Umm Al-Qura University
  • Mecca, Makkah Province, Saudi Arabia
Recent publications
Candida albicans is the fungus responsible for oral candidiasis, a prevalent disease. The development of antifungal-based delivery systems has always been a major challenge for researchers. This study was designed to develop a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) of sesame oil (SO) loaded with miconazole (MZ) that could overcome the solubility problems of MZ and enhance its antifungal activity against oral candidiasis. In the formulation of this study, SO was used as a component of a liquid lipid that showed an improved antifungal effect of MZ. An optimized MZ-loaded NLC of SO (MZ-SO NLC) was used, based on a central composite design-based experimental design; the particle size, dissolution efficiency, and inhibition zone against oral candidiasis were chosen as dependent variables. A software analysis provided an optimized MZ-SO NLC with a particle size of 92 nm, dissolution efficiency of 88%, and inhibition zone of 29 mm. Concurrently, the ex vivo permeation rate of the sheep buccal mucosa was shown to be significantly (p < .05) higher for MZ-SO NLC (1472 µg/cm²) as compared with a marketed MZ formulation (1215 µg/cm²) and an aqueous MZ suspension (470 µg/cm²). Additionally, an in vivo efficacy study in terms of the ulcer index against C. albicans found a superior result for the optimized MZ-SO NLC (0.5 ± 0.50) in a treated group of animals. Hence, it can be concluded that MZ, through an optimized NLC of SO, can treat candidiasis effectively by inhibiting the growth of C. albicans.
Poor wound healing is considered an obstacle in diabetics, which requires effective therapy. Our goal was to investigate the combined effect of mint and silver nanoparticle hydrogel films as wound-healing agents in diabetic rats. Thirty rats were arranged into five groups. The hydrogel films were prepared through an eco-friendly method, excluding toxic solvents and diluents. Gel 1 and fucidin showed complete wound-healing effect on the 22nd day, while Gel 2 showed a faster effect on the 16th day, all compared to group 1 which healed in 25 days. Diabetic rats in group 2 healed beyond 25 days. Moreover, Gel 1 and Gel 2 decreased the fasting blood glucose. Gel 2 enhances wound healing in diabetic rats via multiple mechanisms of action, possibly due to the ability of mint and silver nanoparticles to sustain their concentration at the wound site with limited toxicity.
A series of novel 1,2,3-triazole-linked ciprofloxacin-chalcones 4a-j were synthesised as potential anticancer agents. Hybrids 4a-j exhibited remarkable anti-proliferative activity against colon cancer cells. Compounds 4a-j displayed IC50s ranged from 2.53-8.67 µM, 8.67–62.47 µM, and 4.19–24.37 µM for HCT116, HT29, and Caco-2 cells; respectively, whereas the doxorubicin, showed IC50 values of 1.22, 0.88, and 4.15 µM. Compounds 4a, 4b, 4e, 4i, and 4j were the most potent against HCT116 with IC50 values of 3.57, 4.81, 4.32, 4.87, and 2.53 µM, respectively, compared to doxorubicin (IC50 = 1.22 µM). Also, hybrids 4a, 4b, 4e, 4i, and 4j exhibited remarkable inhibitory activities against topoisomerase I, II, and tubulin polymerisation. They increased the protein expression level of γH2AX, indicating DNA damage, and arrested HCT116 in G2/M phase, possibly through the ATR/CHK1/Cdc25C pathway. Thus, the novel ciprofloxacin hybrids could be exploited as potential leads for further investigation as novel anticancer medicines to fight colorectal carcinoma.
