Tunghai University
  • Taichung, Taiwan
Recent publications
In this study, the degradation of Methylene Blue (MB) dye accompanied with the reduction of CO 2 was performed in an electrochemical (EC) process by using carbon nanotubes grown on carbon fiber (CNTs/CF M ) electrodes as the cathode and anode in a two-compartment electrochemical cell. The growth of CNTs on CF M via chemical vapor deposition led to the significant improvement in physicochemical properties of CNTs/CF M which were beneficial for the EC process. The effects of various operating parameters including supporting electrolytes (KHCO 3 and H 2 SO 4 ), initial concentration of MB (5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L − 1 ) and applied currents (10, 50 and 100 mA) on the degradation of MB were investigated. The results confirmed the vital influence of applied current and initial concentration of MB while the supporting electrolytes played a minor role in MB degradation. On the contrary, the influence of electrolytes in the performance of CO 2 reduction was more significant on the production and selectivity of generated products. The optimal electrochemical system included 0.1 M KHCO 3 as the electrolyte and an applied current of 50 mA in anodic cell and CO 2 saturated solution in cathodic cell; such a system resulted in the EC degradation efficiency of 72% at the MB initial concentration of 10 mg L − 1 in the anodic cell and production of 4.7 mM cm − 2 CO, 67 mM cm − 2 H 2 , and 11.3 mg L − 1 oxalic acid in the cathodic cell corresponding to the Faradaic efficiencies of 28, 40 and 4%, respectively. The results of reusability test deduced that the stability of CNTs/CF M was still satisfactory after 4 runs. The results of this study demonstrated the good applicability of CNTs/CF M to be simultaneously used the electrodes for the EC oxidation of dye and the EC reduction of CO 2 to obtain valuable compounds.
To obtain immunomodulatory peptides from isolated soy protein (ISP), pepsin was selected to prepare hydrolysates and 4-h treatment (Pepsin-ISPH4h) showed the highest yield and immunomodulatory activities. The Pepsin-ISPH4h was sequentially fractionated by 30, 10 and 1-kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) membranes, in which 1-kDa MWCO permeate (1P) exhibited the most significant enhancement of phagocytosis activity without causing excessive inflammation as compared with Pepsin-ISPH4h. To further purify and enhance the immunomodulatory activity, 1P was distinct by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a reverse-phase column and in vivo immunomodulatory activity of fractions was examined in mice. Fraction 1 (F1) significantly elevated phagocytosis activity of mice spleen macrophages and neutrophils. However, increase of phagocytosis activity did not result from the induction of macrophages M1 or M2 polarization. The immunomodulatory peptide sequence, EKPQQQSSRRGS, from F1 was identified by LC–MS/MS. Phagocytosis activity and macrophage M1 polarization were elevated by synthetic peptide treatment. Hence, our results indicated that isolated soy protein hydrolysates prepared by pepsin could provide a source of peptides with immunomodulatory effects. Graphical Abstract
Lignocellulosic and algal biomass feedstocks are the most plentiful and cost-effective renewable sources of biofuels (sugar, bioethanol, biodiesel, and bio-oil), value-added chemicals (organic compounds), and advanced materials (hydrogels and composites). The lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose complex's recalcitrance, which leads to ineffective conversion into valuable compounds, is one of the most significant challenges in biomass valorization. Some ionic liquids (ILs) have been shown to be efficient decomposers of lignocellulosic and algal biomass. In reality, ILs offer a unique green alternative compared to harmful volatile organic solvents and severe process conditions. Enhanced productivity in the conversion of biomass feedstocks could result from advancements in IL-based pretreatment technologies. The capability of the different types of ILs for conversion, as well as the impact of different properties and operating parameters, are comprehensively reviewed and discussed in this paper. The known methods for the dissolution of three main components of lignocellulosic and algal biomass with ILs are also described. Furthermore, the challenges to be addressed when utilizing IL for biomass pretreatment and processing on a commercial scale are highlighted. The significant promise of ionic liquids for this objective is anticipated to stimulate research and lead to considerable technological advancements in this field.
