Exposure to air pollutants is known to exacerbate asthma, with prior studies focused on associations between single pollutant exposure and asthma exacerbations. As air pollutants often exist as a complex mixture, there is a gap in understanding the association between complex air pollutant mixtures and asthma exacerbations. We evaluated the association between the air pollutant mixture (52 pollutants) and pediatric asthma exacerbations. This study focused on children (age ≤ 19 years) who lived in Douglas County, Nebraska, during 2016–2019. A seasonal-scale joint association between the outdoor air pollutant mixture adjusting for potential confounders (temperature, precipitation, wind speed, and wind direction) in relation to pediatric asthma exacerbation-related emergency department (ED) visits was evaluated using the generalized weighted quantile sum (qWQS) regression with repeated holdout validation. We observed associations between air pollutant mixture and pediatric asthma exacerbations during spring (lagged by 5 days), summer (lag 0–5 days), and fall (lag 1–3 days) seasons. The estimate of the joint outdoor air pollutant mixture effect was higher during the summer season (adjusted-βWQS = 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66, 1.55), followed by spring (adjusted-βWQS = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.62) and fall (adjusted-βWQS = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.33) seasons. Among the air pollutants, PM2.5, pollen, and mold contributed higher weight to the air pollutant mixture. There were associations between outdoor air pollutant mixture and pediatric asthma exacerbations during the spring, summer, and fall seasons. Among the 52 outdoor air pollutant metrics investigated, PM2.5, pollen (sycamore, grass, cedar), and mold (Helminthosporium, Peronospora, and Erysiphe) contributed the highest weight to the air pollutant mixture.
Background Medications for opioid use disorder (MOUDs), including methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone, decrease mortality and morbidity for people with opioid use disorder (OUD). Buprenorphine and methadone have the strongest evidence base among MOUDs. Unlike methadone, buprenorphine may be prescribed in office-based settings in the U.S., including by nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs) who have a federal waiver and adhere to federal patient limits. Buprenorphine is underutilized nationally, particularly in rural areas, and NPs/PAs could help address this gap. Therefore, we sought to identify perceptions of buprenorphine efficacy and perceptions of prescribing barriers among NPs/PAs. We also sought to compare perceived buprenorphine efficacy and perceived prescribing barriers between waivered and non-waivered NPs/PAs, as well as to compare perceived buprenorphine efficacy to perceived naltrexone and methadone efficacy. Methods We disseminated an online survey to a random national sample of NPs/PAs. We used Mann–Whitney U tests to compare between waivered and non-waivered respondents. We used non-parametric Friedman tests and post-hoc Wilcoxon signed-rank tests to compare perceptions of medication types. Results 240 respondents participated (6.5% response rate). Most respondents agreed buprenorphine is efficacious and believed counseling and peer support should complement buprenorphine. Buprenorphine was generally perceived as more efficacious than both naltrexone and methadone. Perceived buprenorphine efficacy and prescribing barriers differed by waiver status. Non-waivered practitioners were more likely than waivered practitioners to have concerns about buprenorphine affecting patient mix. Among waivered NPs/PAs, key buprenorphine prescribing barriers were insurance prior authorization and detoxification access. Conclusions Our results suggest that different policies should target perceived barriers affecting waivered versus non-waivered NPs/PAs. Concerns about patient mix suggest stigmatization of patients with OUD. NP/PA education is needed about comparative medication efficaciousness, particularly regarding methadone. Even though many buprenorphine treatment patients benefits from counseling and/or peer support groups, NPs/PAs should be informed that such psychosocial treatment methods are not necessary for all buprenorphine patients.
