UNSW Sydney
  • Kensington, NSW, Australia
Recent publications
Gearbox plays a vital role in a wide range of mechanical power transmission systems in many industrial applications, including wind turbines, vehicles, mining and material handling equipment , oil and gas processing equipment, offshore vessels, and aircraft. As an inevitable phenomenon during gear service life, gear wear affects the durability of gear tooth and reduces the remaining useful life of the gear transmission system. The propagation of gear wear can lead to severe gear failures such as gear root crack, tooth spall, and tooth breakage, which can further cause unexpected equipment shutdown or hazardous incidents. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor gear wear propagation progression in order to perform predictive maintenance. Vibration analysis is a widely used and effective technique to monitor the operating condition of rotating machinery, especially for the diagnosis of localized failures such as gear root crack and tooth surface spalling. However, vibration-based techniques for gear wear analysis and monitoring are very limited, mainly due to the difficulties in identifying the complex vibration characteristics induced by gear wear propagation. Understanding the effect of gear wear on vibration characteristics is essential to develop vibration-based techniques for monitoring and tracking gear wear evolution. However, no research work has been previously published to summarize the research progress in vibration-based gear wear monitoring and prediction. To fill the research gap, this review paper aims to conduct a state-of-the-art comprehensive review on vibration-based gear wear monitoring, including studying the gear surface features caused by different gear wear mechanisms, investigating the relationships between gear surface features and vibration characteristics, and summarizing the current research progress of vibration-based gear wear monitoring. This review also makes some recommendations for future research work in this area. It is expected that this review will provide useful information for further development of vibration-based techniques for gear wear monitoring and remaining useful life predictions.
Background: Approximately 10% of first responders report posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although reports within first responders suggest that they have distinct symptom presentations, there is a need to understand how the clinical profiles of first responders may differ from others seeking treatment for PTSD. Objective: This study compared the PTSD symptom profiles of first responder and civilians seeking treatment for PTSD. Method: Participants self-referred to the Traumatic Stress Clinic (University of New South Wales, Sydney) for enrolment in out-patient treatment trials for PTSD. Participants comprised people of mean age 41.72 years (SD = 10.71) who met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD. The sample was composed of 128 first responders and 182 civilians. Clinician-administered interviews of PTSD (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) and depression were conducted, as well as measures of self-report measures of depression, alcohol use, posttraumatic appraisals, and anger. Results: First responders reported greater rates of dysphoric cluster of symptoms, including diminished interest, emotional numbing, and social detachment, and less psychological reactivity and avoidance of situations, than civilians with PTSD. Beyond PTSD symptoms, first responders also reported more severe levels of depression and suppressed anger. Conclusions: These findings indicate that treatment-seeking first responders present with a distinct clinical profile that is characterized by dysphoric symptoms. These symptoms can predict poor treatment response and require specific attention in treating PTSD in first responders.
Background: The core clinical feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is recurrent re-experiencing in form of intrusive memories. While a great number of biological processes are regulated by sleep and internal biological clocks, the effect of 24-hour biological cycles, named circadian rhythm, has not been investigated in the context of intrusive memories. Objective: Here we examined effects of time of day on frequency and characteristics of intrusive re-experiencing. Methods: Fifty trauma survivors reported intrusive memories for 7 consecutive days using ecological momentary assessment in their daily life. We investigated (i) time-of-day dependent effects on frequency and distribution of intrusive re-experiencing in the overall sample as well as in PTSD versus non-PTSD and (ii) time-of-day dependent effects on the memory characteristics intrusiveness, vividness, nowness and fear. Results: Intrusive memories showed a curvilinear pattern that peaked at 2pm. Intrusive memories in the PTSD group showed a constant level of intrusive re-experiencing in the afternoon and evening, whereas a descending slope was present in the non-PTSD group. In PTSD, intrusive memories might thus be experienced in a more time-scattered fashion throughout the day, indicating chronodisruption. Intrusion characteristics did not follow this pattern. Conclusion: Although preliminary and based on a small sample size, these findings contribute to a better understanding of the everyday occurrence and characteristics of intrusive memories, and point to the added value of examining time-dependent effects, which can directly inform prevention and intervention science.
