One nucleotide substitution in codon 217 of HLA‐DRB1*09:31:01 results in a novel allele HLA‐DRB1*09:31:02. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Nucleotide substitutions in exon 2 of DRB1*08:34 result in the novel DRB1*08:113 allele. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
One nucleotide substitution in codon 107 of HLA‐DRB1*07:01:01:01 results in a novel allele HLA‐DRB1*07:136. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and causes great mortality. ALI presents with overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines, cell death, destruction of alveoli-endothelial barriers, and neutrophil infiltration in lung tissues. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are molecules released from damaged cells due to infection, trauma, etc. DAMPs activate innate and adaptive immunity, trigger inflammatory responses, and are important in the initiation and development of ALI. We reviewed the literatures on DAMPs in ALI. Alveolar macrophages (AMs), neutrophils, and epithelial cells (AECs) are important in the pathogenesis of ALI. We comprehensively analyzed the interaction between DAMPs and AMs, alveolar neutrophils, and AECs. During the initial stage of ALI, ruptured cell membranes or destroyed mitochondria release DAMPs. DAMPs activate the inflammasome in nearby sentinel immune cells, such as AMs. AMs produce IL-1β and other cytokines. These mediators upregulate adhesion molecules of the capillary endothelium that facilitate neutrophil recruitment. The recruited neutrophils detect DAMPs using formyl peptide receptors on the membrane, guiding their migration to the injured site. The accumulation of immune cells, cytokines, chemokines, proteases, etc., results in diffuse alveolar damage and pulmonary hyperpermeability with protein-rich fluid retention. Some clinical studies have shown that patients with ALI with higher circulating DAMPs have higher mortality rates. In conclusion, DAMPs are important in the initiation and progression of ALI. The interactions between DAMPs and AMs, neutrophils, and AECs are important in ALI. This review comprehensively addresses the mechanisms of DAMPs and their interactions in ALI.
Dry eye disease (DED) is a common disorder. The first-line treatment typically involves lubricating eye drops, which, however, are less effective for evaporative DED, implying the need for a new artificial tear component. This study investigates whether zwitterionic poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate) (polyCBMA) protects the cornea from desiccation. Human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) pretreated with zwitterionic polyCBMA were shifted to desiccative conditions with minimal medium coverage for evaluation of their viability. Additionally, zwitterionic polyCBMA was applied to a hyperevaporative animal model, and the corneal epithelium was evaluated by fluorescein staining. We found that HCECs incubated with zwitterionic polyCBMA were more resistant to desiccating stress. Furthermore, topical pretreatment of the cornea with polyCBMA significantly decreased fluorescein punctate staining, indicating less corneal epithelial damage. In conclusion, zwitterionic polyCBMA could protect the corneal epithelium from desiccating damage, highlighting its clinical value as a supplement in eye drops for patients with DED.
The experience of a life‐threatening illness, such as cancer, can have an array of health impacts and social and psychological well‐being can be comprised. This study compared differences in unmet care needs, social support, and hope of Taiwanese women with either newly diagnosed (n = 72) or recurring (n = 39) gynaecological cancer at baseline (T0) and three follow‐up surveys every two months (T1; T2; T3). Sociodemographic questions and three standardized self‐administered questionnaires were used. The Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) method was used to analyse data. Women with recurrent cancer reported higher levels of care needs and lower levels of hope than those with a primary diagnosis. Significant positive correlations between social support and hope scores were observed for women with recurring cancer at T1 and T2. However, these women reported less hope at T3 compared to those with a primary diagnosis. Routine assessment of women’s care needs related to their medical condition and provision of different kinds of support can aim to improve well‐being and their hope for the future.