Introduction Pancreatic cancer (PC) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients is not well studied. Some PC cases may be incidentally detected during hepatobiliary imaging. Methods We evaluated PC among 374,106 SOT recipients during 1995–2017 in the United States using linked data from the national transplant registry and multiple state/regional cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to compare PC risk in recipients to the general population. We used multivariate Poisson regression to identify independent risk factors for PC. We assessed survival after PC diagnosis using Kaplan–Meier curves and log-rank tests. Results SOT recipients had elevated incidence for PC compared with the general population (SIR 1.40, 95% CI 1.29–1.52), and this increase was strongest in liver recipients (1.65, 1.41–1.92). Among all recipients, PC incidence was especially increased for cases arising in the head of the pancreas (SIR 1.50, 95% CI 1.34–1.68) and for cases diagnosed at localized stage (1.85, 1.37–2.44). Among SOT recipients, factors independently associated with increased incidence were consistent with those in general population including male sex, older age, non-O blood type, and history of diabetes. Additionally, compared to other organ recipients, liver transplant recipients had higher PC incidence (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.28; 95% CI 1.06–1.54). Overall survival after PC diagnosis was poor (median 4 months) and similar between liver and other organ transplant recipients (p = 0.08). Conclusions PC incidence is elevated among SOT recipients, and more commonly diagnosed in liver transplant recipients perhaps related to incidental detection. However, survival is poor even in liver recipients, arguing against routine PC screening.
Objective We examined the relationship between trimester of SARS-CoV-2 infection, illness severity, and risk for preterm birth. Study design We analyzed data for 6336 pregnant persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020 in the United States. Risk ratios for preterm birth were calculated for illness severity, trimester of infection, and illness severity stratified by trimester of infection adjusted for age, selected underlying medical conditions, and pregnancy complications. Result Pregnant persons with critical COVID-19 or asymptomatic infection, compared to mild COVID-19, in the second or third trimester were at increased risk of preterm birth. Pregnant persons with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 did not show increased risk of preterm birth in any trimester. Conclusion Critical COVID-19 in the second or third trimester was associated with increased risk of preterm birth. This finding can be used to guide prevention strategies, including vaccination, and inform clinical practices for pregnant persons.
States vary in their participation in federal immigration enforcement, leading to differing state-level policy contexts that profoundly shape the lives of immigrants. This paper examines the effects of sanctuary policies and driver’s licenses for undocumented immigrants on immigrants’ children’s access to preventative healthcare. The 2008–2016 Medical Panel Expenditure Survey merged with state-level policy data were analyzed using a difference-in-difference OLS regression. Outcome variables included whether the child had a usual source of care, any unmet medical needs, or a well child check-up. State driver’s license and sanctuary policies were associated with having a usual source of care and fewer unmet medical needs among children of immigrants. The recent pandemic highlights the importance of access to preventative health care. State policies that limit federal immigration enforcement involvement are associated with improved access to preventative health services among immigrants’ children, most of whom are U.S. citizens.
Introduction Flourishing reflects a child's ability to cope with stress and have positive relationships, which are critical to health and well-being. Pediatricians may increase flourishing in children through family-centered care, which is perceived as sensitive and responsive to specific child needs and family circumstances. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between family-centered care and flourishing in young children. Methods Data from the 2019–2020 National Survey of Children's Health were used to examine the relationship among children aged 1–5 years (n=17,826). The relationship was explored using chi-square tests and sequential logistic regression modeling, controlling for family socioeconomics and adversity, race/ethnicity, child health, and other measures of healthcare quality. Analyses were conducted in January 2022. Results Approximately 82% of young children were flourishing. After adjusting for all variables, receipt of family-centered care was the only measure of quality health care associated with an increased likelihood of flourishing in young children (adjusted prevalence rate ratio=1.14; 95% CI=1.01, 1.29; p=0.02). Disparities in flourishing by child sex, race/ethnicity, parental education, income, and insurance type were mitigated after adjustment. However, a decreased likelihood of flourishing continued to be associated with having a special healthcare need (adjusted prevalence rate ratio=0.74; 95% CI=0.68, 0.82) and experiencing multiple adverse childhood experiences (adjusted prevalence rate ratio=0.78; 95% CI=0.66, 0.92). Conclusions Expanding receipt of family-centered care may support flourishing and help to reduce disparities in flourishing during early childhood. Future research should evaluate the strategies to overcome barriers to delivering and receiving family-centered care, especially among children with special healthcare needs and children who experienced multiple adverse childhood experiences.