Background: Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) are at far greater risk of experiencing poor mental health (MH) than wider society. This disparity was exacerbated by additional 'unique to sexual minority status' COVID-19 stressors. Objective: This sequential, mixed-methods study examined remote MH help-seeking among GBMSM in the U.K. and Ireland during the first COVID-19 lockdown. Methods and Results: Quantitative survey data (n = 1368), analysed with logistic regression, suggested GBMSM experiencing moderate-to-severe anxiety and those with a past MH diagnosis were most likely to seek MH support. Thematic analysis of qualitative interview (n = 18) data identified multiple barriers and enablers to GBMSM seeking remote MH help, with the help primarily sought from GBMSM-facing organisations and generic online resources. Finally, the behaviour change wheel was used to generate theoretically informed recommendations to promote MH help-seeking among GBMSM in Scotland. Implications: We discuss how applying these recommendations in the short, medium and long term will begin to address GBMSM's MH needs, post COVID-19.
The age-associated alterations in microbiomes vary across populations due to the influence of genetics and lifestyles. To the best of our knowledge, the microbial changes associated with aging have not yet been investigated in Singapore adults. We conducted shotgun metagenomic sequencing of fecal and saliva samples, as well as fecal metabolomics to characterize the gut and oral microbial communities of 62 healthy adult male Singaporeans, including 32 young subjects (age, 23.1 ± 1.4 years) and 30 elderly subjects (age, 69.0 ± 3.5 years). We identified 8 gut and 13 oral species that were differentially abundant in elderly compared to young subjects. By combining the gut and oral microbiomes, 25 age-associated oral-gut species connections were identified. Moreover, oral bacteria Acidaminococcus intestine and Flavonifractor plautii were less prevalent/abundant in elderly gut samples than in young gut samples, whereas Collinsella aerofaciens and Roseburia hominis showed the opposite trends. These results indicate the varied gut-oral communications with aging. Subsequently, we expanded the association studies on microbiome, metabolome and host phenotypic parameters. In particular, Eubacterium eligens increased in elderly compared to young subjects, and was positively correlated with triglycerides, which implies that the potential role of E. eligens in lipid metabolism is altered during the aging process. Our results demonstrated aging-associated changes in the gut and oral microbiomes, as well as the connections between metabolites and host-microbe interactions, thereby deepening the understanding of alterations in the human microbiome during the aging process in a Singapore population.
Two cases are presented that demonstrate normal wound healing following bilateral reduction mammoplasty, in young female patients taking therapeutic doses of Isotretinoin (Roaccutane). Review of the literature does not provide evidence that Isotretinoin impairs would healing, nor that it promotes hypertrophic or keloid scarring in surgical patients.
The gut microbiome has been implicated in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) pathophysiology. PCOS is a disorder with reproductive, endocrine and metabolic irregularities, and several studies report that PCOS is associated with a decrease in microbial diversity and composition. Diet is an important regulator of the gut microbiome, as alterations in macronutrient composition impact the balance of gut microbial communities. This study investigated the interplay between macronutrient balance and PCOS on the gut microbiome of control and dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced PCOS-like mice exposed to diets that varied in protein (P), carbohydrate (C) and fat (F) content. The amount of dietary P, C and F consumed significantly altered alpha (α) and beta (β) diversity of the gut microbiota of control and PCOS-like mice. However, α-diversity between control and PCOS-like mice on the same diet did not differ significantly. In contrast, β-diversity was significantly altered by PCOS pathology. Further analysis identified an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) within Bacteroides (OTU3) with 99.2% similarity to Bacteroides acidifaciens, which is inversely associated with obesity, to be significantly decreased in PCOS-like mice. Additionally, this study investigated the role of the gut microbiome in the development of PCOS traits, whereby PCOS-like mice were transplanted with healthy fecal microbiota from control mice. Although the PCOS gut microbiome shifted toward that of control mice, PCOS traits were not ameliorated. Overall, these findings demonstrate that while diet exerts a stronger influence over gut microbiota diversity than PCOS pathology, overall gut microbiota composition is affected by PCOS pathology.
We present the surgical technique, relevant anatomy and a consecutive case series of salvage head and neck free flap reconstructions utilising the thoracoacromial axis. We demonstrated that the thoracoacromial axis is safe and reliable in salvage head and neck reconstruction with particular use in reconstruction of tracheoespophageal and pharyngolaryngectomy fistulae.
