The effects of oleaster leave essential oil (OLEOs: 1000 and 2000 ppm) in combination with nisin nanoparticles (200 ppm) and ε-polylysine nanoparticles (2000 ppm) on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of the emulsion-type sausages without added chemical nitrite/nitrate salts were evaluated during 45 days of storage. Nanoparticle attributes were assessed, including encapsulation efficiency (EE%), zeta potential, nanoparticles size, FTIR analysis, and thermal stability (DSC). Overall, ε-PL nanoparticles (ε-PL-NPs) were thermally more stable and showed higher EE% (91.52%) and zeta potential (37.80%) as compared to nisin nanoparticles (82.85%) and (33.60%), respectively. The use of combined ε-PL-NPs (2000 ppm) + Ni-NPs (200 ppm) with oleaster leaves essential oil (2000 ppm) resulted in a higher pH value (5.88), total phenolic content (10.45 mg/100 g) and lower TBARS (2.11 mg/kg), and also decreased total viable bacteria (1.28 Log CFU/g), Clostridium perfringens (1.43 Log CFU/g), E. coli (0.24 Log CFU/g), Staphylococcus aureus (0.63 Log CFU/g), and molds and yeasts (0.86 Log CFU/g) count in samples at day 45 in comparison to the control (120 ppm nitrite). The consumers approved sensory traits in nitrite-free formulated sausages containing ε-PL-NPs and Ni-NPs combined with OLEOs.
Measurement or estimation of resting energy expenditure (REE) should be the first step in determining energy demand in physically active boys. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate new equations for resting energy expenditure in male children and adolescents practicing soccer. The cross-sectional studywas carried out among 184 boys in the derivation group and 148 boys in the validation group (mean age 13.20 ± 2.16 years and 13.24 ± 1.75 years, respectively). The calorimeter and device for assessing body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were used. Model of multiple regression showed that REE can be predicted in this population with Eq. (1) (with height and weight data) or Eq. (2) (with age, height, and fat free mass data). Predictive Eq. (1) had an average error of 51 ± 199 kcal and predictive Eq. (2) − 39 ± 193 kcal. Cohen's d coefficient was 0.2, which confirms the small difference. The bias was 4.7% and 3.9%, respectively. The accuracy was 61.2% in the population for predictive Eq. (1) and 66.2% for predictive Eq. (2). Therefore, the new equations developed and validated in this study are recommended for the estimation of REE in physically active boys, when the use of IC is not feasible or available.
Although many studies have examined the algae associated with various habitats in tree trunks, the diatoms in these environments are still poorly studied. Studies of corticolous algae mainly focus on green algae and cyanobacteria, which are usually immediately visible, while diatoms are mostly overlooked or not reported. During the research, 143 species of diatoms were identified, including two new representatives of the genus Luticola: L. bryophila sp. nov. with a relatively large central area and short distal raphe endings and L. confusa sp. nov. characterized by the presence of small depressions on central raphe endings. Both are described herein based on light and scanning electron microscopy observations and compared to similar taxa based on literature data. Basic morphological data for almost all the diatom taxa are noted, and their habitat requirements and photographic documentation are also presented. The present research showed that the occurrence of diatom assemblages on tree trunks is influenced by various factors like host tree species, the area where the host tree grows, and the availability of suitable microhabitats within the trunk. However, the species composition of these assemblages depends mainly on the tree species.
