Departments View all
Recent Publications View all
- SourceAvailable from: sciencedirect.com[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Winterization is a method to modify the characteristics of oils and fats to provide added value by concentrating the unsaturated fatty acids. The purpose of this study is to characterize a residue from pork processing and evaluate two different fractionation methods via winterization. Furthermore, the fatty-acid composition and the chemical characterization were determined from the grease waste and the fractions obtained after fractionation. The untreated grease waste showed an acidity index of 0.57 mg KOH/g, a peroxide value of 10.74 mEq/kg, 56.45% unsaturated fatty acids and 43.55% saturated fatty acids, with the predominance of oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. The experiment, which was performed in two cooling stages and stirred at 600 rpm, showed a decrease of 27.89% in the saturated fatty-acid content, which predominantly consisted of oleic, palmitic and stearic fatty acids. The winterization process improved the quality of the grease waste, reduced the peroxide value and concentrated the unsaturated fatty acids.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Prisoners have among the highest incidence of tuberculosis (TB) globally. However, the contribution of the prison environment on transmission is not well understood and structural characteristics have received little attention as effective epidemiological interventions in TB control. We evaluated architectural characteristics and estimated ventilation rates in 141 cells in three prisons in central west Brazil using steady-state exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. We used a modified Wells-Riley equation to estimate the probability of infection for inmates sharing a cell with an infectious case and projected the impact of interventions, including early diagnosis and improved ventilation. Overall, prison cells were densely populated (mean 2.1 m(2) per occupant) and poorly ventilated, with only three cells meeting World Health Organization (WHO) standards for per-person ventilation (60 L/s) applied in infection control settings. In the absence of interventions, projected median risk of infection was 78.0% during a 6-month period. Decreasing time-to-diagnosis by 25% reduced transmission risk by 8.3%. Improving ventilation to WHO standards decreased transmission by 38.2%, whereas optimizing cross-ventilation reduced transmission by 64.4%. Prison environments promote high infection risk over short-time intervals. In this context, enhanced diagnostics have a limited impact on reducing transmission. Improving natural ventilation may be required to effectively control TB in prisons. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Information provided on this web page is aggregated encyclopedic and bibliographical information relating to the named institution. Information provided is not approved by the institution itself. The institution’s logo (and/or other graphical identification, such as a coat of arms) is used only to identify the institution in a nominal way. Under certain jurisdictions it may be property of the institution.
Rg score distribution
No data available.