Bhutan has reported a total of 2596 COVID-19 cases and three deaths as of September 15, 2021. With support from India, the United States, Denmark, the People’s Republic of China, Croatia and other countries, Bhutan was able to conduct two rounds of nationwide vaccination campaign. While many countries struggle to overcome vaccine refusal or hesitancy due to complacency, a lack of trust, inconvenience and fear, escalated in some countries by anti-vaccine groups, Bhutan managed to inoculate more than 95% of its eligible populations in two rounds of vaccination campaign. Enabling factors of this successful vaccination campaign were strong national leadership, a well-coordinated national preparedness plan, and high acceptability of vaccine due to effective mass communication and social engagement led by religious figures, volunteers and local leaders. In this short report, we described the national strategic plan and enabling factors that led to the success of this historical vaccination campaign.
While compound weather and climate events (CEs) can lead to significant socioeconomic consequences, their response to climate change is mostly unexplored. We report the first multi-model assessment of future changes in return periods for the co-occurrence of heatwaves and drought, and extreme winds and precipitation based on the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) and three emission scenarios. Extreme winds and precipitation CEs occur more frequently in many regions, particularly under higher emissions. Heatwaves and drought occur more frequently everywhere under all emission scenarios examined. For each CMIP6 model, we derive a skill score for simulating CEs. Models with higher skill in simulating historical CEs project smaller increases in the number of heatwaves and drought in Eurasia, but larger numbers of strong winds and heavy precipitation CEs everywhere for all emission scenarios. This result is partly masked if the whole CMIP6 ensemble is used, pointing to the considerable value in further improvements in climate models.
Background Clinical trials report systemic hypertension is an adverse effect of vascular signalling pathway inhibitor (VSPi) use. There are limited data from routine clinical practice. We aimed to estimate the real-world incidence and risk factors of new-onset and aggravated hypertension for cancer patients dispensed VSPi in whole-of-population Australian setting. Methods We used dispensing records for a 10% random sample of Australians to identify treatment with subsidised VSPi from 2013 to 2018. We further identified dispensings of oral antihypertensive medicines 6 months before and 12 months after VSPi therapy. We defined (i) new-onset hypertension in people first dispensed antihypertensives after VSPi and (ii) aggravated hypertension in people with prior antihypertensive use dispensed an additional, or higher strength, antihypertensive after VSPi. We applied the Fine-Gray cumulative incidence function and Cox proportional hazard regression. Results 1802 patients were dispensed at least one VSPi. The mean age of the cohort was 65 years and 57% were male. The incidence of new-onset treated hypertension was 24.3% (95%CI: 21.2–27.8); age ≥ 60 years (HR 1.74; 95%CI: 1.32–2.31) and treatment with oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors compared to bevacizumab (HR 1.96; 95%CI: 1.16–3.31) were risk factors. The incidence of aggravated hypertension was 25.2% (95%CI: 22.0–28.7) and risk was elevated for patients with renal cancer (HR 2.84; 95%CI: 1.49–5.41) and cancers other than colorectal (HR 1.85; 95%CI: 1.12–3.03). Conclusions Our real-world estimates of incident hypertension appear comparable to those observed in clinical trials (21.6–23.6%). Our population-based study provides some insight into the burden of hypertension in patients commencing VSPi in routine practice.
Background Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is associated with a range of adverse offspring neurodevelopmental outcomes. Several studies suggest that PAE modifies DNA methylation in offspring cells and tissues, providing evidence for a potential mechanistic link to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). We systematically reviewed existing evidence on the extent to which maternal alcohol use during pregnancy is associated with offspring DNA methylation. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted across five online databases according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Google Scholar and CINAHL Databases were searched for articles relating to PAE in placental mammals. Data were extracted from each study and the Risk of Bias in Non-Randomized Studies of Interventions (ROBINS-I) was used to assess the potential for bias in human studies. Results Forty-three articles were identified for inclusion. Twenty-six animal studies and 16 human studies measured offspring DNA methylation in various tissues using candidate gene analysis, methylome-wide association studies (MWAS), or total nuclear DNA methylation content. PAE dose and timing varied between studies. Risk of bias was deemed high in nearly all human studies. There was insufficient evidence in human and animal studies to support global disruption of DNA methylation from PAE. Inconclusive evidence was found for hypomethylation at IGF2/H19 regions within somatic tissues. MWAS assessing PAE effects on offspring DNA methylation showed inconsistent evidence. There was some consistency in the relatively small number of MWAS conducted in populations with FASD. Meta-analyses could not be conducted due to significant heterogeneity between studies. Conclusion Considering heterogeneity in study design and potential for bias, evidence for an association between PAE and offspring DNA methylation was inconclusive. Some reproducible associations were observed in populations with FASD although the limited number of these studies warrants further research. Trail Registration : This review is registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42020167686).