Nanofluid consideration has been magnified due to their exceptional heat transfer characteristics and prospective applications in engineering and medical sciences after the pioneering work of Choi. Since, majority fluids are non-Newtonian in nature. Therefore, considering Jeffrey fluid as a base fluid in current study enhance its role in applications. Moreover, geometric configuration of the channel is taken as asymmetric with tapering effects. Since, majority of human physiological systems and industrial machinery have complex geometry and. Therefore, tapering channel consideration cannot be ignored. High molecular weight of non-Newtonian liquids make no-slip condition inapplicable. Thus, slip effects are incorporated in the current analysis. The consider analysis is performed for peristaltic flow of Jeffrey Nano fluid through a tapered asymmetric channel in the presence of magnetic field. Main motivation for performing this study is to analyze the heat transfer properties of nanofluid for the treatment of multiple diseases like cancer. The resulting nonlinear equations are coupled and simplified through lubrication approach. Poisson-Boltzmann equations are linearized through Debye-Huckle linearization. Built-in command of NDSolve in MATHEMATICS is applied to compute the results. The results for velocity, pressure gradient, streamlines, temperature and concentration are discussed for involved parameters. The results indicate that velocity shows parabolic behavior near the center while mixed behavior is observed near the boundaries. It can also be noticed that tapering parameter (m) influence the velocity greatly. As increasing the tapering effect causes the geometry to expand resulting in decreased velocity near the center of the channel. During digestion of food, multiple chemical reactions are performed by enzymes, therefore, studying the impact of (γ) on temperature and concentration cannot be ignored. The outcome of the study shows decrease in temperature and concentration as energy is utilized in performing the digestion. The size of trapped bolus is found to be increasing as the values of Hartman number (M) and fluid parameter (λ1) are increased. Therefore, we can say that this study can provide basics to study physiological system with electroosmotic phenomenon. It also finds promising applications in drug delivery and food diagnostic etc.
A novel single material-based anti-resonant fiber is designed, investigated, and explored in this article with supports of up to 64 OAM modes over the 0.6 μm to 1.0 μm as operating wavelength. The other properties of the designed fiber including confinement loss (CL), OAM purity, effective refractive index differences (ERIDs), and dispersion variations provide the exceptional output. This fiber, the CL approximately varies between the 5.7031 × 10⁻⁵ dB/m to 9.2537 × 10⁻⁴ dB/m, the OAM purity is 97% to 99%, the ERIDs are higher than 10-4 for all the modes, and the least dispersion variations is −8.838 ps/km-nm for the EH1,1 mode. All the outstanding properties of the presented fiber are calculated using the FEM and the PML within the COMSOL Multiphysics simulator. Therefore, to the ideal of our knowledge, the proposed anti-resonant fiber is mostly applicable in the high-quality long-distance fiber communications system.
In this study, fractional order pseudo-parabolic partial differential equation defined by Caputo derivative is investigated with initial-boundary conditions. Modified double Laplace decomposition method is used to find the exact solution of this equation. Explicit finite difference is constructed for this partial differential equation. Stability estimates are proved for these difference schemes. Error analysis table is obtained by compared the exact and approximate solutions. Figures showing the physical properties of the exact and approximate solutions are presented. From the error tables and figures, this applied method is an good and effective method for this equation.
The solar spectrum energy absorption is very important for designing any solar absorber. The need for absorbing visible, infrared, and ultraviolet regions is increasing as most of the absorbers absorb visible regions. We propose a metasurface solar absorber based on Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) substrate which increases the absorption in visible, infrared and ultraviolet regions. GST is a phase-changing material having two different phases amorphous (aGST) and crystalline (cGST). The absorber is also analyzed using machine learning algorithm to predict the absorption values for different wavelengths. The solar absorber is showing an ultra-broadband response covering a 0.2–1.5 µm wavelength. The absorption analysis for ultra-violet, visible, and near-infrared regions for aGST and cGST is presented. The absorption of aGST design is better compared to cGST design. Furthermore, the design is showing polarization insensitiveness. Experiments are performed to check the K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN)-Regressor model’s prediction efficiency for predicting missing/intermediate wavelengths values of absorption. Different values of K and test scenarios; C-30, C-50 are used to evaluate regressor models using adjusted R² Score as an evaluation metric. It is detected from the experimental results that, high prediction proficiency (more than 0.9 adjusted R² score) can be accomplished using a lower value of K in KNN-Regressor model. The design results are optimized for geometrical parameters like substrate thickness, metasurface thickness, and ground plane thickness. The proposed metasurface solar absorber is absorbing ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared regions which will be used in solar thermal energy applications.