The methylotrophic yeast Komagataella phaffii is considered one of the most effective producers of recombinant proteins of industrial importance. Effective producers should be characterized by the maximal reduction of degradation of the cytosolic recombinant proteins. The mechanisms of degradation of cytosolic proteins in K. phaffii have not been elucidated, however, data suggest that they are partially degraded in the autophagic pathway. To identify factors that influence this process, a developed system for the selection of recombinant strains of K. phaffii with impaired autophagic degradation of heterologous model cytosolic protein (yeast β‐galactosidase) was used for insertional tagging of the genes involved in cytosolic proteins degradation. In one of the obtained strains, the insertion cassette disrupted the open reading frame of the gene encoding β‐1,6‐N‐acetylglucosaminyltransferase. A recombinant strain with deletion of this gene was also obtained. The rate of degradation of the β‐galactosidase enzyme was two times slower in the insertion mutant and 1.5 times slower in the deletion strain as compared to the parental strain with native β‐1,6‐N‐acetylglucosaminyltransferase. The rate of degradation of native K. phaffii cytosolic and peroxisomal enzymes, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase and alcohol oxidase, respectively, showed similar trends to that of β‐galactosidase – slower degradation in the deletion and insertional mutants as compared to the wild‐type strain, but faster protein degradation relative to the strain completely defective in autophagy. We conclude that K. phaffii gene designated ACG1, encoding β‐1,6‐N‐acetylglucosaminyltransferase, is involved in autophagy of the cytosolic and peroxisomal proteins. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The aim of the research was to analyze consumer behavior regarding changes in the place where the food was purchased during the COVID-19 pandemic. An analysis of the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and changes in the frequency of food purchases in specified retail outlets was presented. Different consumer reactions to the threats and restrictions that resulted from the COVID-19 pandemic were found. Gender had a statistically significant impact on the changes in the place of purchase in the case of supermarkets and discount stores. Women were reported to be more cautious about the risks associated with shopping in supermarkets and discount stores. Age had a statistically significant impact on the frequency of grocery shopping in small local/rural stores, in medium-sized self-service stores, in supermarkets and in discount stores. Among the group of respondents aged 46 and over, greater trust in larger commercial units was observed. Education had a statistically significant impact on the frequency of shopping for groceries only in supermarkets. In turn, the place of residence had a statistically significant impact on the change in the frequency of making purchases in medium-sized self-service stores and discount stores. The results of our own research are not unambiguous, but they indicate certain tendencies in the perception of health safety when shopping among various social groups.
Background Birch is a tree with a common occurrence in the environment and its organs are used in the form of herbal material. An important aspect of this study is birch pollen, which is a problem for allergy sufferers, and due to a variety of environmental conditions, its allergenicity may increase. Among the organs studied, inflorescences deserve attention, which, as seen from an overview of the literature, are analysed for the content of heavy metals for the first time in this study. Results This paper investigated the relationship between antioxidant properties and the content of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr) as the plant's response to stress, taking into account both the vegetative and generative organs of the tree Betula pendula. While studying the accumulation of elements in individual organs, the research was extended to include the aspect of different environmental conditions, reflected in two soil types of differing physicochemical properties: sandy and silty soils. In order to thoroughly analyse the transport of the studied heavy metals from the soil to individual organs (leaves, inflorescences and pollen), ecotoxicological indicators were used. A modified translocation factor (TF) index into sTF (sap translocation factor) was presented as a novelty in research, calculated based on the content of selected heavy metals in the sap flowing to individual birch organs. This allowed for a more complete description of the transport of elements in the aerial parts of plants, indicating the accumulation of zinc and cadmium, especially in leaves. Among the studied environmental conditions which may affect the accumulation of heavy metals, sandy soil is of particular significance, conditioning lower pH values, among other things. However, analysis of the reaction of birch to the conditions of the soil environment and the content of heavy metals, based on antioxidant properties, demonstrated an evident reaction to stress, but without an unambiguous response among the studied vegetative and generative organs. Conclusions As birch is a plant with wide utility values, monitoring studies are advisable to exclude the risk of accumulation of heavy metals in its organs, and for this purpose it may be useful to use the sTF indicator and assess the antioxidant potential.
Purpose Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by recurrent genetic aberration in leukemic stem cells, namely Philadelphia chromosome caused by reciprocal translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11). In our study, we analyzed the telomeric complex expression and function in the molecular pathogenesis of CML. Methods We employed CD34+ primary leukemic cells, comprising both leukemic stem and progenitor cell populations, isolated from peripheral blood or bone marrow of CML patients in chronic and blastic phase to analyze the telomere length and telomeric-associated proteins. Results The reduction in telomere length during disease progression was correlated with increased expression of BCR::ABL1 transcript and the dynamic changes were neither associated with the enzymatic activity of telomerase nor with gene copy number and expression of telomerase subunits. Increased expression of BCR::ABL1 was positively correlated with expression of TRF2 , RAP1 , TPP1 , DKC1 , TNKS1 , and TNKS2 genes. Conclusions The dynamics of telomere length changes in CD34+ CML cells is dependent on the expression level of BCR::ABL , which promotes the expression of certain shelterins including RAP1 and TRF2 , as well as TNKS , and TNKS2 , and results in telomere shortening regardless of telomerase activity. Our results may allow better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the genomic instability of leukemic cells and CML progression.