In three experiments, we sought to understand when and why people use an algorithm decision aid. Distinct from recent approaches, we explicitly enumerate the algorithm’s accuracy while also providing summary feedback and training that allowed participants to assess their own skills. Our results highlight that such direct performance comparisons between the algorithm and the individual encourages a strategy of selective reliance on the decision aid; individuals ignored the algorithm when the task was easier and relied on the algorithm when the task was harder. Our systematic investigation of summary feedback, training experience, and strategy hint manipulations shows that further opportunities to learn about the algorithm encourage not only increased reliance on the algorithm but also engagement in experimentation and verification of its recommendations. Together, our findings emphasize the decision-maker’s capacity to learn about the algorithm providing insights for how we can improve the use of decision aids.
Spaceflight associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) alters the vision of astronauts during long-duration spaceflights. There is controversy regarding SANS being similar to patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). IIH has been shown to be due to an elevation in venous sinus pressure. The literature suggests an increase in jugular vein pressure secondary to a headward shift of fluid occurs in SANS but this may not be enough to significantly alter the intracranial pressure (ICP). The literature regarding cardiac output and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in long-duration spaceflight is contradictory, however, more recent data suggests increased flow. Recent modelling has shown that an increase in CBF can significantly increase sinus pressure. The purpose of the present paper is to review the SANS vascular dynamics literature and through mathematical modelling suggest the possible underlying cause of SANS as an elevation in venous sinus pressure, secondary to the redistribution of fluids towards the head, together with a significant increase in pressure drop across the venous system related to the CBF.
Background We have previously shown that service-wide support can increase the odds of alcohol screening in any 2-month period in a cluster randomized trial of service-wide support to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHS). Here we report an exploratory analysis on whether the resulting pattern of screening was appropriate. Aim: we assess whether that increase in screening was associated with: (i) increased first-time screening, (ii) increased annual screening, (iii) whether frequently screened clients fell into one of four risk categories as defined by national guidelines. Methods Setting and participants: 22 ACCHS; randomized to receive the support model in the treatment (‘early-support’) arm over 24-months or to the waitlist control arm. Intervention: eight-component support, including training, sharing of experience, audit-and-feedback and resource support. Analysis: records of clients with visits before and after start of implementation were included. Multilevel logistic modelling was used to compare (i) the odds of previously unscreened clients receiving an AUDIT-C screen, (ii) odds of clients being screened with AUDIT-C at least once annually. We describe the characteristics of a sub-cohort of clients who received four or more screens annually, including if they were in a high-risk category. Results Of the original trial sample, 43,054 met inclusion criteria, accounting for 81.7% of the screening events in the overall trial. The support did not significantly increase the odds of first-time screening (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 0.81–2.18, p = 0.25) or of annual screening (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.42–2.37, p = 0.98). Screening more than once annually occurred in 6240 clients. Of the 841 clients with four or more screens annually, over 50% did not fall into a high-risk category. Females were overrepresented. More males than females fell into high-risk categories. Conclusion The significant increase in odds of screening observed in the main trial did not translate to significant improvement in first-time or annual screening following implementation of support. This appeared to be due to some clients being screened more frequently than annually, while more than half remained unscreened. Further strategies to improve alcohol screening should focus on appropriate screening regularity as well as overall rates, to ensure clinically useful information about alcohol consumption. Trial Registration ACTRN12618001892202, retrospectively registered 16 November 2018 https://anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?ACTRN=12618001892202 .