Background : Pregnant women less frequently receive Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination and are at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes from COVID-19. Objectives : First, describe the vaccination status, treatment, and outcomes of hospitalized, symptomatic pregnant women with COVID-19 and second, estimate whether treatment differs by pregnancy status among treatment-eligible (i.e., requiring supplemental oxygen per National Institutes of Health guidelines at the time of the study) women. Study Design : During January–November 2021, the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network completed medical chart abstraction for a probability sample of 2,715 hospitalized women aged 15-49 years with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of these, 1,950 women had symptoms of COVID-19 upon admission; 336 were pregnant. We calculated weighted prevalence estimates of demographic and clinical characteristics, vaccination status, and outcomes among pregnant women with symptoms of COVID-19 upon admission. We used propensity score matching to estimate prevalence ratios (PR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of treatment-eligible patients who received remdesivir or systemic steroids by pregnancy status. Results : Among 336 hospitalized pregnant women with symptomatic COVID-19, 39.6% were non-Hispanic Black, 24.8% were Hispanic or Latino, and 61.9% were aged 25-34 years. Among those with known COVID-19 vaccination status, 92.9% were unvaccinated. One-third (32.7%) were treatment-eligible. Among treatment-eligible pregnant women, 74.1% received systemic steroids and 61.4% received remdesivir. Among those that were no longer pregnant at discharge (n=180), 5.4% had spontaneous abortions and 3.5% had stillbirths. Of the 159 live births, 29.0% were pre-term. Among a propensity score-matched cohort of treatment-eligible hospitalized women of reproductive age, pregnant women were less likely than non-pregnant women to receive remdesivir (PR: 0.82, 95% CI 0.69-0.97) and systemic steroids (PR: 0.80, 95% CI 0.73-0.87). Conclusion : Most hospitalized pregnant patients with symptomatic COVID-19 were unvaccinated. Hospitalized pregnant patients were less likely to receive recommended remdesivir and systemic steroids compared to similar hospitalized non-pregnant women. Our results underscore the need to identify opportunities for improving COVID-19 vaccination, implementation of treatment of pregnant women, and the inclusion of pregnant women in clinical trials.
Importance: Surveillance of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) is critical for monitoring maternal health and evaluating clinical quality improvement efforts. Objective: To evaluate national and state trends in SMM rates from 2012 to 2019 and potential disruptions associated with the transition to International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification and Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-CM/PCS) in October 2015. Design, setting, and participants: This repeated cross-sectional analysis examined delivery hospitalizations from 2012 through 2019 in the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's National Inpatient Sample and State Inpatient Databases, an all-payer compendium of hospital discharge records from community, nonrehabilitation hospitals. Trends were evaluated using segmented linear binomial regression models that allowed for discontinuities across the ICD-10-CM/PCS transition. Analyses were completed from April 2021 through March 2022. Exposures: Time, ICD-10-CM/PCS coding system, and state. Main outcomes and measures: SMM rates, excluding blood transfusion, per 10 000 delivery hospitalizations, overall and by indicator. Results: From 2012 to 2019, there were 5 964 315 delivery hospitalizations in the national sample representing a weighted total of 29.8 million deliveries with a mean (SD) maternal age of 28.6 (5.9) years. SMM rates increased from 69.5 per 10 000 in 2012 to 79.7 per 10 000 in 2019 (rate difference [RD], 10.2; 95% CI, 5.8 to 14.6) without a significant change across the ICD-10-CM/PCS transition (RD, -3.2; 95% CI, -6.9 to 0.6). Of 20 SMM indicators, rates for 10 indicators significantly increased while 3 significantly decreased; 5 of these changes were associated with ICD-10-CM/PCS transition. Acute kidney failure had the largest increase, from 6.4 to 15.3 per 10 000 delivery hospitalizations (RD, 8.9; 95% CI, 7.5 to 10.3) with no change associated with ICD transition (RD, -0.1; 95% CI, -1.2 to 1.1). Disseminated intravascular coagulation had the largest decrease from 31.3 to 21.2 per 10 000 (RD, 10.2; 95% CI, -12.8 to -7.5), with a significant drop associated with ICD transition (RD, -7.9; 95% CI, -10.2 to -5.6). State SMM rates significantly decreased for 1 state and significantly increased for 21 states from 2012 to 2019 and associations with ICD transition varied. Conclusions and relevance: In this cross-sectional study, overall US SMM rates increased from 2012 to 2019, which was not associated with the ICD-10-CM/PCS transition. However, data for certain indicators and states may not be comparable across coding systems; efforts are needed to understand SMM increases and state variation.
