films of O-carboxymethyl chitosan (OCMC) and gelatin were prepared and mixed with hydroxyapatite (HA) composited with Silver (Ag) and Copper (Cu) at different concentrations. The chemical, thermal, morphological, and biological properties of the composite films were studied. The analysis by FTIR confirmed the presence of interactions between gelatin and OCMC, and at the same time, the polymer matrix interactions with Ag-Cu/HA complex. The inclusion of nanoparticle to the composite was associated with an improvement of the thermal stability, morphological roughness, a 9–12% more hydrophobic behavior (composite C1, C5, and C8), increase in antibacterial activity from 23.2 to 33.1% for gram negative bacteria and from 37.28 to 40.59% for gram positive bacteria, and with a cell viability greater than 100% for 24 and 72 h. The films obtained can serve as a wound healing dressing and regenerating biomaterial.
The capability analysis of a process against requirements is often an instrument of change. The traditional and fuzzy process capability approaches are the most useful statistical techniques for determining the intrinsic spread of a controlled process for establishing realistic specifications and use for comparative processes. In the industry, the traditional approach is the most commonly used instrument to assess the impact of continuous improvement projects. However, these methods used to evaluate process capability indices could give misleading results because the dataset employed corresponds to the final product/service measures. This paper reviews an alternative procedure to assess the fuzzy process capability indices based on the statistical methodology involved in the modeling and design of experiments. Firstly, a model with reasonable accuracy is developed using a neural network approach. This model is embedded in a graphic user interface (GUI). Using the GUI, an experimental design is carried out, first to know the membership function of the process variability and then include this variability in the model. Again, an experimental design identifies the improved operating conditions for the significative independent variables. A new dataset is generated with these operating conditions, including the minimum error reached for each independent variable. Finally, the GUI is used to get a new prediction for the response variable. The fuzzy process capability indices are determined using the triangular membership function and the predicted response values. The feasibility of the proposed method was validated using a random data set corresponding to the basis weight of a papermaking process. The results indicate that the proposed method provides a better overview of the process performance, showing its true potential. The proposed method can be considered non-invasive.
Translocation is increasingly being used as a conservation tool in wildlife management, but long-term assessments of the animals’ establishment in the new habitat are rarely done. In addition, finding protected areas for translocations can often be a limitation, but habitat patches managed for productive purposes could potentially be used for translocations. Here, we present a translocation case study of the Endangered Mexican howler monkey Alouatta palliata Mexicana into a forest fragment managed as an agroforest in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve (Mexico). We compared the behavior of the translocated focal group 6 yr after translocation with that observed 1 yr after translocation (Year 1 vs. Year 6), and with reference parameters for conserved forest. We also examined the 14 yr trajectory of the translocated population through published data. We found that in Year 6, monkeys spent less time on locomotion and more time consuming fruit than in Year 1. The focal group in Year 6 had doubled its activity area compared to Year 1. All behavioral parameters during Year 6 were similar to those reported for the species in conserved forest. During the first 14 yr, the translocated population increased at a rate of 1.29 find. yr−1. We conclude that this translocation succeeded in establishing a thriving population and that certain agroforestry systems may be adequate habitat for primate translocations. We also discuss how the translocation of howler monkeys into defaunated habitats might help restore ecological functions associated with these primates, such as the dispersal of large-seeded plants. Long-term information on successful primate translocations has high practical value for designing adequate conservation strategies in anthropogenic landscapes.
This article reports a thermal analysis of the wrists to analyze the behavior and recovery of skin temperature after 20 min when performing a highly repetitive movement, and two thermography methods (sensory and infrared) and research groups were compared. The tests were carried out with 44 participants who performed a repetitive task for 10 min and integrated into two groups, of which 22 were trained workers from a maquiladora company and were analyzed with sensory thermography, and the other 22 were in the laboratory with infrared thermography with undergraduate students. The study area is the left and right hand, specifically the wrists. The proposed hypothesis is that people with some musculoskeletal problems have a decrease in temperature when starting repetitive tasks and thermal asymmetries, which measurements were recorded at 0, 10, 15, and 20 min after the task was finished. Findings indicate that the temperatures in both wrists behave similarly. The workers reached higher temperatures, and the centigrade degrees of asymmetry difference were also higher. The variable with influence on the temperature was fractured in the arm. After thermally analyzing the temperature behavior between the wrists of both hands, it is concluded that there is an increase in temperature after finishing a repetitive task, and it does not stabilize after 20 min. Both thermography methods observed that the asymmetries are greater than 0.5 °C, detecting the possible pathology of carpal tunnel syndrome.
Introduction. After several months of COVID-19 lockdown, addressing the implications related to the emotional distress and well-being of the population during confinement has become increasingly evident. Objective. To explore, through a lexicometric and content-based approach, the responses related to discomfort and emotional well-being during the first confinement due to the COVID-19 lockdown. Method. Subjects included 2,555 adults in Mexico, mainly women (78.3%), with an average age of 46. Data were drawn from an online survey published on social networks from June 3 to July 5, 2020. The open answers of the subjects about discomfort and emotional well-being during lockdown, together with suggestions to improve the handling of the pandemic, were analyzed using word frequency analysis (clouds) and thematic content analysis. Result. Findings highlighted the implications of lockdown, including loss of social interaction, teleworking and overexposure to the news, associated with discomfort. In turn, activities related to self-care, doing household repairs, and sharing activities with the family were linked to well-being. Discussion and conclusion. Findings show that time was a key factor to transition from well-being to boredom, where space and material resources played a preponderant role during confinement.
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Avenida Plutarco Elias Calles 1210, 32310, Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico
Head of institution
Mtro. Juan Ignacio Camargo Nassar
656-6882100 al 09