As an impact of climate change, water-related disasters, such as floods, are becoming more frequent. In this context, there is an increasing demand to improve the resiliency of urban settlements, using multiple approaches and techniques. This paper assesses one of those techniques, by developing an algorithmic-parametric tool to quantify how urban forestry reduces flood impacts from rainfall runoff. The assessment was comprised by three main methodological steps: (#1) observing the scientific literature on “the sponge effect” observed in green infrastructures; (#2) developing an algorithmic-parametric tool using the Grasshopper application to estimate rainfall runoff, considering the influence of urban forestry design factors; and (#3) performing digital simulations with this parametric tool using a Rhinoceros-Grasshopper interface. Results indicate this method is effective in assessing the efficacy of green interventions to mitigate urban flood damage and also in foreseeing how different design strategies impact urban hydrological dynamics.
Cattle parasitic otitis caused by the nematode Rhabditis spp. is a serious health problem in Brazil, a situation which is confounded by lack of effective control measures. In vitro studies associating biological and chemical control as an alternative method showed promising results. The objective was to evaluate the combined use of Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001), 10% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and 1.9% ivermectin for the in vivo control of Rhabditis spp., in naturally infected Gyr cattle. For this purpose, 48 animals, whose infection in both ears was diagnosed, were randomly assigned to 6 groups: group 1 (ivermectin 1.9%); group 2 (10% DMSO); group 3 (AC001); group 4 (ivermectin 1.9% + 10% DMSO w/v); group 5 (1.9% ivermectin + AC001 w/v); group 6 (10% DMSO + AC001 v/v). The treatments were performed in a single dose, in the right ears, with the left ears remaining untreated, as a control group. There was a significant reduction (p < 0.01) in the number of nematodes in the treated groups in relation to the control, with the following best efficacies: groups 1 and 2, 47% and 52.9%, respectively, 7 days after treatment; groups 3, 4, and 5, 47.8%, 48.6% and 36.7%, respectively, 14 days post-treatment; group 6, 38.4%, 21 days post-treatment. It was concluded that the combination of chemical compounds and D. flagrans in a single application was effective for the in vivo control of Rhabditis spp. in naturally infected cattle.
We assessed the extent of pollution in an essential public water supply reservoir (southeastern Brazil). An environmental monitoring study was performed at the Billings Reservoir (at the water catchment site) to assess the water quality in 2017, 2018, and 2019. Physicochemical parameters were analyzed, quantifying the total cyanobacteria and the cyanotoxins microcystins (MCs) and saxitoxins (SXTs), as well as their possible ecological risk to the aquatic environment. We also determined metals and metalloids (As, Ba, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, and Sb) and fecal bacteria (Escherichia coli). Monthly samplings were performed for 2017, 2018, and 2019 (totaling 36 sampling campaigns). Metals, metalloids, and E. coli values were below the maximum limit allowed by the Brazilian legislation. High concentrations of total cyanobacteria (3.07 × 10⁴ – 3.23 × 10⁵ cells/mL), microcystin variants MC-LR (0.67–23.63 μg/L), MC-LA (0.03–8.66 μg/L), MC-RR (0.56–7.92 μg/L), and MC-YR (0.04–1.24 μg/L), as well as the saxitoxins GTX2 (0.18–5.37 μg/L), GTX3 (0.13–4.40 μg/L), and STX (0.12–2.92 μg/L) were detected. From an ecotoxicological point of view, the estimated values for the risk quotient (RQ) for microcystins and saxitoxins were largely greater than 1, indicating a high risk to aquatic life. Therefore, further efforts need to be made to delay the eutrophication of the reservoir.
Rapid identification of existing respiratory viruses in biological samples is of utmost importance in strategies to combat pandemics. Inputting MALDI FT-ICR MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry) data output into machine learning algorithms could hold promise in classifying positive samples for SARS-CoV-2. This study aimed to develop a fast and effective methodology to perform saliva-based screening of patients with suspected COVID-19, using the MALDI FT-ICR MS technique with a support vector machine (SVM). In the method optimization, the best sample preparation was obtained with the digestion of saliva in 10 μL of trypsin for 2 h and the MALDI analysis, which presented a satisfactory resolution for the analysis with 1 M. SVM models were created with data from the analysis of 97 samples that were designated as SARS-CoV-2 positives versus 52 negatives, confirmed by RT-PCR tests. SVM1 and SVM2 models showed the best results. The calibration group obtained 100% accuracy, and the test group 95.6% (SVM1) and 86.7% (SVM2). SVM1 selected 780 variables and has a false negative rate (FNR) of 0%, while SVM2 selected only two variables with a FNR of 3%. The proposed methodology suggests a promising tool to aid screening for COVID-19.
