Ulm University
  • Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
Recent publications
Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are highly prevalent and increase the risk for long-term adverse health outcomes. Next to well-known ACE-associated risks for morbidity, recent research is increasingly invested in exploring pathways towards health, overall functioning, and partaking in society following early adversity. Objectives: Thus, this study aims to assess the association between latent classes of ACEs with perceived social participation and health-related Quality of Life (QoL) in a large population-based sample and to explore potential moderators of these associations. Method: A representative sample of the German population (N = 2531; Mage = 48.7; 51 % women) was cross-sectionally investigated for ACEs, social participation (KsT-5), and health-related QoL (EuroQol-5D-5L). Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was performed to derive groups with similar ACE patterns. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the association of latent classes of ACEs with social participation and health-related QoL and to explore potential moderators. Results: Four distinct latent classes of ACEs were identified; "no/low ACEs" (N = 1968, 77.8 %); "household-dysfunction" (N = 259, 10.2 %), "child abuse and neglect" (N = 188, 7.4 %), and "polyadversity" (N = 116, 4.6 %). Compared to participants in the no/low ACE class, those in the ACE-exposed classes showed overall lower levels of perceived social participation and health-related QoL. The polyadversity class showed lower levels of social participation compared to the two other ACE-exposed classes. Chronic stress, living with a partner, education, current job/educational involvement, and gender were found to moderate these associations in exploratory analyses. Conclusions: This study shows people exposed to ACEs to have a higher risk for lower perceived social participation and lower health-related QoL - an increased risk, however, is not a deterministic uninventable fortune. Reduction of chronic stress, fostering of social support, and educational and vocational paths as interventional targets are discussed to enable those with precarious starting conditions to partake in society.
The Independent Cutset problem asks whether there is a set of vertices in a given graph that is both independent and a cutset. Such a problem is \(\textsf{NP}\)-complete even when the input graph is planar and has maximum degree five. In this paper, we first present a \(\mathcal {O}^*(1.4423^{n})\)-time algorithm to compute a minimum independent cutset (if any). Since the property of having an independent cutset is MSO\(_1\)-expressible, our main results are concerned with structural parameterizations for the problem considering parameters incomparable with clique-width. We present \(\textsf{FPT}\)-time algorithms for the problem considering the following parameters: the dual of the maximum degree, the dual of the solution size, the size of a dominating set (where a dominating set is given as an additional input), the size of an odd cycle transversal, the distance to chordal graphs, and the distance to \(P_5\)-free graphs. We close by introducing the notion of \(\alpha \)-domination, which allows us to identify more fixed-parameter tractable and polynomial-time solvable cases.
Purpose The aim of this examination was to assess whether there is a change of acetabular correction after triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) and if so, whether there is a correlation with patient-specific risk factors or with certain periods in the postoperative course. Methods A consecutive series of 241 TPO was reviewed retrospectively. The close-meshed radiographic follow-up of the first 12 weeks comprised pelvic radiographs performed immediately after the procedure, 5 days, 6 and 12 weeks after TPO. Three observers measured the lateral center edge angle, acetabular index and the craniocaudal offset of the pubic osteotomy. Patient-specific risk factors (e. g. age, gender, body mass index, nicotine abuse) and certain periods in the postoperative course were correlated with a change of acetabular correction. Results After application of the exclusion criteria, 225 hips were available for further examination. Intraclass correlation coefficient resulted in predominantly excellent agreement between the measurements of the three observers (0.74–0.91). In 27 cases (12%), the three observers agreed on a change of acetabular correction. In 18 cases (8%), there was a slight change, in 9 cases (4%), a relevant change. The latter entailed consequences in the postoperative aftercare. General equation estimation did not show any correlation between a change of acetabular correction and patient-specific risk factors or certain periods in the postoperative course (p = 0.79–0.99). Conclusion Every once treated hip should be followed-up with the same attention, irrespective of the apparent risk profile. There is no rationale to skip a radiographic follow-up in the first 12 weeks after TPO.
Insulin action in the human brain modulates eating behaviour, whole-body metabolism and body fat distribution1,2. In particular, brain insulin action increases whole-body insulin sensitivity, but these studies were mainly performed in lean men3,4. Here we investigate metabolic and hypothalamic effects of brain insulin action in women with a focus on the impact of menstrual cycle (ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT03929419). Eleven women underwent four hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamps, two in the follicular phase and two in the luteal phase. Brain insulin action was introduced using nasal insulin spray5–7 and compared to placebo spray in a fourfold crossover design with change in glucose infusion rate as the primary endpoint. Here we show that during the follicular phase, more glucose has to be infused after administration of nasal insulin than after administration of placebo. This remains significant after adjustment for blood glucose and insulin. During the luteal phase, no significant influence of brain insulin action on glucose infusion rate is detected after adjustment for blood glucose and insulin (secondary endpoint). In 15 other women, hypothalamic insulin sensitivity was assessed in a within-subject design by functional magnetic resonance imaging with intranasal insulin administration⁸. Hypothalamus responsivity is influenced by insulin in the follicular phase but not the luteal phase. Our study therefore highlights that brain insulin action improves peripheral insulin sensitivity also in women but only during the follicular phase. Thus, brain insulin resistance could contribute to whole-body insulin resistance in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.