Background Cannabidiol (CBD) has demonstrated anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anxiolytic and neuroprotective effects that have the potential to benefit athletes. This pilot study investigated the effects of acute, oral CBD treatment on physiological and psychological responses to aerobic exercise to determine its practical utility within the sporting context. Methods On two occasions, nine endurance-trained males (mean ± SD V̇O 2max : 57.4 ± 4.0 mL·min ⁻¹ ·kg ⁻¹ ) ran for 60 min at a fixed intensity (70% V̇O 2max ) (RUN 1) before completing an incremental run to exhaustion (RUN 2). Participants received CBD (300 mg; oral) or placebo 1.5 h before exercise in a randomised, double-blind design. Respiratory gases (V̇O 2 ), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate (HR), blood glucose (BG) and lactate (BL) concentrations, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and pleasure–displeasure were measured at three timepoints (T1–3) during RUN 1. V̇O 2max , RER max , HR max and time to exhaustion (TTE) were recorded during RUN 2. Venous blood was drawn at Baseline, Pre- and Post-RUN 1, Post-RUN 2 and 1 h Post-RUN 2. Data were synthesised using Cohen’s d z effect sizes and 85% confidence intervals (CIs). Effects were considered worthy of further investigation if the 85% CI included ± 0.5 but not zero. Results CBD appeared to increase V̇O 2 (T2: + 38 ± 48 mL·min ⁻¹ , d z : 0.25–1.35), ratings of pleasure (T1: + 0.7 ± 0.9, d z : 0.22–1.32; T2: + 0.8 ± 1.1, d z : 0.17–1.25) and BL (T2: + 3.3 ± 6.4 mmol·L ⁻¹ , d z : > 0.00–1.03) during RUN 1 compared to placebo. No differences in HR, RPE, BG or RER were observed between treatments. CBD appeared to increase V̇O 2max (+ 119 ± 206 mL·min ⁻¹ , d z : 0.06–1.10) and RER max (+ 0.04 ± 0.05 d z : 0.24–1.34) during RUN 2 compared to placebo. No differences in TTE or HR max were observed between treatments. Exercise increased serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumour necrosis factor-α, lipopolysaccharide and myoglobin concentrations (i.e. Baseline vs. Post-RUN 1, Post-RUN 2 and/or 1-h Post-RUN 2, p ’s < 0.05). However, the changes were small, making it difficult to reliably evaluate the effect of CBD, where an effect appeared to be present. Plasma concentrations of the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide (AEA), increased Post-RUN 1 and Post-RUN 2, relative to Baseline and Pre-RUN 1 ( p ’s < 0.05). CBD appeared to reduce AEA concentrations Post-RUN 2, compared to placebo (− 0.95 ± 0.64 pmol·mL ⁻¹ , d z : − 2.19, − 0.79). Conclusion CBD appears to alter some key physiological and psychological responses to aerobic exercise without impairing performance. Larger studies are required to confirm and better understand these preliminary findings. Trial Registration This investigation was approved by the Sydney Local Health District’s Human Research Ethics Committee (2020/ETH00226) and registered with the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12620000941965).
The chemical pollution crisis severely threatens human and environmental health globally. To tackle this challenge the establishment of an overarching international science–policy body has recently been suggested. We strongly support this initiative based on the awareness that humanity has already likely left the safe operating space within planetary boundaries for novel entities including chemical pollution. Immediate action is essential and needs to be informed by sound scientific knowledge and data compiled and critically evaluated by an overarching science–policy interface body. Major challenges for such a body are (i) to foster global knowledge production on exposure, impacts and governance going beyond data-rich regions (e.g., Europe and North America), (ii) to cover the entirety of hazardous chemicals, mixtures and wastes, (iii) to follow a one-health perspective considering the risks posed by chemicals and waste on ecosystem and human health, and (iv) to strive for solution-oriented assessments based on systems thinking. Based on multiple evidence on urgent action on a global scale, we call scientists and practitioners to mobilize their scientific networks and to intensify science–policy interaction with national governments to support the negotiations on the establishment of an intergovernmental body based on scientific knowledge explaining the anticipated benefit for human and environmental health.
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28,988 members
Eric A. Ben-David
  • School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences (BABS)
Peter R. Wich
  • School of Chemical Engineering
Xabier Vázquez-Campos
  • School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences (BABS)
Howard Chi Ho Yim
  • St.George and Sutherland Clinical School
Information
Address
University of New South Wales, 2052, Kensington, NSW, Australia
Head of institution
Prof Ian Jacobs
Website
www.unsw.edu.au
Phone
61293855452
Fax
61293138624