Background: This study investigated oxidative damage to bone marrow cells in the pathogenesis of renovascular hypertension (RH). Methods: Male C57BL/6 J mice (10-week-old and ~23 g) were divided into two groups: Sham-operated and 2K1C, which has a stainless-steel clip placed around the left renal artery. After twenty-eight days, the animals were anesthetized for hemodynamic measurements and bone marrow cells isolation. The intracellular production of ROS, DNA damage, and DNA repair kinetics were evaluated. Results: Our results show that RH increases HSCs ROS production and that the 2K1C group showed a significant reduction of HSCs in the G0/G1 phase, increased p53 expression, DNA fragmentation, low DNA repair capacity, and a higher percentage of apoptotic cells when compared with the Sham group. Conclusions: Our data imply that RH can compromise the hematopoiesis by increased oxidative stress leading to impaired DNA repair activity. Furthermore, this study provides new insights into the influence of hypertension on bone marrow homeostasis. This study showed for the first time that RH leads to oxidative damage, including genotoxic, to bone marrow cells. Thus, these findings provide new insights into the consequences of RH on bone marrow cells.
The pragmatism of George Herbert Mead has been fundamental to the sociological understanding of the self. However, the complexity of his work is largely unrecognized in the discipline. This mainly affects the way in which Mead intertwined discursivity with the materiality of experience in his conception of human subjectivity. Through a metatheoretical analysis, the present article proposes a straightforward approximation between Mead’s theories of the self and the act to contemplate the incidence of processes encompassed by the latter upon the former. Based on this movement, and after a dialogue with Francis Chateauraynaud’s pragmatic sociology, the article suggests a new Meadian-inspired sociological alternative to the concept of self, attentive to its material dimension and centered on the concepts of outer and inner grasps. The current discussion about the ontological politics in the context of a new mastery of nature allows for an empirical exercise of the argument.
Atualmente, a cidade, marcada por um processo de introversão da vida urbana, é também palco do ativismo social que reconhece os espaços públicos como fundamentais para a qualidade de vida urbana. Nesse contexto, a partir da necessidade de espaços públicos qualificados, a sociedade civil, através de ações colaborativas, toma para si a responsabilidade de transformar espaços ociosos potenciais em locais de interação e convívio. O presente artigo busca refletir sobre o papel dessas intervenções na transformação da cidade, além de compreender a relevância do envolvimento de diferentes atores sociais no processo intitulado, neste trabalho, “microintervenções urbanas colaborativas”. O estudo foi realizado através de revisão bibliográfica sobre práticas criativas de transformação do espaço urbano, além da identificação, mapeamento e análise das microintervenções realizadas no contexto do município de Vitória (Espírito Santo). Com o estudo foi possível observar a participação, nas intervenções, dos atores sociais: sociedade civil, poder público e iniciativa privada, além da identificação de um quarto ator social relevante: os especialistas, com experiência técnica para condução do processo. A partir do estudo, considera-se que a participação de diferentes atores no processo colaborativo interfere positivamente na qualidade das transformações socioespaciais e no posterior sucesso das microintervenções urbanas.