The electrification of the transportation sector exacerbates all issues concerning the use of critical materials in state-of-the-art batteries and, therefore, urges the development of new technologies based on potentially greener and more abundant materials. One research trend is the substitution of Li as shuttle ion with other elements such as Na, K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Al i.e. the so-called post Li technology. Although signficant progress has been achieved in this field recently, these novel battery chemistry have mostly not matured yet. In the present work we contribute to the development of new battery materials by screening the materials' class of oxide perovskites as high-energy insertion-type cathode material. Based on density functional theory calculations, the specific energy, the energy density, the volume change, and the energy above hull were derived for 280 compounds and appropriate screening criteria were employed. In a second step, the diffusion barriers were determined for the most suitable materials. Eventually, we suggest MgNbO3, ZnVO3, and AlMoO3 as candidate materials for further investigation with MgNbO3 appearing particularly promising.
The rising demand for high‐performing batteries requires new technological concepts. To facilitate fast charge and discharge, hierarchically structured electrodes offer short diffusion paths in the active material. However, there are still gaps in understanding the influences on the cell performance of such electrodes. Here, we employed a cell model to demonstrate that the morphology of the hierarchically structured electrode determines which electrochemical processes dictate the cell performance. The potentially limiting processes include electronic conductivity within the porous secondary particles, solid diffusion within the primary particles, and ionic transport in the electrolyte surrounding the secondary particles. Mitigating these limits requires an electronic conductivity in the active material of at least 10‐4 Sm‐1 and a primary particle radius below 100 nm. Our insights enable a goal‐oriented tailoring of hierarchically structured electrodes for high‐power applications.
Background Intellectual disability (ID) can be associated with different syndromes such as Rubinstein‐Taybi syndrome (RSTS) and can also be related to conditions such as metabolic encephalomyopathic crises, recurrent,with rhabdomyolysis, cardiac arrhythmias and neurodegeneration. Rare congenital RSTS1 (OMIM 180849) is characterized by mental and growth retardation, significant and duplicated distal phalanges of thumbs and halluces, facial dysmorphisms, and an elevated risk of malignancies. Microdeletions and point mutations in the CREB‐binding protein ( CREBBP ) gene, located at 16p13.3, have been reported to cause RSTS. By contrast, TANGO2‐related metabolic encephalopathy and arrhythmia (TRMEA) is a rare metabolic condition that causes repeated metabolic crises, hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis, arrhythmias and encephalopathy with cognitive decline. Clinicians need more clinical and genetic evidence to detect and comprehend the phenotypic spectrum of this disorder. Methods Exome sequencing was used to identify the disease‐causing variants in two affected families A and B from District Kohat and District Karak, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Affected individuals from both families presented symptoms of ID, developmental delay and behavioral abnormalities. The validation and co‐segregation analysis of the filtered variant was carried out using Sanger sequencing. Results In the present study, two families (A and B) exhibiting various forms of IDs were enrolled. In Family A, exome sequencing revealed a novel missense variant (NM 004380.3: c.4571A>G; NP_004371.2: p.Lys1524Arg) in the CREBBP gene, whereas, in Family B, a splice site variant (NM 152906.7: c.605 + 1G>A) in the TANGO2 gene was identified. Sanger sequencing of both variants confirmed their segregation with ID in both families. The in silico tools verified the aberrant changes in the CREBBP protein structure. Wild‐type and mutant CREBBP protein structures were superimposed and conformational changes were observed likely altering the protein function. Conclusions RSTS and TRMEA are exceedingly rare disorders for which specific clinical characteristics have been clearly established, but more investigations are underway and required. Multicenter studies are needed to increase our understanding of the clinical phenotypes, mainly showing the genotype–phenotype associations.
The objective was to investigate the influence of different pre-storage temperatures in the dicentric chromosome analysis (DCA) protocol (22°C vs. 37°C) by using γ-H2AX + 53BP1 foci as a marker for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double-strand break (DSB) damage induction and repair and the formation of dicentric chromosomes as a result of mis-repair. Repair of γ-H2AX + 53BP1 DSB foci was absent in samples that were incubated for 2 h at 22°C after exposure of 0.5 and 1.2 Gy. When 0.5- and 1.2-Gy-exposed samples were incubated at 37°C for 2 h, there was an average decline of 31 and 52% of DSB foci, respectively. This indicated that DNA repair occurred. There was a 27% decrease in dicentric chromosome yield at 1.2 Gy and a 15% decrease at 3.5 Gy after post-irradiation incubation for 2 h at 37°C relative to the observed dicentric frequencies at 22°C. Recommended to re-phase: our data suggested that there were more open DSBs after a 2-h incubation at 22°C, which contributed to more mis-repair and dicentric formation from the start of culture. Our findings are corroborated by publications showing that lesion interaction based on enzymatic activity is suppressed below 21°C. As such temperature variations can be a source of variation in DCA during interlaboratory comparison studies, we propose to establish a common guide for the standardisation of pre-culture conditions in cytogenetic dosimetry proficiency testing.
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Buchenlandweg 100, 89075, Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, Germany