The urgency of the study is due to the reform of the national legislation in the context of institutional transformation of the financial services market. The purpose of the study is to develop a scientific basis for legislative changes aimed at optimizing the legal status of individuals as consumers of financial services. The methodological basis of the study consists of general scientific and special legal methods, in particular, dialectical, statistical, comparative law, formal law, methods of sociological research, analysis and synthesis. The general principles of realization of such strategic direction of development of the market of financial services as financial inclusion and its influence on formation of legal requirements to the person of the consumer of such service are investigated in the article. The particular interest are scientific positions, legislative novelties on the definition of the scope of persons who have the status of consumers of financial services. The peculiarities of the acquisition of such status by minors and young persons, as well as the second spouse or a third party in the obligation are clarified. On the basis of the conducted research the corresponding conclusions are formulated.
We apply an ensemble of modified TransBTS, nnU-Net, and a combination of both for the segmentation task of the BraTS 2021 challenge. We change the original architecture of the TransBTS model by adding Squeeze-and-Excitation blocks, increasing the number of CNN layers, replacing positional encoding in the Transformer block with a learnable Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) embeddings, which makes Transformer adjustable to any input size during inference. With these modifications, we can improve TransBTS performance largely. Inspired by a nnU-Net framework, we decided to combine it with our modified TransBTS by changing the architecture inside nnU-Net to our custom model. On the Validation set of BraTS 2021, the ensemble of these approaches achieves 0.8496, 0.8698, 0.9256 Dice score and 15.72, 11.057, 3.374 HD95 for enhancing tumor, tumor core, and whole tumor, correspondingly. On test set we get Dice score 0.8789, 0.8759, 0.9279, and HD95: 10.426, 17.203, 4.93. Our code is publicly available. (Implementation is available at https://github.com/ucuapps/BraTS2021_Challenge).
The campaign launched by the Soviet power against the «Hrushevskyi School» in post-war Lviv was not so much an ideological campaign directed only against Ukrainian historians. Rather, it was a broader campaign of pressure and persecution, which clearly illustrates the Soviet government’s attempts to implement social discipline to establish total control over various groups of the Ukrainian intelligentsia. Consideration of various aspects of this campaign shows how discursive practices and relevant social «rituals» in the Soviet era were subordinated to the unification and Sovietization of Western Ukrainian public space in the postwar period. In contexts of this process, the case of Galician publicist and writer Mykhailo Rudnytskyi was significant. The study of his biography in this period allows us to analyze at the micro-level great processes that took place in Soviet Ukraine at this time. In addition to Moscow and Kyiv, local Soviet activists played an important role, primarily among the «pro-communist» professors of LSU. The Soviet government used the old principle of «divide et impera» by dividing intelligentsia into several groups, first criticizing one and then using them to criticize another one. Party documents show that Mykhailo Rudnytskyi remained a «stranger» to the Soviet government, a fragment of the «old world». Rudnytskyi also did not perceive the Soviet government as «his» but resorted to self-censorship for survival. Choosing survival strategies in postwar Lviv, he tried to balance between ostentatious loyalty to the Soviet regime and maintaining his own moral and ideological position.
The characteristics of the individual’s time perspective in relation to changes in social, economic, and political conditions are of major conceptual interest. We assessed the time orientations of 1588 Ukrainian students living in two different regions (western and south-eastern Ukraine) with the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) before (2010–2013) and during (2014–2016) the socioeconomic, political, and military crises which started in 2014, eight years before the war in 2022. We applied ANOVAs with the ZTPI dimensions as dependent variables and the period of testing (precrisis, postcrisis) as an independent variable for the two Ukrainian regions separately. The time perspectives of residents in the region most distant from the war zone (western), who positively assessed the change in the political situation around 2014, increased in the future time orientation and decreased in the present-fatalistic, past-positive, and 333 present-hedonistic time orientations. The time perspectives of residents in the regions closest to the war zone (southeastern) decreased in the future and increased in the past-negative and present-fatalistic time orientations, reflecting their negative judgments of the events. It is not the crisis itself, but the specific social, economic, and political factors and evaluations which define the time perspectives, which are flexible and adjust to changes during extreme life circumstances.
Since 2008 a network of five sea-level monitoring stations was progressively installed in French Polynesia. The stations are autonomous and data, collected at a sampling rate of 1 or 2 min, are not only recorded locally, but also transferred in real time by a radio-link to the NOAA through the GOES satellite. The new ET34-ANA-V80 ET34-ANA-V80 version of ETERNA, initially developed for Earth Tides analysis, is now able to analyze ocean tides records. Through a two-step validation scheme, we took advantage of the flexibility of this new version, operated in conjunction with the preprocessing facilities of the Tsoft software, to recover corrected data series able to model sea-level variations after elimination of the ocean tides signal. We performed the tidal analysis of the tide gauge data with the highest possible selectivity (optimal wave grouping) and a maximum of additional terms (shallow water constituents). Our goal was to provide corrected data series and modelled ocean tides signal to compute tide-free sea-level variations as well as tidal prediction models with centimeter precision. We also present in this study the characteristics of the ocean tides in French Polynesia and preliminary results concerning the non-tidal variations of the sea level concerning the tide gauge setting.