Introdução: As síndromes de deleção são eventos raros na prática clínica. A deleção cromossômica ocorre quando segmentos de informação genética são perdidos em um ou mais cromossomos. A ausência de alguns genes implica em fenótipos variados, cuja explicação detalhada ainda não está totalmente elucidada. Objetivo: Relatar o caso de uma criança com deleção de segmento terminal de 8,9 Mb do braço curto do cromossomo 6 (em 6p25.3p24.3) Métodos: Esse relato de caso foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética e Pesquisa da Instituição. Para sua elaboração, foram adicionados os dados de exames fornecidos pela família do paciente desde o pré-natal até a primeira infânciae a discussão com profissionais relacionados ao caso. Descrição do Caso: B.A.G., criança de dois anos, sexo feminino, filha única de pais não consanguíneos, sem antecedentes na família de doenças similares. Nasceu por cesárea prematura (IG 35 semanas), apresentando Síndrome de Dandy-Walker, tetralogia de Fallot, perímetro cefálico no percentil 97 e fácie sindrômica, com hipertelorismo, baixa implantação das orelhas e opacidades do cristalino bilateralmente. Conclusão: As deleções no cromossomo 6 são alterações genéticas de grande raridade. Até 2004, existiam apenas 43 casos na literatura médica, excluindo a anomalia do cromossomo 6 em anal 31. No que se refere às deleções terminais do braço curto, a do caso em questão - 6p24-pter - foram associadas o atraso no desenvolvimento, malformações cerebrais, anormalidades na câmara anterior do olho, perda auditiva, anormalidades no ouvido, micrognatia e cardiopatias 25.
This article is a study on life trajectories and changes of the self of one single person, following the transformation processes that occurred in Rio de Janeiro’s favelas during the last two decades and focusing on the relationship between Evangelicals and drug traffickers. Based on an ethnography of almost two years in Cidade de Deus favela, the trajectory of a single individual, a former drug dealer and a crack addict who switched between the church and the traffic throughout the fieldwork process, is presented in what can be called sociology of intimate troubles or sociology of self-inquiry, that is, a methodology that aims to capture the actors through their problems.
The tropical mangrove at the Estação Ecológica do Lameirão (Southeastern Brazil), an ecosystem of high socio-economic value, receives a large load of pollutants from domestic, industrial, and agricultural sources. Samples of interstitial water, sediments, and crustacean specimens were collected at different periods and regions throughout the study area to measure the concentrations of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and tin (Sn) along the mangrove, as well as the bioaccumulation behavior in the crab Ucides cordatus. Subsequently, we correlated the accumulation of metals in U. cordatus with the concentrations of metals in the environment and physicochemical and climatic factors. Furthermore, we compared the bioconcentration factors (BFCs) of trace elements with the concentration levels obtained from the mangrove sediment. The fluctuation of rain and tide throughout the study period caused oscillations in the concentrations of trace elements. This condition induced bioconcentration records (BFC > 1), influencing the bioaccumulation trend in U. cordatus. We also identified that the lowest metal concentration values in the sediment were close to the river, indicating that the rivers cause a dilution effect. Finally, we found that the hepatopancreas had the highest levels of bioaccumulated heavy metals, explained by its detoxifying ability. In females of U. cordatus, we found a slightly lower accumulation of trace elements when compared to males, possibly related to the high rate of ecdysis in females. Ucides cordatus is a species widely used for human consumption. Our results show that the mangrove environment influences the concentration of trace elements in this organism, which the authorities should consider in mapping safer fishing areas.
Roads disrupt the canopy and can affect arboreal animals in different ways, such as reducing canopy connectivity, generating habitat loss and degradation, and increasing direct mortality. Since arboreal animals mainly use the canopy for movement, mitigation measures for these species usually focus on maintaining or restoring canopy connectivity to guarantee safe crossings. Here we present a case study of a Brazilian coastal road (ES-060) for which we described the use of a canopy bridge and multiple underpasses by three arboreal mammal species and compared these data with roadkill records of the same species in the vicinity of the crossing structures. Our study includes a 75 m long steel cable canopy bridge, monitored for 3 years, and clusters of different types of underpasses, monitored for 16 years. The use of the crossing structures was monitored with sand track beds installed at entrances on both sides, and roadkill surveys were conducted daily for 16 years. We considered a crossing to be successful if tracks of the same species were recorded on either side of a structure and showed opposite movement trajectories. The canopy bridge survey resulted in an observed rate of 0.16 crossings/month for Callithrix geoffroyi, 7.79 for Coendou insidiosus, and 0.46 for Didelphis aurita, and all types of underpasses combined demonstrated a rate of 0.33, 1.94, and 8.43 crossings/month for each species, respectively. The roadkill surveys resulted in an observed rate of 1.41, 0.78, 2.94 roadkills/month for Callithrix geoffroyi, Coendou insidiosus, and Didelphis aurita, respectively. Even with mitigation structures confirmed to be used by these three species, roadkill hotspots occurred in the road sections with the crossing structures. Our study demonstrated the use of a canopy bridge and different types of underpasses by arboreal mammal species. The canopy bridge was mostly used by Coendou insidiosus, while the underpasses were mainly used by Didelphis aurita. As roadkill hotspots occurred red in the same segments where mitigation crossing structures were installed, our results indicate that some important improvements are needed to mitigate roadkills of arboreal mammals in this area, mainly preventing that these species access the road. We present recommendations for a research agenda to support mitigation planning for arboreal mammals, namely: (1) testing the efficiency of different canopy bridge designs for multispecies mitigation, (2) testing the use of connecting structures, such as ropes that connect to the surrounding forest, to encourage underpass use by arboreal species, and (3) testing fence adaptations to block the access of arboreal mammals to roads.