Introduction: Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant tumor of the central nervous system in childhood. FTIR spectroscopy provides a holistic view of the chemical composition of biological samples, including the detection of molecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids. This study evaluated the applicability of FTIR spectroscopy as a potential diagnostic tool for MB. Materials and methods: FTIR spectra of MB samples from 40 children (boys/girls: 31/9; age: median 7.8 years, range 1.5-21.5 years) treated in the Oncology Department of the Children's Memorial Health Institute in Warsaw between 2010 and 2019 were analyzed. The control group consisted of normal brain tissue taken from four children diagnosed with causes other than cancer. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues were sectioned and used for FTIR spectroscopic analysis. The sections were examined in the mid-infrared range (800-3500 cm-1) by ATR-FTIR. Spectra were analysed using a combination of principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and absorbance dynamics. Results: FTIR spectra in MB were significantly different from those of normal brain tissue. The most significant differences related to the range of nucleic acids and proteins in the region 800-1800 cm-1. Some major differences were also revealed in the quantification of protein conformations (α-helices, β-sheets, and others) in the amide I band, as well as in the absorbance dynamics in the 1714-1716 cm-1 range (nucleic acids). It was not, however, possible to clearly distinguish between the various histological subtypes of MB using FTIR spectroscopy. Conclusions: MB and normal brain tissue can be distinguished from one another to some extent using FTIR spectroscopy. As a result, it may be used as a further tool to hasten and enhance histological diagnosis.
Introduction: At the turn of March and April 2020, due to the occurrence of COVID-19 in Poland, the first restrictions on the provision of rehabilitation services were introduced. Nevertheless, caregivers strived to ensure that their children could benefit from rehabilitation services. Aim of the study: To determine which of the selected data presented in the media reflecting the intensity of the COVID-19 epidemic in Poland differentiated the level of anxiety and depression in caregivers of children benefiting from neurorehabilitation services. Material and methods: The study group consisted of caregivers of children (n = 454) receiving various neurorehabilitation services in the inpatient ward of Neurological Rehabilitation of Children and Adolescents (n = 200, 44%), in the Neurorehabilitation Day Ward (n = 168, 37%), and in the Outpatient Clinic (n = 86, 19%) of the Clinical Regional Rehabilitation and Education Center in Rzeszow. The average age of the respondents was 37.23 ± 7.14 years. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure the severity of anxiety and depression in caregivers of children. The questionnaires were distributed from June 2020 to April 2021. As a measure of the severity of the COVID-19 epidemic in Poland, the figures presented in the media were adopted. In addition, data on the COVID-19 pandemic presented in the media (Wikipedia, TVP Info, Polsat Nes, Radio Zet) on the day preceding the completion of the survey were analyzed based on statistical analysis methods. Results: 73 of the surveyed caregivers (16.08%) suffered from severe anxiety disorders, and 21 (4.63%) from severe depressive disorders. The average severity of anxiety (HADS) in the subjects was 6.37 points, and the average severity of depression was 4.09 points. There was no statistically significant relationship between the data presented in the media-such as daily number of infections, total number of infections, daily number of deaths, total number of deaths, total number of recoveries, number of hospitalizations, and people under quarantine-and the level of anxiety and depression of the studied caregivers (p > 0.05). Conclusions: It was not found that the selected data presented in the media, showing the intensity of the COVID-19 epidemic in Poland, significantly differentiated the level of anxiety and depression among caregivers of children using neurorehabilitation services. Their motivation to continue the treatment, caused by concern for their children's health, resulted in less severe symptoms of anxiety and depression during the peak period of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Obesity is frequently a significant risk factor for multiple obesity-associated diseases that have been increasing in prevalence worldwide. Anthropometric data such as body mass index, fat, and fat mass values are assessed for obesity. Therefore, we aimed to propose two Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectral regions, 800-1800 cm-1 and 2700- 3000 cm-1 , as sensitive potential band assignments for obesity-related biochemical changes. A total of 134 obese (n=89) and controls (n=45) biochemical characteristics and clinical parameters indicative of obesity were evaluated. The FT-IR spectra of dried blood serum were measured. Anthropometric data of the obese have the highest body mass index, %fat, and fat mass values compared to the healthy group (p<0.01). Also, the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were higher than in healthy subjects (p<0.01). PCA technique successfully distinguished obese and