Introduction . Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) suffer from various symptoms, including sexual dysfunction. The Multiple Sclerosis Intimacy and Sexuality Questionnaire-19 (MSISQ-19) is a scale that explores the impact of MS on sexual activity and satisfaction. Aim . This observational cohort study aimed to provide a validated, cross-cultural, French version of the MSISQ-19 in patients with MS. Methods . The original version of MSISQ-19 was translated into French according to standardized guidelines. Patients were asked to complete all questionnaires during the inclusion visit and the MSISQ-19 a second time two weeks later. Content validity was assessed by face validity. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity was checked by the exploratory factor analysis. Concurrent validity was assessed by performing Spearman's correlation coefficient with the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), the Male Sexual Health Questionnaire (MSHQ), and the Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life questionnaire (MusiQoL). Spearman's correlation coefficient was also used to evaluate the relationship with the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), age, and disease duration. Test-retest reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Responsiveness was assessed by the standard error of measurement (SEM) and the minimum detectable change (MDC). Main Outcome Measures . MSISQ-19 is the main outcome measure. Results . We enrolled 71 patients with MS (49 female, 22 male). The mean age was 42.6 ± 9.7 years with a median disease duration of 8 [3-16] years. Sixty-four (90%) patients had relapsing-remitting MS, 4 (6%) primary progressive MS, and 3 (4%) secondary progressive MS. French MSISQ-19 showed a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.89. MSISQ-19 scores correlated significantly and moderately between each other and correlated significantly and moderately with scores on the FSFI, MSHQ, MusiQoL and EDSS. Reproducibility was excellent with intraclass correlation coefficients > 0.80. Exploratory factor analysis was performed using principal component analysis. A three-factor solution was adopted giving eigenvalues higher than 1, supporting the primary, secondary, and tertiary dimensions. SEM was 4.55 and MDC was 12.6 (13.3%). Conclusion . This study provides a preliminary validation of the French version of the MSISQ-19 which could be a reliable, and reproducible instrument to assess sexual dysfunction in patients with MS. These results need to be confirmed in a larger cohort which will be more representative of the general MS population.
In 2013, Ukraine witnessed a political revolution, the Euromaidan, followed by a war in its eastern provinces. This chapter explores how the Euromaidan and the war spurred a change in the political and media narratives towards emigrants and diaspora. How did the Ukrainian diaspora respond to the events? What was the role of the then new Ukrainian President Zelensky and his government in shifting policy discourses about emigrants and diaspora? Addressing these questions helps us to better understand not only why there was a fundamental shift in public perceptions but also what made the Euromaidan so specific in a country in political turbulences. By analysing national media and policy discourses on emigrants and diaspora, and drawing on qualitative interviews with members of the diaspora, this chapter examines pre-Euromaidan and post-Euromaidan migration and diaspora representations. It is argued that these events were a “critical moment”—in that, the Ukrainian diaspora’s extensive involvement contributed to changing the perception of migrants and the diaspora from a previously negative to a more favourable one. This was because the diaspora had become an important supporter of the Euromaidan and the defence efforts related to the subsequent and ongoing war in Donbas.
The spectral method (p-FEM) is used to solve the problem of a thin-walled structure deformation, such as a stiffened panel. The problem of the continuous conjugation of the membrane function from H 1 and the deflection function from H 2 was solved by modifying the "boundary" functions. Basis systems were constructed that satisfy not only the essential but also the natural boundary conditions, which made it possible to increase the rate of convergence of the approximate solution. The veracity of the results is confirmed by comparing the obtained spectral solution with the solution obtained by the h-FEM. It has been shown that the exponential rate of convergence characteristic of spectral methods is preserved if the Gibbs phenomenon is avoided. The constructed basis systems can be effectively used for solving various problems of mechanics.
We study spectral properties of a wide class of differential operators with frozen arguments by putting them into a general framework of rank-one perturbation theory. In particular, we give a complete characterization of possible eigenvalues for these operators and solve the inverse spectral problem of reconstructing the perturbation from the resulting spectrum. This approach provides a unified treatment of several recent studies and gives a clear explanation and interpretation of the obtained results.