Globally, hepatitis A virus (HAV) is one of the most common agents of acute viral hepatitis and causes approximately 1.4 million cases and 90,000 deaths annually despite the existence of an effective vaccine. In 2019, federal, state, and local partners investigated a multi-state outbreak of HAV infections linked to fresh blackberries sourced from multiple suppliers in Michoacán, Mexico. A total of 20 individuals with outbreak-related HAV infection were reported in seven states, including 11 hospitalizations, and no deaths. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Nebraska State and Douglas County Health Departments conducted a traceback investigation for fresh blackberries reportedly purchased by 16 ill persons. These individuals reported purchasing fresh blackberries from 11 points of service from September 16 through 29, 2019 and their clinical isolates assessed through next-generation sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were genetically similar. The traceback investigation did not reveal convergence on a common grower or packing house within Mexico, but all of the blackberries were harvested from growers in Michoacán, Mexico. FDA did not detect the pathogen after analyzing fresh blackberry samples from four distributors, one consumer, and from nine importers at the port of entry as a result of increased screening. Challenges included gaps in traceability practices and the inability to recover the pathogen from sample testing, which prohibited investigators from determining the source of the implicated blackberries. This multi-state outbreak illustrated the importance of food safety practices for fresh produce that may contribute to foodborne illness outbreaks.
Objectives Although many people who are incarcerated have risk factors for hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, the proportion of hepatitis A cases among people with a recent incarceration is unknown. We examined the relationship between recent incarceration and HAV infection during community-based, person-to-person outbreaks to inform public health recommendations. Methods The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveyed health departments in 33 jurisdictions reporting person-to-person HAV outbreaks during 2016-2020 on the number of outbreak-associated cases, HAV-infected people recently incarcerated, and HAV-associated hospitalizations and deaths. Results Twenty-five health departments reported 18 327 outbreak-associated hepatitis A cases during January 11, 2016–January 24, 2020. In total, 2093 (11.4%) HAV-infected people had been recently incarcerated. Of those with complete data, 1402 of 1462 (95.9%) had been held in a local jail, and 1513 of 1896 (79.8.%) disclosed hepatitis A risk factors. Eighteen jurisdictions reported incarceration timing relative to the exposure period. Of 9707 cases in these jurisdictions, 991 (10.2%) were among recently incarcerated people; 451 of 688 (65.6%) people with complete data had been incarcerated during all (n = 55) or part (n = 396) of their exposure period. Conclusions Correctional facilities are important settings for reaching people with risk factors for HAV infection and can also be venues where transmission occurs. Providing HAV vaccination to incarcerated people, particularly people housed in jails, can be an effective component of community-wide outbreak response.
Background There are a growing number of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) for autistic individuals, but few are successfully implemented with fidelity in under-resourced communities and with families from traditionally disenfranchised groups. Implementation science offers tools to increase EBI use in communities, but most implementation strategies are designed specific to a single EBI. It is not feasible to develop a new implementation strategy each time a new EBI is introduced in the community. Therefore, to test the effectiveness and generalizability of implementation strategies we are developing and testing a multifaceted implementation strategy with three EBIs concurrently. The goal of this protocol paper is to describe the randomized field trial of an implementation strategy for use across autism EBIs, diverse settings and participants, with the goal of increasing rapid uptake of effective practices to reach our most vulnerable children. Methods We developed a multifaceted implementation strategy called Using Novel Implementation Tools for Evidence-based intervention Delivery (UNITED) to facilitate the implementation and sustainment of three EBIs in under-resourced settings. We will compare fidelity to, and effectiveness of, each intervention [Mind the Gap (MTG), Remaking Recess (RR), Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction (SDLMI)] with and without UNITED in a randomized field trial. Randomization will be stratified using a minimization allocation method. We will train community practitioners using remote delivery of modules specific to the intervention, and active coaching via Zoom for at least 6 sessions and up to 12 as dictated by each EBI. Our primary outcome is fidelity to each EBI, and our secondary outcome is at the child or family level (family empowerment for MTG, child peer social engagement for RR, and adolescent self-determination for SDLMI, respectively). We will measure progress through the implementation phases using the Stages of Implementation Completion and cost-effectiveness of UNITED. Discussion The results of this study will provide rigorous data on the effectiveness and generalizability of one relatively light-touch implementation strategy in increasing use of autism EBIs and associated outcomes in diverse under resourced public service settings for underrepresented autistic youth. Trial registration Mind the Gap: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT04972825 (Date registered July 22, 2021); Remaking Recess: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT04972838 (Date registered July 22, 2021); Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT04972851 (Date registered July 22, 2021).