Global concern about energy security, climate change, and increasing waste have propelled the utilization of waste-to-energy technologies. Gasification is a robust thermochemical process that can handle a diverse range of biomass feedstocks and residues with various physicochemical properties while producing several value-added bioproducts and bioenergy. Meanwhile, the use of thermogravimetric analysis to determine the sample mass loss rate under a high-temperature gasification environment is a promising way to understand the chemical reactions, reactivities, and kinetic parameters of the thermochemical processes. This review focuses on the benefits of utilizing thermogravimetry for the biomass gasification process, with particular attention paid to the determination of kinetic parameters such as the pre-exponential coefficient and activation energies, resulting from model-fitting and model-free approaches. Relevant gasification parameters such as onset temperatures, residence times, and other important findings are also reported. Future trends are opined to be leaned towards the more extensive blending of biomass feedstocks with either coal, wastes, or other types of biomass, and the applications of artificial intelligence to improve data processing, prediction, and optimization of gasifier designs. This study also underlines integration with other modern analytical equipment to better characterize product evolution.
Herein, catalytic effects of Zn and Mo-loaded HZSM-5 on pyrolysis of food waste (FW) under methane (CH4) and a hydrogen (H2)-rich gas stream derived from catalytic CH4 decomposition (CH4-D) over a Ni–La2O3–CeO2/Al2O3 were explored as a method to produce high-value biochemicals such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). The CH4-D pyrolysis medium led to a higher BTEX yield than a typical pyrolysis medium (e.g., nitrogen) and CH4 medium because it provided a H2-rich environment during the FW pyrolysis (e.g., H2/CO2 ratio = 1.01), thereby facilitating hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation of pyrolytic vapors evolved from FW. The H2-rich environment also helped to reduce coke deposition on the catalyst. Under CH4-D environment, a bimetallic Zn–Mo catalyst supported on HZSM-5 (Zn–Mo/HZSM-5) maximized the BTEX yield (19.93 wt.%) compared to HZSM-5 and monometallic Zn and Mo catalysts. This is most likely because the bimetallic catalyst possessed the highest number of total acid sites among all the tested catalysts. The high acidity and H2-rich media (CH4-D) synergistically promoted aromatization, hydrodeoxygenation, and hydrodealkylation reactions, which enhanced the BTEX yield. The Zn–Mo/HZSM-5-catalyzed FW pyrolysis under CH4-D environment would be an eco-friendly and sustainable strategy to transform unmanageable organic waste (e.g., FW) into high-value biochemicals such as bioaromatics.
Drying is an important but energy-intensive industrial process, while spent coffee grounds can be used as an abundant and potential biomass waste to replace part of the coal consumption for green fuel production and circular economy. In this study, an energy-saving strategy for efficiently drying spent coffee grounds (SCGs) by adding hygroscopic water chestnut shell biochar with 422% water holding capacity is developed. It is found that the contributions of the thermal conductivity and hygroscopicity of the biochar on the moisture removal of the SCG exhibit a competitive relationship. The hygroscopicity is dominant when the drying temperature is below 50 ℃, whereas the thermal conductivity reigns over the drying process once the drying temperature is equal to or above 50 ℃. To prevent mildew growth with lower drying cost at 105 ℃, the optimum trade-off outcomes of CSCG (i.e., the mixture of SCG and biochar) are the moisture content, water activity, and HHV of 21.71%, 0.60 aw, and 18.88 MJ kg⁻¹, respectively. The S/C mixing ratio of 1 at 105 ℃ and around 20% moisture content has the lowest drying cost of 2.3 × 10⁻⁵ USD g⁻¹, which reduces 44% cost compared to SCG with the same conditions. Overall, it was demonstrated that water chestnut shell biochar is a good additive to achieve the energy-saving drying process of SCG, and the dried SCG can be used as a coal co-firing fuel.