control groups in the fingerprint, accounting for 98.5% and 99.9% of the total variability (800-1800 cm-1 ) and lipids (2700-3000 cm-1 ) regions presented as 2D and 3D score plots. The loading results indicated that peaks corresponding to phosphonate groups, glucose, amide I, and lipid groups were shifted in the obese group, indicating their potential as biomarkers of obesity. This study suggests that FTIR analysis based on PCA can provide a detailed and reliable method for the analysis of blood serum in obese patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Waste biomass generated during agricultural production is a popular source of energy used in many developed and developing countries, due to economic factors and easy availability. Pellets produced from waste biomass generated during the cultivation of plants for industrial purposes are a good substitute for fossil fuels, the consumption of which should decrease for environmental reasons. This article presents the results of research on the use of waste biomass generated during the cultivation of plants for industrial purposes, such as sunflower, tobacco, and Jerusalem artichoke for the production of pellets. In addition, coniferous sawdust was used for the production of pellets. Mechanical, calorimetric, and thermogravimetric properties were tested. It was noted that pellets made of Jerusalem artichoke biomass (1591.45 N) were the most resistant to mechanical damage. The calorific value of the tested fuels ranged from 16.35 to 17.70 MJ·kg−1, and the ash content was below 5%. In addition, during the combustion of pellets, the lowest emissions of nitrogen oxides were recorded for pellets made of tobacco stalks—45.56 mg·m−3 and sulfur dioxide for pellets consisting of a mixture of coniferous sawdust and tobacco stalks—1.88 mg·m−3. The addition of coniferous sawdust to each type of biomass tested resulted in a reduction in the emission of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, and an increase in the emission of nitrogen oxides. Based on the research, we found that the waste biomass generated during the cultivation of the tested plants for industrial purposes is a suitable raw material for the production of pellets used for industrial and non-industrial purposes.
The paper discusses selected mechanisms that can significantly contribute to the formation of dune structures on the surface of comets. In these considerations, mechanisms related to the dynamics of dust on the surface of the nucleus were taken into account. In the first step, the maximum dimensions of particles that can be entrained into the coma as a result of local sublimation of water ice have been determined. Then, three processes related to the movement of dust on the surface of the comet nucleus were considered, such as dust migration, a landslide that can turn into a local avalanche, and fluidization of unstable dust. The thermodynamic process responsible for initiating these mechanisms is ice sublimation. These mechanisms cause the dust to move by liquefaction of the given layer. Due to the complex and regular structure of a cometary nucleus, moving dust can suddenly stop flowing. For individual mechanisms responsible for the formation of dune structures, the maximum angular width for a given particle, particle mobility coefficient and static fluidization pressure were determined. It should be noted that in those parts of the comet nucleus that are illuminated by the Sun, these mechanisms can occur almost simultaneously, leading to the formation of dune structures by piling up particles.
Introduction: COVID-19 is associated with an increased thromboembolic risk. However, the mechanisms triggering clot formation in those patients remain unknown. Patients and methods: In 118 adult Caucasian severe but non-critically ill COVID-19 patients (median age 58 years; 73 % men) and 46 controls, we analyzed in vitro plasma thrombin generation profile (calibrated automated thrombogram [CAT assay]) and investigated thrombophilia-related factors, such as protein C and antithrombin activity, free protein S level, presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A mutations. We also measured circulating von Willebrand factor (vWF) antigen and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13) antigen and activity. In patients, blood samples were collected on admission to the hospital before starting any therapy, including heparin. Finally, we examined the relationship between observed alterations and disease follow-up, such as thromboembolic complications. Results: COVID-19 patients showed 17 % lower protein C activity, 22 % decreased free protein S levels, and a higher prevalence of positive results for IgM anticardiolipin antibodies. They also had 151 % increased vWF, and 27 % decreased ADAMTS13 antigens compared with controls (p < 0.001, all). On the contrary, thrombin generation potential was similar to controls. In the follow-up, pulmonary embolism (PE) occurred in thirteen (11 %) patients. They were characterized by a 55 % elevated D-dimer (p = 0.04) and 2.7-fold higher troponin I (p = 0.002) during hospitalization and 29 % shorter time to thrombin peak in CAT assay (p = 0.009) compared to patients without PE. Conclusions: In COVID-19, we documented prothrombotic abnormalities of peripheral blood. PE was characterized by more dynamic thrombin generation growth in CAT assay performed on admittance to the hospital.