As the three co-editors of this volume considered our own experiences as surgeons, we realized that each of us were dramatically influenced by many surgeons and other physicians who have been role models of the ethical care of patients. While not wanting to be too self-indulgent, we thought it valuable to discuss the influences of some notable ethical physicians and surgeons on our own careers and practices. In an acknowledgement of the impact of the pandemic that has raged as we worked on this volume, Vassyl Lonchyna has written about healthcare workers who have selflessly cared for patients. Peggy Kelley cites the influences of two distinguished otolaryngologists, Dr. John J. Conley and Dr. Sylvan Stool, who transcended their specific practices to become role models for all surgeons. Peter Angelos explores the impact of Sir William Stokes who may have been the first to use the term “surgical ethics” in print and Dr. C. Rollins Hanlon who led the American College of Surgeons for many years and also influenced the growing acceptance of surgical ethics in American surgery. Vassyl Lonchyna concludes the chapter by considering the personal sacrifice of Dr. Ostap Selianski, a Ukrainian country doctor, who heroically served patients until his death in World War II.
Using Wi-Fi Channel State Information (CSI) is a novel way of environmental sensing and human activity recognition (HAR). These methods can be used for several safety and security applications by (re)using Wi-Fi routers without the need for additional costly hardware required for vision-based approaches, known also to be particularly privacy-intrusive. This work introduces a full pipeline of a Wi-Fi CSI-based system for human activity recognition that assesses and compares two deep learning methods. We analyze how different hardware configurations affect WiFi CSI signals. We contribute a novel and more realistic data collection process, in which human activity recognition is seamlessly integrated in real-life, resulting in more reliable assessments of the model classification performance. We analyze how InceptionTime and LSTM-based classification models perform in human activity recognition. The source code and collected dataset are made publicly available for reproducibility and encouraging further research in the community.
Objective: The aim: To examine the features of experiences of bereavement reactions and the severity of comorbid mental health problems in persons who lost loved ones during the pandemic. Patients and methods: Materials and methods: 191 volunteers aged 18-60 years participated in this study. All participants were tested during 2018-2020. To assess the mental health problems was used International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and a set of IAPT scales; to the psycho-emotional distress severity associated with loss of loved ones - Inventory of Complicated Grief, with verification of symptoms of complicated grief based on an independent assessment of two experts; and the quality of life satisfaction was assessed by the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, Short Form. Results: Results: The results show an association between the severity of symptoms of depression, general anxiety, social avoidance, and loss during the pandemic. The level of psycho-emotional distress was associated with the experience of bereavement as a traumatic event for a group of participants who experienced loss during the pandemic and, at the same time, before the pandemic was associated with the severity of depression. Regardless of the time of loss, people who demonstrated signs of complicated grief have a more pronounced comorbid psychopathology, a higher level of psycho-emotional distress, and a lower level of satisfaction with life quality. Conclusion: Conclusions: It has been established that a person's ability to experience loss as a traumatic experience and grieve during the pandemic is modified with the context of the life situation and reflects those challenges that impose quarantine restrictions.
Ecology as a science today, mainly rejects anthropocentrism in favour of nonhuman-centred ethics. Such rejection is propagated as a proper valuing of nature, while the human-centred eco-theories are considered to be the theoretic basis for the exploitation and destruction of nature by humans. The main purpose of some nonhuman-centred ecologic theories is to reduce the growth of the human’s population because the people’s existence, totally, is seen as a cause of ecological disasters, and even social problems. The aim of the article is to show that human beings are, in reality, the only living organisms on Earth, able to take care about nature as it deserves. The main problem is incorrect behaviour with nature, not a big amount of people living on the Earth. The ecological disasters, at the same time, are connected not only with humans’ irresponsible conduct, but with the natural forces that are independent from human activity, but that does not deprive people from the task to take responsibility for their environmental behaviour.
У статті, після відбору і укладення бази даних із найдавнішими назвами вулиць Львова з опублікованих джерел (книги уряду ради та лавничого суду, двох міських книг прибутків та видатків і лавничої книги, що охоплюють період 1382–1448 рр., хоч і з певними проміжками), після перекладу знайдених назв із латинської і німецької мов, за допомогою генетичного методу, вказано на тривалі стадії формування годонімів та зафіксовано перші письмові згадки про них. Також запропоновано поділити знайдені назви на два типи: годоніми, які вживали з денотатом «вулиця», і годоніми, у яких денотата не було (проте вони незмінно виконували інформативну функцію). Запропоновано окреслювати ці типи як власні назви й описові назви вулиць. Проведено спробу умовно локалізувати кілька назв та розтлумачити їх походження. Після аналізу ланцюжків формування назв, оскільки на передмістях не зафіксовано багато назв, визначено, що територія передмість у згаданий час освоювалася досить повільно, і також доведено, що майже всі знайдені назви вулиць у середмісті Львова усталилися до середини XV ст.