Introduction: The Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Pipeline Training Program, promotes development of a diverse health workforce by training undergraduate students from underrepresented minorities. We aimed to evaluate the success of this program based on three domains: (1) demographic characteristics, (2) academic and career development, and (3) attitudes towards the field of MCH and the training programs among graduates. Methods: Three domains of success were determined through a collaborative effort between current program directors and the funding agency project officers. The survey with questions related to the three domains was distributed via an online platform to graduates from seven sites (one former site and six current sites). Data were analyzed and presented utilizing descriptive statistics. Results: The survey was distributed to 550 graduates, 162 responded (37% response rate). Demographically, 78% were female, 54% were Black/African American, 22% were Latinx and 83% did not report any disability. Eighty percent of respondents applied to graduate/professional schools, 67% received admission. Graduates often continued to work in MCH fields (70%). Majority felt confident and knowledgeable in the field (89%) and agreed the faculty were supportive at their training sites (90%). Conclusion: The study highlights successes in recruiting from underrepresented minorities, particularly Black/African Americans and first-time college goers in the family into the MCH Pipeline Training Programs. Programs were successful in furthering academic and career development for most trainees. Attitudes towards MCH and the training programs were overwhelmingly positive. Continued support of these programs is critical in addressing health disparities and achieving health equity.
Importance: Patient safety is a US national priority, yet lacks a comprehensive assessment of progress over the past decade. Objective: To determine the change in the rate of adverse events in hospitalized patients. Design, setting, and participants: This serial cross-sectional study used data from the Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System from 2010 to 2019 to assess in-hospital adverse events in patients. The study included 244 542 adult patients hospitalized in 3156 US acute care hospitals across 4 condition groups from 2010 through 2019: acute myocardial infarction (17%), heart failure (17%), pneumonia (21%), and major surgical procedures (22%); and patients hospitalized from 2012 through 2019 for all other conditions (22%). Exposures: Adults aged 18 years or older hospitalized during each included calendar year. Main outcomes and measures: Information on adverse events (abstracted from medical records) included 21 measures across 4 adverse event domains: adverse drug events, hospital-acquired infections, adverse events after a procedure, and general adverse events (hospital-acquired pressure ulcers and falls). The outcomes were the total change over time for the observed and risk-adjusted adverse event rates in the subpopulations. Results: The study sample included 190 286 hospital discharges combined in the 4 condition-based groups of acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, pneumonia, and major surgical procedures (mean age, 68.0 [SD, 15.9] years; 52.6% were female) and 54 256 hospital discharges for the group including all other conditions (mean age, 57.7 [SD, 20.7] years; 59.8% were female) from 3156 acute care hospitals across the US. From 2010 to 2019, the total change was from 218 to 139 adverse events per 1000 discharges for acute myocardial infarction, from 168 to 116 adverse events per 1000 discharges for heart failure, from 195 to 119 adverse events per 1000 discharges for pneumonia, and from 204 to 130 adverse events per 1000 discharges for major surgical procedures. From 2012 to 2019, the rate of adverse events for all other conditions remained unchanged at 70 adverse events per 1000 discharges. After adjustment for patient and hospital characteristics, the annual change represented by relative risk in all adverse events per 1000 discharges was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.93-0.94) for acute myocardial infarction, 0.95 (95% CI, 0.94-0.96) for heart failure, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.93-0.95) for pneumonia, 0.93 (95% CI, 0.92-0.94) for major surgical procedures, and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.96-0.99) for all other conditions. The risk-adjusted adverse event rates declined significantly in all patient groups for adverse drug events, hospital-acquired infections, and general adverse events. For patients in the major surgical procedures group, the risk-adjusted rates of events after a procedure declined significantly. Conclusions and relevance: In the US between 2010 and 2019, there was a significant decrease in the rates of adverse events abstracted from medical records for patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, pneumonia, and major surgical procedures and there was a significant decrease in the adjusted rates of adverse events between 2012 and 2019 for all other conditions. Further research is needed to understand the extent to which these trends represent a change in patient safety.