In order to ensure effective hand over management, network selection is very important. The process of selecting a network that offers a reliable and satisfactory service to the end user is known as network selection. Some existing approaches are utilized for network selection, however, they are reactive and can lead to erroneous conclusions due to inadequate information. These methods, however, have drawbacks due to their computational complexity and need for excessive and frequent hand over. Thus, we defined fractional orthotriple fuzzy Rough sets (FOFRSs), that can easily deal with ambiguity and insufficient information. The concepts of fractional orthotriple fuzzy rough Hamacher averaging and geometric operators are also introduced. The fundamental properties of the defined operators are discussed in detail. An algorithm to cope with uncertainty and ambiguity information for a multiple attribute group decision making (MAGDM) problem are proposed. Finally, a numerical example of the real-life is provided. The proposed method is compared to several existing methods, and the results show that the proposed method is more effective and helpful than the others.
A variety of algorithms handles processes on the CPU. The round-robin algorithm is an efficient CPU scheduling mechanism for a time-sharing operating system. The system processes the methods based on the time slice; however, determining the time slice has proven highly challenging for the researchers. As a result, a variety of dynamic time quantum scheduling techniques are presented by various academics to address this challenge. This study aims to determine how to best schedule resources to maximize efficiency. It is important to note that this scheduling mechanism rotates between the processes after the static quantum time is complete. However, the quantum decision affects how effectively and efficiently the procedures may be scheduled. Additionally, the quantum decision has an impact on the scheduling of processes. The average waiting time, turnaround time, and context switch times of the Round Robin scheduling algorithm are high enough to influence the system's performance. To get over the round-drawbacks, robin's the authors in this study suggest using the improved algorithm Median-Average Round Robin (MARR). Using the median and average of the burst time of each process, the author proposes a dynamic time quantum for the system. The authors compared the proposed model with four other scheduling algorithms. The results vividly depict that the proposed algorithms successfully give effective results with reduced average turnaround time and waiting time. In the future, cost and RAM utilization will be considered to enhance the algorithm.
The energy loss during the beating cilia phenomenon in the human stomach causing acidity in the blood flow under certain conditions has been a serious topic in the modern medical field. In the current study, authors have focused the entropy generation effects and irreversibility comparison on the flow of cilia generated metachronal waves of Cu-blood nanofluid through a curved channel by considering the effects of viscous dissipation and externally applied magnetic field. Due to the complex nature of the stream regime, curvilinear coordinates system is taken into consideration to present the constitutive expressions for bi-dimensional flow. Due to metachronal waves generated due to row wise beating cilia, authors have employed the constraints like large wave number so that the uniform pressure can be assumed over the cross section and the low Reynolds number to neglect the inertial forces. Unsteady flow of the problem producing partial differential equations is made steady by transforming it from a fixed frame to the wave frame of reference which finally provides the system of coupled ordinary differential equations along with cilia oriented non-homogeneous boundary conditions. This system has been solved analytically by incorporating a perturbation technique (HPM) to get the expressions for velocity, stream functions, pressure gradient and thermal profile. In the whole analysis, key findings are: The magnetic field reduces the flow speed in left side of the channel but increases the temperature of the system in the whole region. Entropy of the system can be reduced by diminishing the magnetic field effects and viscous dissipation, also the magnetic field is affecting the flow in the sense of contracting the bolus size. It is concluded that entropy due to thermal transfer is less than that of the whole system. More studies on the topic can be developed by considering the microorganism effects in three dimensional geometries with cilia at the boundaries.