We aimed to evaluate a Brazilian commercial formulation of the fungus Duddingtonia flagrans (Bioverm®) for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep kept on native pasture in the Caatinga biome, in the semiarid region of Brazil. Twenty ewes, aged between 12 and 18 months, were divided into two groups. In the treated group, each animal received 1 g of the Bioverm® product for each 10 kg of live weight, daily, together with commercial feed, for 6 months. In the control group, the animals received feed without Bioverm®. Each group remained throughout the experiment in a 1.2-ha paddock. Monthly counts of eggs per gram (EPG) of feces, fecal cultures, packed cell volume (PCV), weight measurements, and collection of leaf mass from the pasture were performed. There was greater reduction in EPG, greater weight gain, and less infestation by infective larvae in the paddock of the Bioverm® group, compared with the control group (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) in the mean PCV percentage between the Bioverm® and control groups. In coprocultures, Haemonchus sp. was the most prevalent helminth. Bioverm® (D. flagrans) was efficient for biological control of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes in the semiarid region of Brazil.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and incurable neurodegenerative disorder of integrative areas of the brain, characterized by cognitive decline and disability resulting in negative impacts on the family of the patients and the health care services worldwide. AD involves oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and accelerated apoptosis, accompanied by deposition of amyloid-β peptide plaques and tau protein-based neurofibrillary tangles in the central nervous system. Among the multiple factors that contribute to the onset and evolution of this disease, aging stands out. That is why the prevalence of this disease has increased due to the constant increase in life expectancy. In the hope of finding new, more effective methods to slow the progression of this disease, over the last two decades, researchers have promoted “omics”-based approaches that include the gut microbiota and their reciprocal interactions with different targets in the body. This scientific advance has also led to a better understanding of brain compartments and the mechanisms that affect the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. This review aims to discuss recent advances related to the gut-brain-microbiota axis in AD. Furthermore, considering that AD involves psychiatric symptoms, this review also focuses on the psychiatric factors that interact with this axis (an issue that has not yet been sufficiently addressed in the literature).
O pâncreas é uma glândula mista com funções endócrinas e exócrinas, responsável pela digestão de carboidratos, gorduras e proteínas através de enzimas e controle glicêmico, via hormônios insulina e glucagon. A insuficiência pancreática exócrina (IPE) é uma doença que acontece por deficiência na produção de enzimas digestivas. Em cães se manifesta quando há redução de 90% da produção de lipase devido a perda progressiva e irreversível do tecido acinar, resultando em uma má digestão e absorção. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo relatar um caso de IPE em um canino, ressaltando os sinais clínicos, métodos de diagnóstico e terapia instituída. Foi atendido no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Vila Velha um canino, macho, SRD de um ano e meio com histórico de emagrecimento progressivo há um mês, coprofagia, esteatorreia, aumento de volume fecal e frequência de defecação. Como principal diagnóstico diferencial suspeitou-se de IPE e para tanto foi realizada a dosagem de imunorreatividade semelhante a tripsina canina (cTLI) e dosagem sérica de cobalamina. Os resultados foram consistentes com a suspeita inicial de IPE, pois evidenciaram baixa dosagem de cTLI e cobalamina. O tratamento instituído foi com pancreatina em pó cinco gramas em cada refeição e aplicação de Vitamina B12 por via subcutânea. O paciente apresentou boa resposta ao tratamento com ganho de peso, normorexia e normoquesia. Conclui-se que os sinais clínicos juntamente com a dosagem de cTLI foram fundamentais para obtenção do diagnóstico definitivo e a terapia instituída foi eficaz para a remissão dos sinais clínicos.