Purpose Presently, there are six undergraduate HRSA-funded MCH pipeline training programs (MCHPTP) in the nation and they have gained significant momentum since inception by recruiting, training and mentoring undergraduate students in a comprehensive MCH-focused approach. This article describes the outcomes from the 6 training programs; and primarily Baylor College of Medicine–Texas Southern University (BCM–TSU’s) collaborative strategy focusing on the MCH research training and outcomes, which align with HRSA’s MCH bureau’s missions. Description Each MCHPTP offers trainees interdisciplinary MCH research experiences through intra/inter-institutional collaborations and partnerships, but BCM–TSU’s MCHPTP was the only one with the primary focus to be research. As a case study, the BCM–TSU Program developed an innovative research curriculum integrated with MCH Foundations Course that comprised 2 hour weekly meetings. Students were split into collaborative research groups of 4–5 students, with multidisciplinary peer-mentors, clinical fellows and MCH research faculty from institutions at the world—renowned Texas Medical Center. Assessment Since the inception of the MCH mentorship programs, all six MCHPTPs have enrolled up to 1890 trainees and/or interns. BCM–TSU Program trainees are defined as undergraduate students in their 1st or 2nd year of college while research interns are upper classmen in their 3rd or 4th year of college. The case study showed that BCM–TSU Program trainees demonstrated outstanding accomplishments in the area of research through primary and co-authorships of 13 peer-reviewed journal publications by 78 trainees, over a period of 3 years, in addition to dozens of presentations at local, regional and national conferences. Conclusions The research productivity of students in the six MCHPTPs is strongly indicative of the success of integrating MCH research mentoring into MCH didactic training. The development of a diverse and robust MCH mentorship program promotes and strengthens research activities in areas of high priority such as addressing health disparities in MCH morbidity and mortality in the U.S.
Background: Associations between preconception cardiometabolic markers and birth outcomes have been noted, but data are scarce for Hispanics/Latinos. We examined the association between preconception cardiometabolic markers, birthweight and preterm birth among U.S. Hispanic/Latina women. Materials and Methods: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos is a cohort study of U.S. adults 18-74 years of age, including 3,798 women of reproductive age (18-44 years) from four field centers representing Hispanic/Latino backgrounds of Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central American, and South American. A baseline clinic examination (2008-2011) and a second clinic examination (2014-2017), including ascertainment of birth outcomes, allowed for identification of 517 singleton live births between the exams. Preconception cardiometabolic markers included abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥88 cm), body mass index >30 kg/m2, high blood pressure (systolic ≥120 mmHg and diastolic ≥80 mmHg), elevated triglycerides (≥150 mg/dL), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<50 mg/dL), elevated fasting glucose (≥100 mg/dL), and insulin. Complex survey linear regression modeled the association between cardiometabolic markers and birthweight-for-gestational age z-score; complex survey logistic regression modeled the association with preterm birth. Analyses adjusted for Hispanic/Latina background, field center, years between baseline and birth, age, and nulliparity. Results: In adjusted linear regression models, elevated fasting glucose was associated with higher birthweight z-scores (β = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.14 to 0.99), even after further adjustment for maternal percent body fat (β = 0.53, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.95). In adjusted logistic regression models, high blood pressure (odds ratio [OR] = 2.57, 95% CI 1.13 to 5.88) and increased insulin (OR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.14, for a 10 mU/L increase) were associated with higher odds for preterm birth. Conclusions: Infant birthweight and preterm birth may be influenced by selected cardiometabolic risk factors before pregnancy among Hispanic/Latina women.