Conventional flood lubrication techniques have serious impacts on the environment, health, and economy. Thus, the implementation of advanced lubrication techniques such as minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) has gained attraction worldwide as a reliable alternative to flood lubrication due to its effectiveness and eco-friendly characteristics. In order to increase the efficiency of MQL, nanoparticles have recently been added to the base fluids to improve the performance of lubrication thanks to their thermo-physical properties. In this work, an eco-friendly vegetable oil called rice bran oil (RBO) was used as a lubrication fluid with and without the addition of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in order to investigate their influence on the turning performance characteristics, in terms of cutting force, surface roughness, flank wear and cutting temperature, during hard turning of AISI D3 steel. Taguchi L16 orthogonal array was implemented to investigate the effect of turning parameters including cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut on the response variables. The results showed that ZnO nanoparticles-enriched base fluid gives better performance than machining with a pure oil in terms of mitigating the severity of cutting force by about 10.68–18.48%, reducing tool wear by about 9.33–51.96%, and reducing the roughness of the machined surface by 3.86–12.84%.
This research paper proposes a simple hexa-spiral hexagonal photonic crystal fiber (HSH-PCF) design containing circular timbered air holes, exhibiting a highly nonlinear coefficient and negative dispersion with lower confinement loss. The Finite Element Method (FEM) has been applied here to inspect guiding properties. This propounded HSH-PCF covers all optical bands and windows in the design. The simulation analysis proves that the proposed HSH-PCF achieves a high nonlinear coefficient of 113.8( at the wavelength of 1.55μm, negligible confinement loss, and the maximum negative dispersion amplitude of -864.5ps.( At a 40kW peak power with 20fs input pulse through the 1.5cm of fiber length, the PCF represents a wide-band supercontinuum generation band spectrum. So, the HSH-PCF officiates in several applications like high bit-rate data transfer, amplification of optical parameters, sensor designing of optical fibers, maintaining polarization, dispersion-compensating fibers, spectroscopy system, and other various purposes.
Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) denotes a network of interlinked sensors, instruments, and other devices for industrial applications in the domains of manufacturing, logistics, transportation, etc. IIoT security is a major crucial research area for several applications. Image encryption techniques gained popularity in the recent years, thanks to increasing requirements for secure image transmission in IIoT environments. At the same time, conventional security solutions built for sensitive data protection are getting outdated in IIoT environment due to the participation of third party. Blockchain (BC) is one of the recent solutions used for security purpose which eliminates the involvement of a third party. With this motivation, the current research article presents a new BC-Enabled Shark Smell Optimization with Hopfield Chaotic Neural Network (SSO-HCNN) for secure encryption in IoT environment. The proposed SSO-HCNN model exploits a composite Chaotic Map (CM) which is integrated into staged logistic and tent maps to initially process the images and develop the variables needed for Arnold mapping. In addition, the SSO algorithm is developed with maximum PSNR and coefficient fitness function to select the optimum secret and public keys of the system amongst the random numbers. Besides, the diffusion phase utilizes HCNN to create a self-diffusion chaotic matrix whereas the jumbled image performs XOR operation using the keys to obtain the cipher image. In SSO-HCNN model, the cryptographic pixel value in the image is saved on BC thus guaranteeing the security and privacy of the images. To examine the superior performance of SSO-HCNN model over state-of-the-art methods, a set of simulations was conducted on benchmark test images. The simulation results of the proposed SSO-HCNN model were promising under different evaluation parameters.