The mushroom Lentinula edodes, known as shiitake, has the potential to control plant diseases. However, there is no work that mentions the nematicidal activity of the SMC from shiitake. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the nematicidal potential of L. edodes spent mushroom compost (SMC) on Panagrellus spp. SMC action on Panagrellus spp. larvae was evaluated in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar (WA2%). In comparison to the control group, the number of intact larvae in the group treated with SMC of L. edodes was significantly (p<0,01) reduced by 77, 73, 71% after 24, 48 and 72 exposure period respectively. The current study presents the possibility of using an agroindustrial residue (SMC) of low cost to control nematodes. SMC has nematicidal activity and may in the future be beneficially used in other sustainable approaches.
The objective of this study was to investigate the immunolabelling of acetylated histones and histone desacetylase (HDAC) enzymes in canine soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) and to correlate them with histological and clinical features in order to identify possible prognostic and therapeutic targets in these neoplasms. Fifteen canine STS samples were evaluated and were submitted to immunohistochemistry for acetylated histones 3 (H3) and 4 (H4) and deacetylating enzymes (HDAC1, HDAC2 and HDAC6). Intense immunolabelling of H4 was seen in comparison with H3. A strong positive correlation was observed between the H3 intensity score and the number of mitotic figures (P = 0.004, r = 0.7). Intense immunolabelling of HDAC1 was found in comparison to the expression of HDAC2 and HDAC6 in the evaluated STSs. This finding suggests that HDAC1 may be a potential target for HDAC inhibitors in STSs in dogs.
Plant diseases and insect pests are among the main factors that limit the world agroforestry production, and possible control measures of phytopathogens and insects include the use of chemical pesticides, although major concerns about their effects on human health and the environment limit their use. Biological control of pests and plant diseases through biocontrol agents, such as microorganisms, has been increasingly used, especially as a eco-friendly approach to the environment, and meeting demand of food products free from agrochemical residues. These microorganisms can be easily isolated by conventional methods and used mainly due to their ease of cultivation. Thus, this chapter presents the main microbial biocontrol agents of pests and plant diseases, and the mechanisms associated, as well as a discussion about the economic impacts of biological control.
Abstract Jabuticaba is a fruit sensory appreciated and has significant nutritional and functional value. However, it is quite perishable, and its use is interesting for the preparation of other products such as fermented jabuticaba, from a nutritional, biological and technological point of view. This study evaluated the interference of maceration time over antioxidant capacity, volatile compounds profile and temporal dominant sensation of fermented jabuticaba. Four different treatments of fermented jabuticaba in different fermentation times were prepared (96, 120, 144 and 168 h). After preparation, total monomeric anthocyanin content, total antioxidant activity by 2,2-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and iron reduction method, volatile compounds profile by gas chromatography and sensory analysis of temporal dominance of sensations were performed of fermented jabuticaba. The highest concentration of total anthocyanins (25.81 mg/100 g) and antioxidant activity (78.34 μmol Trolox/g e 84.69 μM FeSO4/g) of jabuticaba is in its skin. Regarding the antioxidant activity by FRAP method, the fermented beverages presented higher value than the whole fruit. However, after 96 h of maceration, the values decreased, followed by an increase after 144 h. In all maceration times the predominant sensation was acidic taste, initially and then astringency, the most persistent sensation in all treatments. However, there was a downward trend in this sensation with the increase in maceration time, as well as isoamyl alcohol content.
Este trabalho discute a constituição do homicídio como problema público, analisando sua percepção a partir de reportagens jornalísticas de diferentes momentos históricos até a emergência dos Mapas da violência. Tomando o caso do Espírito Santo como exemplo, o texto problematiza a construção de diagnósticos por parte dos programas de governo que buscam enfrentar o homicídio, apontando os limites da crítica desses documentos. Por fim, discute a gestão da vida e da morte pelo Estado, argumentando que a constituição do homicídio como problema público se insere no contexto geral da ação estatal a partir de um enfrentamento lateral.
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