Plant roots, due to a high content of natural antioxidants for many years, have been used in herbal medicine. It has been documented that the extract of Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) has hepatoprotective, calming, antiallergic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Flavonoid compounds found in the extract, including baicalein, have strong antiradical activity, which improves overall health and increases feelings of well-being. Plant-derived bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity have for a long time been used as an alternative source of medicines to treat oxidative stress-related diseases. In this review, we summarized the latest reports on one of the most important aglycones with respect to the pharmacological activity and high content in Baikal skullcap, which is 5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone (baicalein).
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, antibiofilm, antimicrobial (in situ and in vitro), insecticidal, and antiproliferative activity of Cupressus sempervirens essential oil (CSEO) obtained from the plant leaf. The identification of the constituents contained in CSEO was also intended by using GC and GC/MS analysis. The chemical composition revealed that this sample was dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons α-pinene, and δ-3-carene. Free radical scavenging ability, performed by using DPPH and ABTS assays, was evaluated as strong. Higher antibacterial efficacy was demonstrated for the agar diffusion method compared to the disk diffusion method. The antifungal activity of CSEO was moderate. When the minimum inhibitory concentrations of filamentous microscopic fungi were determined, we observed the efficacy depending on the concentration used, except for B. cinerea where the efficacy of lower concentration was more pronounced. The vapor phase effect was more pronounced at lower concentrations in most cases. Antibiofilm effect against Salmonella enterica was demonstrated. The relatively strong insecticidal activity was demonstrated with an LC50 value of 21.07% and an LC90 value of 78.21%, making CSEO potentially adequate in the control of agricultural insect pests. Results of cell viability testing showed no effects on the normal MRC-5 cell line, and antiproliferative effects towards MDA-MB-231, HCT-116, JEG-3, and K562 cells, whereas K562 cells were the most sensitive. Based on our results, CSEO could be a suitable alternative against different types of microorganisms as well as suitable for the control of biofilms. Due to its insecticidal properties, it could be used in the control of agricultural insect pests.
Background The aim of this study was to investigate the role of urine-derived extracellular vesicles (uEVs) in diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods UEVs were characterized by size distribution and microRNA content by next-generation small RNA sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results A subset of sixteen miRNAs enriched in T2DM patients with DKD, including hsa-miR-514a-5p, hsa-miR‑451a, hsa-miR-126-3p, hsa-miR-214, or hsa-miR‑503 was identified. Eight miRNAs as hsa-miR-21-3p, hsa-miR-4792, hsa-miR‑375, hsa-miR-1268a, hsa-miR-501-5p, or hsa-miR-582 were downregulated. Prediction of potential target genes and pathway enrichment analysis of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) confirmed possible functions related to cellular processes such as apoptosis, inflammation, and tissue remodeling, that promote diabetic complications, such as DKD. Among them, hsa-miR-375, hsa-miR-503, and hsa-miR-451a make important contribution. Additionally, downregulated hsa-miR-582-5p has not been reported so far in any diabetes-related pathways. Conclusions This study revealed the most significant miRNAs in uEVs of patients with T2DM. However, as this is a bioinformatic prediction that we performed based on the putative targets of the identified miRNAs. Thus, further in vitro functional studies are needed to confirm our findings. Knowing the fact that EVs are crucial in transferring miRNAs, there is a great need toto discover their involvement in the pathomechanism of T2DM-related kidney disease.