На основі опублікованих джерел і введених до наукового обігу інтерв’ю з учасниками польсько-українського діалогу простежуються виникнення цієї теми в публічному просторі та перші польсько-українські дискусії про масові вбивства польського населення 1943 р., що велися у посткомуністичний період. Стаття фокусується на перших згадках про волинські події на спільних семінарах польських і українських істориків, а також у польських провідних газетах. Особливу увагу звернуто на дискусію на шпальтах часопису «Gazeta Wyborcza» у 1995 р. В українських центральних ЗМІ ця тема залишалася зовсім непомітною. Волинське питання постало в публічному просторі після майже п’ятдесяти років замовчування з ініціативи польських «кресових» і ветеранських середовищ, які репрезентували жертв. У цей період усталилися певні тенденції, які залишалися характерними в наступні роки. У Польщі ці події сприймали як один із найбільш травматичних епізодів національної історії. Тому, очевидно, з ініціативами їх обговорення виступала саме польська сторона. Українці, своєю чергою, були змушені реагувати на ці ініціативи.
Subject and purpose of work: This article studies the role of religion in economic development. Even though it is obvious that religion plays a vital role in economic development because a healthy economy requires that all people view one another with dignity, there are still some questions which need to be answered like – why wealthier nations trend/tend to be less religious, and does economic development (as a matter of fact) cause individuals to become less religious in today’s world? Materials and methods: The research is based on universal methods of formal logic and scientific abstraction, basics of innovation science, investment science and institutional economics, systemic, structural-functional and synergetic approaches as well as information sources of the World Economic Forum. Results: The authors’ hypothesis about the influence of religion and religious values which stands behind rapid economic growth is shown to be substantiated. Conclusions: In conclusion, we can state that there is strong negative correlation between GDP per capita and the importance of religion in the state, but, on the other hand, in most societies religious values were the main push factor of economic growth.
In this study, modern nitrogen steels used for the manufacture of rings for Honda engines (70CC, 90CC, CRF70F, XL70, XR70, C70, CT70, ATC70, CL70) as well as other transport tribotechnical units was investigated. Due to the present ecological situation in the world, new environmentally friendly lubricating fluids for nitrogen steels' tribotechnical units and surface treatments have been proposed. The results of tribotechnical tests are presented in the form of diagrams, graphs and step polynomials obtained by mathematically describing the changes in wear intensity when the load changes for different lubricating fluids. Friction pairs were compared with ShellHF-E 46 (synthetic lubricating fluid), ShellHF-R (biological origin) and lubricating and cooling liquids with 1%, 3% and 5% vegetable oil concentrations. In tribocoupling it was found that hydrogen diffuses into the metal because the tribodestruction of lubricating coolants plays an active role in the destruction of friction surfaces.
The United Nations (UN) has a zero-tolerance policy against all forms of sexual violence, which was reaffirmed by the Security Council in the Resolution on sexual exploitation and abuse by United Nations peacekeepers, and the Resolution Women and Peace and Security: Sexual violence in conflict. Despite the zero-tolerance policy, the UN has continuously had to deal with allegations of sexual abuse and sexual exploitation (SEA) against members of its peacekeeping missions. This chapter provides a detailed overview of the scale of SEA against women and children by peacekeepers in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Central African Republic and asserts that the statistics point towards a culture of impunity. It is argued that this culture of impunity ought to be understood against the backdrop of the immunity enjoyed by the UN which extends to its civilian personnel; and the bilateral agreements entered into between the UN and troop contributing countries (TCCs) in terms of which TCCs retain exclusive prosecutorial jurisdiction over military peacekeepers. The chapter assesses the measures implemented by the UN in response to the problem of SEA and concludes that although it is commendable that the UN has taken steps to acknowledge the pain and suffering of the victims, in order to eradicate the culture of impunity amongst UN peacekeepers, the UN ought to review its accountability framework for peacekeeping forces, to align it with its stated commitment to the zero-tolerance policy on SEA.
Objective To achieve consensus on a definition of remission in SLE (DORIS). Background Remission is the stated goal for both patient and caregiver, but consensus on a definition of remission has been lacking. Previously, an international task force consisting of patient representatives and medical specialists published a framework for such a definition, without reaching a final recommendation. Methods Several systematic literature reviews were performed and specific research questions examined in suitably chosen data sets. The findings were discussed, reformulated as recommendations and voted on. Results Based on data from the literature and several SLE-specific data sets, a set of recommendations was endorsed. Ultimately, the DORIS Task Force recommended a single definition of remission in SLE, based on clinical systemic lupus erythematosus disease activitiy index (SLEDAI)=0, Evaluator’s Global Assessment <0.5 (0–3), prednisolone 5 mg/day or less, and stable antimalarials, immunosuppressives, and biologics. Conclusion The 2021 DORIS definition of remission in SLE is recommended for use in clinical care, education, and research including clinical trials and observational studies.
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