One nucleotide substitution at codon 217 of HLA‐DRB1*16:02:01:01 results in a novel allele, HLA‐DRB1*16:02:11. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Background: Sham feeding with products such as chewing gum has been theorized to decrease the incidence and time to resolution of postoperative ileus. The conflicting findings in the literature on this subject are because in part of the use of mixed study populations, which has led to difficulties in assessing the value of sham feeding in ameliorating this condition. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of postsurgical gum chewing in restoring normal bowel movement in patients with colorectal cancer who had undergone abdominal surgery for colon resection. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was used to examine the time to first postoperative flatus and defecation. The intervention group (n = 30) received xylitol chewing gum on the first day after colon resection, one piece of gum for 15 minutes, 3 times daily, until the time to first flatus and defecation. Both the intervention and control groups (n = 30) received standard postoperative care and were encouraged to walk as soon as possible after surgery. The time to first flatus was reported by patients. Results: The time to first flatus and defecation in the intervention group was significantly shorter than that in the control group (39.13 ± 15.66 vs. 52.92 ± 21.97 hours and 54.55 ± 18.90 vs. 77.98 ± 34.59 hours, respectively). However, after controlling for age and surgical duration, only time to first flatus was significantly shorter in the intervention group. Significantly positive correlations were found between time to first flatus and time to first defecation in both groups. Conclusions/implications for practice: In this study, gum chewing was shown to have a positive effect on the time to first postoperative flatus and defecation. This inexpensive and noninvasive intervention may be recommended to decrease the time to resolution of postsurgical ileus in middle-aged and older patients who have undergone open abdominal surgery for colorectal resection.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disease that results in joint destruction and disability in the adult population. RA is characterized by the accumulation and proliferation of fibroblast‐like synoviocytes. Many pro‐inflammatory mediators are associated with RA, such as interleukin (IL)‐1β, IL‐6, IL‐17, cyclooxygenase‐2 (COX‐2), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF‐κB). Furthermore, IL‐17 upregulates the production of other pro‐inflammatory mediators, including IL‐1β and IL‐6, and promotes the recruitment of neutrophils in RA. Artemisia argyi, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, is used for the treatment of diseases associated with inflammation and microbial infections. In this study, synoviocytes (HIG‐82) were treated with varying doses of A. argyi extract (AAE) following IL‐17A stimulation. Proliferation of the IL‐17A‐stimulated cells was increased compared to that of the non‐stimulated control cells. However, cell proliferation decreased significantly in a dose‐dependent manner following AAE treatment. Treatment of IL‐17A‐stimulated cells with AAE resulted in decreased levels of phosphorylated (p)‐NF‐κB, p‐IκB‐α, and COX‐2. Enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay results showed that IL‐1β and IL‐6 levels were increased in the IL‐17A‐stimulated group but decreased in the AAE treatment group. Additionally, we found that AAE facilitated nuclear factor erythroid 2‐related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression and promoted its nuclear translocation, thereby inducing the expression of heme oxygenase‐1. Moreover, AAE did not attenuate IL‐17A‐induced inflammatory mediator production in the presence of ML385, an Nrf2‐specific inhibitor. These results suggest that the downregulation of expression of pro‐inflammatory cytokines and the transcription factor NF‐κB by AAE may be a potential therapeutic strategy for reducing inflammation associated with RA.
Background: The incidence of ischemic stroke (IS) is much higher among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) compared to the general population. Few studies have evaluated the association between the risk of IS and the use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in patients with CKD. We aimed to investigate the risk of IS among patients with CKD using CHM as add-on therapy. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database to assess 21,641 patients with newly diagnosed CKD between 2003 and 2012. Patients were classified as either the CHM (n = 3,149) or the non-CHM group ( n = 3,149) based on whether they used CHM after first diagnosis of CKD. We used the proportional subdistribution hazards model of Fine and Gray to examine the hazard ratio (HR) of IS in propensity-score matched samples at a ratio of 1:1 for two groups. Results: The risk of IS was significantly reduced in the CHM group (adjusted HR [aHR]: 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.48–0.70) compared with the non-CHM group. Those who used CHM for >180 days had an even lower risk of IS than those in the non-CHM group (aHR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.41–0.63). Additionally, frequently prescribed formulae, such as Ji-Sheng-Shen-Qi-Wan, Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan, and Zhen-Wu-Tang were associated with a 30%–50% reduced risk of IS. Conclusion: Our results suggest that patients with CKD who used CHM as add-on therapy had a lower hazard of IS than those in the non-CHM group, especially for patients taking CHM for >180 days. Further experimental studies are required to clarify the causal relationship.