In recent years, there has been considerable attention to renewable energy resources for environmental protection to handle and treat food wastes and organic wastes. Anaerobic digestion is a promising option to manage and treat food and organic wastes. Biogas plants will act as energy suppliers and fertilizers to protect our environment. This paper will give an overview of the research achievements and technologies of biogas plants in recent years. This article mainly focuses on characterization, fabrication, and factors that affect biogas production over the years. The major factors like temperature, hydraulic retention time, pH, and organic loading rate will play major roles in production efficiency. Pretreatment technologies and additives inhibition will promote biogas yield., This paper will review different pretreatments and additives followed. There are several microbes found in nature, and these microbes will directly stimulate the action of a particular enzyme to increase efficiency, which can easily reduce the hydraulic retention time. The presence of microbial cultures and bacterial species such as acetomycetes increased methane generation while lowering COD levels.
Oxidative torrefaction is a promising way for biomass upgrading and solid biofuel production. Alkali metals are considered to be efficient activators for enhancing biofuel upgrading during the thermal reaction process. Herein, the microalga Nannochloropsis Oceanica is selected as the feedstock for assessing potassium carbonate activated effect on solid biofuel production through oxidative torrefaction. The potential of potassium carbonate on microalgal biofuel properties upgrading is deeply explored. SEM observation and BET analysis show that torrefied microalgae can be transformed from a spherical structure with wrinkles to smaller particles with larger surface areas and higher total pore volumes, implying that potassium carbonate is a promising porogen. Moreover, potassium carbonate can significantly change the DTG curve at the temperatures of 250 °C and 300 °C from one peak to two peaks, inferring that the activated effect of potassium carbonate occurs on the torrefied microalgae. ¹³C NMR analysis reveals that the microalgal components significantly change as the torrefaction severity increases, with the decomposition of carbohydrate and protein components. When the potassium carbonate ratio increases from 0:1 to 1:1, the graphitization degree increase from 3.065 to 1.262, along with the increase in the HHV of solid biofuel from 25.024 MJ kg⁻¹ to 31.890 MJ kg⁻¹. In total, this study has comprehensively revealed the activated effect of potassium carbonate on improving the properties of microalgal solid biofuel.
Biomass is a potential renewable energy source as it is abundantly available and does not cost much. However, some property characteristics, such as high moisture content, low energy yield, and inefficient storage and handling operations, make raw biomass less feasible for utilization. To curtail this limitation, it needs to be pretreated before being converted into an energy-efficient fuel. Torrefaction proves to be one such method of conversion wherein the raw biomass is subjected to a temperature range of 200–300 °C with the medium being limited oxygen or inert such as nitrogen and results in solid biofuels with upgraded physicochemical properties such as higher energy density, lower moisture, higher calorific value, hydrophobic nature, and better grindability. Torrefied biomass may be utilized as an alternative to conventional fuel for different industries (e.g., power, steel, sugar, etc.) and plays a significant role in reducing environmental pollution and dependency on fossil fuels. A lot of research is ongoing on torrefaction to compile this technology globally. Hence, this review paper presents an overview of recent advances in torrefaction technology. In addition, factors governing the torrefaction reaction mechanism and various reactors utilized for torrefaction are discussed in detail, along with environmental and economic aspects of the torrefaction process. Moreover, a technology readiness level (TRL) approach has also been discussed, highlighting the possible scenarios based on the existing setups. Lastly, the potential applications are discussed, thereby concluding this work.