Purpose The Comprehensive Cancer Control Cancer Communication Mentorship Program (“Mentorship Program”) was created by the George Washington University Cancer Center (GWCC) to provide technical assistance (TA) in implementing evidence-based cancer screening communication interventions and support networking for comprehensive cancer control (CCC) professionals. The Mentorship Program matched entry-to mid-level CCC professionals with health communication and/or CCC experts and offered monthly web-based discussions with academic researchers and practitioners who shared their knowledge and provided applied learning opportunities throughout mentees’ project planning, implementation and evaluation. The program objective was for mentees to improve health communication skills and apply evidence-based knowledge to reduce the burden of cancer. Methods A mixed methods evaluation was conducted, including a qualitative description of each project and its outcomes as well as quantitative measures of satisfaction with the program and self-rated changes in competence. Results Mentees represented the following locations: New Jersey, Arkansas, Michigan, West Virginia, and Republic of Palau. Project topics ranged from increasing Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations to increasing screening uptake for colorectal cancer, lung cancer, cervical cancer, and breast cancer. Evaluation results from pre- and post-program communication competency self-assessments and mid- and post-program surveys revealed that the Mentorship Program advanced personal and professional goals and improved public health communication skills. Conclusion The Mentorship Program achieved its objectives for peer networking and offering expert TA in cancer prevention and control communication, offering a promising model for others involved in supporting implementation of evidence in practice.
Amblyomma americanum (Linnaeus) (Acari: Ixodidae) (lone star tick) is an aggressive, generalist parasite that vectors numerous important human and animal pathogens. In recent decades its geographic range has expanded northwards from endemic regions in the southeastern and southcentral United States. In 2019 five questing A. americanum ticks, comprising two life stages were detected at one site in southwestern Michigan, satisfying one CDC criterium for an established population for the first time in recent history in the state. To better characterize the extent of emerging A. americanum, we conducted active surveillance (i.e., drag sampling) in summer 2020 throughout Michigan’s southern counties and detected one adult A. americanum from each of six widespread sites, including where they had been detected in 2019. A larger established population was identified at another site in Berrien County, which yielded 691 A. americanum comprising three life stages, and questing phenologies here were similar to that reported for other endemic regions. Statewide surveillance in 2021 revealed no A. americanum outside of Berrien County, but establishment criteria were met again at the two sites where established populations were first detected respectively in 2019 and 2020. These observations may represent the successful invasion of A. americanum into Michigan. Data from passive (1999–2020) and active surveillance (2004–2021) efforts, including a domestic animal sentinel program (2015–2018), are reported to provide context for this nascent invasion. Continued active surveillance is needed to help inform the public, medical professionals, and public health officials of the health risks associated with this vector.
Introduction Opioid overdose deaths are increasing, and improving access to evidence-based treatment is necessary. Emergency department (ED) initiation of treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) via medications and referral to treatment is one approach that leverages a critical health care entry point for individuals with OUD. Efforts to engage patients in treatment through the ED are growing, but systematic analysis of program features as implemented and challenges across different models remains limited. Lessons from early adopter programs may benefit clinicians and others looking to offer ED-initiated treatment for OUD. Methods We conducted case studies of five ED-based efforts to address OUD across the United States, selected for diversity in structure, approach, and geography. We conducted telephone interviews with 37 individuals (ED physicians, ED nurses, navigators, hospital administrators, community providers, and state policymakers) affiliated with the five programs. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a framework analysis approach, identifying relevant lessons for replication. Results These five programs (an academic medical center, two large urban hospitals, a rural community hospital, and a community-based program) successfully implemented ED-initiated MOUD. Often a champion with knowledge of OUD treatment and a reliable connection with outpatient treatment began the program. The approach to patient identification varied from universal screening to relying on patient self-identification. Substance use treatment navigators provide crucial services but can be difficult to pay for within current reimbursement frameworks. Barriers to implementation include lack of knowledge about treatment options and effectiveness, stigma, community treatment capacity limits, and health insurance and reimbursement policies. Facilitators of success include taking a patient-centered, low-barrier approach, having a passionate champion, a strong structure with health system support, and a relationship with community partners. Metrics for success vary across programs. Some programs are expanding to include treating the use of other substances such as alcohol and stimulants. Conclusion ED-initiated MOUD is feasible across different settings. Research and real world efforts need to promote programs that include OUD treatment as standard in ED treatment.
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