One nucleotide substitution in codon 141 of HLA-B*52:01:01:01 results in a novel allele HLA-B*52:109. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Aging is accompanied by functional loss of many cellular pathways, creating an increased risk of many age-related complications (ARC). Aging causes stem cell exhaustion with a concomitant increase in cellular dysfunction. Recently, interest in senotherapeutics has been growing rapidly to promote healthy aging and as an intervention for ARCs. This research focused on screening the senomorphic properties of Artemisia argyi, as an emerging strategy for longevity, and prevention or treatment of ARCs. In this study, we aimed to find the clinical efficacy of daily consumption of Artemisia argyi water extract (AAW) on aging. In vitro 0.1μM Doxorubicin induced senescent human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells was treated with different concentrations of AAW to show its anti-aging effect. 15 months old SHR rats (n=6) were treated with 7.9 mg/ml AAW for 4 weeks and anti-aging effect was evaluated. In vitro study showed the protective effect of AAW in telomere shortening and helps in maintaining a balance in the expression of anti-aging protein Klotho and TERT. AAW effectively reduced mitochondrial superoxide and also provided a protective shield against senescence markers like over-expression of p21 and formation of double strand breaks, which is known to cause premature aging. Moreover, animal studies indicated that AAW promoted the expression of Klotho in naturally aging rats. In addition, AAW successfully restored the decline cardiac function and improved the grip strength and memory of aging rat. These findings showed that therapeutic targeting of senescent stem cells by AAW restored stem cell homeostasis and improves overall health.
Background Post-stroke hemiparesis strongly affects stroke patients’ activities of daily living and health-related quality of life. Scalp acupuncture (SA) is reportedly beneficial for post-stroke hemiparesis. However, there is still no standard of SA for the treatment of post-stroke hemiparesis. Apriori algorithm-based association rule analysis is a kind of “if-then” rule-based machine learning method suitable for investigating the underlying rules of acupuncture point/location selections. This study aimed to investigate the core SA combinations for the treatment of post-stroke hemiparesis by using a systematic review and Apriori algorithm-based association rule analysis. Methods We conducted a systematic review to include relevant randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies investigating the effects of SA treatment in treating patients with post-stroke hemiparesis, assessed by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) score. We excluded studies using herbal medicine or manual acupuncture. Results We extracted 33 SA locations from the 35 included RCT studies. The following SA styles were noted: International Standard Scalp Acupuncture (ISSA), WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations (SAPL), Zhu’s style SA, Jiao’s style SA, and Lin’s style SA. Sixty-one association rules were investigated based on the integrated SA location data. Conclusions SAPL_GV20 (Baihui), SAPL_GV24 (Shenting), ISSA_MS6_i (ISSA Anterior Oblique Line of Vertex-Temporal, lesion-ipsilateral), ISSA_MS7_i (ISSA Posterior Oblique Line of Vertex-Temporal, lesion-ipsilateral), ISSA_PR (ISSA Parietal region, comprised of ISSA_MS5, ISSA_MS6, ISSA_MS7, ISSA_MS8, and ISSA_MS9), and SAPL_Ex.HN3 (Yintang) can be considered the core SA location combination for the treatment of post-stroke hemiparesis. We recommend a core SA combination for further animal studies, clinical trials, and treatment strategies.
We aimed to investigate the impact of common diseases and habits on daytime sleepiness in adults. We retrospectively collected the clinical and overnight polysomnographic data of 2829 adults. The impact of common diseases and habits on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was analyzed by univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses. The mean ESS score was 6.2 (standard deviation = 4.3; range = 0–24) for all adults. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that dyslipidemia, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), liver cirrhosis, alcohol drinking, and tea consumption had a significantly positive association with ESS score for all adults after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, apnea–hypopnea index, sleep efficiency, percentage of sleep N3 stage, and depression. Subgroup analysis by sex showed that AMI, liver cirrhosis, alcohol drinking, and tea consumption had significantly positive association with ESS scores in males, whereas only dyslipidemia had significantly positive association with ESS scores in females. Subgroup analysis by age showed that alcohol drinking had a significantly positive association with ESS scores in young adults. AMI had a significantly positive association with ESS scores, but chronic kidney disease had a significantly negative association with ESS scores in middle-aged adults. Furthermore, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, and cancers had a significantly positive association with ESS scores in older adults. Dyslipidemia, AMI, liver cirrhosis, alcohol drinking, and tea consumption had a significantly positive association with daytime sleepiness in adults but differed by sex and age.