Modern humans have populated Europe for more than 45,000 years1,2. Our knowledge of the genetic relatedness and structure of ancient hunter-gatherers is however limited, owing to the scarceness and poor molecular preservation of human remains from that period³. Here we analyse 356 ancient hunter-gatherer genomes, including new genomic data for 116 individuals from 14 countries in western and central Eurasia, spanning between 35,000 and 5,000 years ago. We identify a genetic ancestry profile in individuals associated with Upper Palaeolithic Gravettian assemblages from western Europe that is distinct from contemporaneous groups related to this archaeological culture in central and southern Europe⁴, but resembles that of preceding individuals associated with the Aurignacian culture. This ancestry profile survived during the Last Glacial Maximum (25,000 to 19,000 years ago) in human populations from southwestern Europe associated with the Solutrean culture, and with the following Magdalenian culture that re-expanded northeastward after the Last Glacial Maximum. Conversely, we reveal a genetic turnover in southern Europe suggesting a local replacement of human groups around the time of the Last Glacial Maximum, accompanied by a north-to-south dispersal of populations associated with the Epigravettian culture. From at least 14,000 years ago, an ancestry related to this culture spread from the south across the rest of Europe, largely replacing the Magdalenian-associated gene pool. After a period of limited admixture that spanned the beginning of the Mesolithic, we find genetic interactions between western and eastern European hunter-gatherers, who were also characterized by marked differences in phenotypically relevant variants.
Guelder rose (Viburnum opulus L.) is known for its health benefits. V. opulus contains phenolic compounds (flavonoids and phenolic acids), a group of plant metabolites with wide biological activities. They are good sources of natural antioxidants in human diets owing to their prevention of the oxidative damage responsible for many diseases. In recent years, observations have shown that an increase in temperature can change the quality of plant tissues. So far, little research has addressed the problem of the common impact of temperature and place of occurrence. Towards a better understanding of phenolics concentration that could indicate their potentials as therapeutic agents and towards predicting and controlling the quality of medicinal plants, the aim of this study was to compare phenolic acids and flavonoids content in the leaves of cultivation and wild collection V. opulus, and to examine the impacts of temperature and place of occurrence on their content and composition. Total phenolics were determined using the spectrophotometric method. Phenolic composition of V. opulus was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The following hydroxybenzoic acids there were identified: gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, syringic, salicylic, benzoic, as well as hydroxycinnamic acids: chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, o-coumaric and t-cinnamic. The analysis of extracts from V. opulus leaves has indicated the presence of the following flavonoids: flavanols: (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin; flavonols: quercetin, rutin, kaempferol, myricetin; and flavones: luteolin, apigenin and chrysin. The dominant phenolic acids were p-coumaric and gallic acids. The major flavonoids found in V. opulus leaves were myricetin and kaempferol. Temperature and plant location affected the concentration of tested phenolic compounds. The present study shows the potential of naturally grown and wild V. opulus for the human.
Background: Delirium is a cognitive disorder that occurs with high frequency in patients in intensive care units and affects patient outcomes. Despite recommendations for monitoring and assessing delirium in the ICU, studies show that it is still not routinely assessed and often remains undiagnosed or misinterpreted as dementia or depression. Aim: The aim of this study was (1) to assess nurses' knowledge and clinical practices regarding delirium, (2) to identify the factors associated with nurses' knowledge, and (3) to define barriers to effective control of delirium. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 371 ICU nurses in Poland. Results: 53.1% of nurses had never been educated on delirium control resulting in a deficit in knowledge of delirium symptoms, risk factors and complications associated with delirium in ICU patients. Master's degree in nursing (vs. Registered nurses + Bachelor's), female gender, and working in university hospital (vs. other) were positively correlated with nurse's knowledge, while age had a negative impact on knowledge. Delirium is a marginalized state in ICU patients, only 16.4% of nurses assessed delirium routinely and 35.8% assessed delirium occasionally, rarely using validated scales. Barriers to effective delirium control were primarily the lack of a requirement to assess delirium, the difficulty of assessing delirium in intubated patients and nurses' lack of confidence in their ability to use delirium assessment tools. Conclusions: There is an urgent need to educate nurses about delirium and to make delirium assessment obligatory in clinical practice. The area of change should also include a hospital policy on delirium monitoring and management. The study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT05384964).
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