This article offers a well-organized and novel algorithm for solving time-fractional Fornberg-Whitham, Klein�Gordon equation and biological population models occurring from physics and engineering. The Elzaki (E)-transformation and decomposition process are combined in this algorithm. To evaluate the numerical outcomes of fractional-order partial differential equations, the E-transform decomposition method is gen�erated in series form and nonlinearity terms are decayed. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach, numerical algorithms and examples are illustrated via graphs and tables. Moreover, it is viewed that the solutions of the new methodology are in strong correlation with the exact findings. Numerical simulations were carried out to ensure that the proposed methods are precise, as shown by the exact solutions resolving complex nonlinear problems.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a prevalent type of inflammatory bowel diseases that may predispose patients to acquire colitis-related cancer if treatment was not effective. Despite the presence of an array of established treatment options, current modalities are not successful for a substanial number of patients. The activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is critical in the development of inflammatory processes in the colon. Additionally, the regulation of NLRP3 via HSP90 inhibition is a potential target to treat UC. Moreover, during inflammation, autophagy allows the turnover of malfunctioning proteins and therefore stands as a viable strategy for inactivating NLRP3 inflammasomes and halting hyperinflammation. Herein, we evaluated the effect of autophagy induction using metformin in the context of HSP90 inhibition by TAS-116 in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced UC in rats. We revealed that TAS-116-induced interruption of the protein complex containing HSP90 and NLRP3 might hamper and delay the start of the inflammatory cascade ensued by the NLRP3 inflammasome oligomerization. In such circumstances, the unprotected NLRP3 is subjected to autophagic degradation in an environment of metformin-promoted autophagic signaling. As a result, such dynamic synergy was efficient in combating colon damage and immune-cell infiltration. This was confirmed by the macroscopic and microscopic investigations. Further, biochemical analysis revealed subdued inflammation cascade and oxidative injury. Therefore, simultaneous administration of TAS-116 and metformin is a new management paradigm aimed at inducing malfunction in the NLRP3 followed by augmenting its autophagic degradation, respectively. However, further studies should be conducted to assess the reliability and consistency of this novel approach.
Efficacy of utilizing nano-sized particles of CNT in improvement of performance of thermal system with purpose of ventilating a building has been demonstrated in this investigation. The paraffin with freezing point of 300.4 K was utilized within the sinusoidal duct and presence of air gaps helps the acceleration of process. Finite volume approach was utilized for simulating flow of air. The time step and number of elements have been optimized and outputs showed that selecting Δt = 3 s and 157,545 elements leads to lowest computing price. With augmenting Re and Tin and adding greater volume fraction of CNT, the freezing process has been expedited because of greater release of heat from paraffin. With elevate of power of blower, the freezing time declines around 33.12 %. Reducing Tin leads to reduction of discharging time around 29.29 %. Furthermore, adding nanoparticles makes speed of solidification to elevate around 5.12 %. The quickest freezing occurs when Re = 7e3, Tin = 285.15 K and ϕ = 0.035.
The thermal and hydraulic efficiency of a parabolic trough solar collector is investigated in this study. The collector absorber tube is equipped with twisted tape with circular holes containing water-copper oxide nanofluid with three nanoparticles volume fractions of 1%, 2% and 4%. In three modes (d/W = 0.5, 0.7, 0.9), circular holes are constructed for the ratio of the circle's diameter to the twisted tape's breadth. All turbulent flow simulations were done using the SIMPLEC algorithm, FVM and RNG k-ε model in three Reynolds numbers as 10,000, 20,000 and 30,000. Studies have shown inserting twisted tape with a circular hole increases the pressure drop and the heat transfer rate compared to a pipe without twisted tape. The highest coefficient of thermal performance occurs in Reylond number of 10,000 and a nanoparticles volume fraction of 4%. The findings indicate that using nanoparticles improves the solar collector's energy and exergy efficiency. As a result, the best collector performance was obtained when using nanofluids with an nanoparticles volume fraction of 4%.
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6,650 members
Muhammad Ahmed
  • College of Pharmacy
Nasser Attia Elhawary
  • College of Medicine
Mohamed Boustimi
  • Department of Physics
Taif Road, 21955, Mecca, Makkah Province, Saudi Arabia