Leiomyoma is the most common benign neoplasm of the reproductive organs in women. Retroperitoneal hydropic leiomyoma is rare type of myoma. Herein, we present the case of a 46-year-old (gravida 0) woman with retroperitoneal hydropic leiomyoma that was preoperatively diagnosed as an ovarian cyst. Transvaginal sonography and abdominal computed tomography revealed a mass, measuring 8.1 × 3.8 cm , with solid and cystic components in the right pelvic cavity. The patient underwent laparoendoscopic single-site surgery for the tumor excision. During the surgery, a retroperitoneal cystic tumor was resected from the right retroperitoneal cavity. Histopathologic and microscopic examinations revealed a hydropic leiomyoma with infarction. This case is impressive because of the rare location and hydropic degeneration of the leiomyoma. Furthermore, it mimicked an ovarian cyst at its initial presentation making accurate diagnosis difficult. By warning of this case, surgeons can recognize the disease entities and provide the necessary treatment.
The in situ transformation of low-toxicity precursors into a chemotherapeutic agent at a tumor site to enhance the efficacy of its treatment has long been an elusive goal. In this work, a zinc-based zeolitic imidazolate framework that incorporates pharmaceutically acceptable precursors is prepared as a nanoreactor (NR) system for the localized synthesis of an antitumor drug. The as-prepared NRs are administered intratumorally in a tumor-bearing mouse model and then irradiated with ultrasound (US) to activate the chemical synthesis. The US promotes the penetration of the administered NRs into the tumor tissue to cover the lesion entirely, although some NRs leak into the surrounding normal tissue. Nevertheless, only the tumor tissue, where the H2O2 concentration is high, is adequately exposed to the as-synthesized antitumor drug, which markedly impedes development of the tumor. No significant chemical synthesis is detected in the surrounding normal tissue, where the local H2O2 concentration is negligible and the US irradiation is not directly applied. The as-proposed tumor-specific in situ synthesis of therapeutic molecules induces hardly any significant in vivo toxicity and, thus, is potentially a potent biocompatible approach to precision chemotherapy.
The adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (A-FABP) is predominantly expressed in macrophages and adipocytes and is an essential mediator of inflammation and atherosclerosis pathogenesis. Atherosclerosis is an aggravating factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Our study intended to study the association between PAD and serum A-FABP levels in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. One hundred and twenty T2DM subjects were enrolled in the study. Fasting blood samples were collected to determine biochemical data and A-FABP levels. By the automatic oscillometric method, the ankle–brachial index (ABI) was measured. Low ABI was defined as any value < 0.9. Twenty participants with T2DM (16.7%) were included in the low ABI group. Low ABI T2DM participants had an increased mean body mass index, body fat mass, systolic blood pressure, C-reactive protein, urine albumin–creatinine ratio, and A-FABP levels compared to those in the normal ABI group. After variables significantly associated with PAD were adjusted by multivariate logistic regression analyses, circulating A-FABP levels (odds ratio [OR]: 1.138; 95 percent confidence interval [CI]: 1.023–1.266; p = 0.017) were identified as the independent marker of PAD. In conclusion, fasting serum A-FABP value has positive association with PAD in T2DM patients.
One nucleotide substitution in codon 152 of HLA‐A*02:06:01:01 results in a novel allele HLA‐A*02:99:01. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Nucleotide substitutions in codons 11 and 12 of HLA‐A*26:01:01:01 result in a novel allele, HLA‐A*26:35. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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