decades. Studies revealed that by 2050, global solid waste generation is expected to reach 70% to 3.4 billion metric tons. Thus, the authorities urgently need to provide a low-cost, efficient technology for treating waste disposal. However, it is evident that only 20% of waste is recycled, and the remaining is still being considered for landfilling. In developing countries, the generated waste is simply disposed of in an open area, which causes a severe threat to humans, animals, and the environment. To date, organic waste and fourth-generation biomass have been investigated for multiple targeted products. Thus, the present review article highlights the emerging problems in organic waste generation, management, and converting them into various value-added bioproducts. This review also deals with the conversion of multiple biofuels such as liquid, solid, gaseous, and bioelectricity from organic waste resources. Besides, the latest approaches in organic waste are also detailly addressed for the production of value-added bioproducts such as bioplastic, bio-compost, and organic acids. Furthermore, the techno-economic analysis (TEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) of organic waste is also explored. The transformation of organic waste to value-added bioproducts enhances the circular bioeconomy approach by reducing waste, increasing energy production, and other healthcare products. Finally, it is concluded that the utilization of organic waste to value-added bioproducts and biofuels production will be helpful in achieving high energy security, environmental protection, as well as enhancing the bioeconomy perspective.
Here, catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) was studied as a method to valorize rice husk (RH). Specifically, the effects of RH pretreatment, i.e., NaOH treatment, on the CFP efficiency and selectivity over a Ga-loaded HZSM-5 (SiO2/Al2O3 ratio = 38) were investigated. In addition to NaOH pretreatment, it was investigated how pyrolysis medium (N2, CH4, or a gas stream evolved from ex-situ CH4 decomposition over a Ni/La2O3/CeO2/Al2O3 catalyst (Ni/La2O3/CeO2 = 2/1/1) at 923 K (d-CH4)) influences the CFP of pretreated RH. The NaOH treatment reduced the content of ash and increased the content of cellulose in the RH sample. Thus, the effect of pyrolysis medium on the CFP of cellulose was studied at first, followed by that on CFP of NaOH-treated RH. With regard to the pyrolysis medium, the yield of aromatic compounds such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) achieved with both cellulose and the NaOH-treated RH enhanced in an order; d-CH4 > CH4 > N2. The removal of ash from RH with the NaOH pretreatment increased the BTEX yield up to 22.3 wt% as ash (mineral impurities) affects pyrolytic behavior of cellulose and lowers accessibility of pyrolytic volatiles to acid sites on zeolite. This study gives helpful information about how different parameters influence the conversion of RH into BTEX via CFP process.
The cosmetics industry is expanding, and the quest for novel ingredients to improve and develop innovative products is crucial. Consumers are increasingly looking for natural-derived ingredients in cosmetic products that have been proven to be effective and safe. Macroalgae-derived compounds has growing popularity in skincare products as they are natural, abundant, biocompatible, and renewable. Due to their high biomass yields, rapid growth rates, and cultivation process, they are gaining widespread recognition as potentially sustainable resources better suited for biorefinery processes. This review demonstrates macroalgae metabolites and its industrial applications in moisturizers, anti-aging, skin whitening, hair, and oral care products. These chemicals can be obtained in combination with energy products to increase the value of macroalgae from an industrial perspective with a zero-waste approach by linking multiple refineries. The key challenges, bottlenecks, and future perspectives in the operation and outlook of macroalgal biorefineries was also discussed.
Energy is an indispensable part in 21st century and most of our energy demands are supplied by the fossil fuel. However, the environmental and sustainable issues associated with the burning of fossil fuel have motivated the production of biofuel. Zeolite Y is a well-known solid acid catalyst due to its outstanding properties such as large uniform micropore (0.73 nm), high surface area and intrinsic acidity. Unfortunately, the sole micropore of zeolite Y has imposed diffusional limitation for bulky molecules that lead to low catalytic activity and catalyst deactivation due to pore blockage. In this work, we have adopted two synthesis strategies to solve diffusional limitation of conventional zeolite Y. First, mixing the precursor solution and organosilane template at low temperature (4 °C). Secondly, recrystallization of zeolite gel solution at low hydrothermal temperature (80 °C). With these efforts, a series of hierarchical nanosized zeolite Y were prepared with different amount of dimethyloctadecyl[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ammonium chloride (TPOAC) (molar ratio of 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5) as a template. The amount of TPOAC added has altered the physicochemical properties of zeolites such as porosity and acidity. The best hierarchical nanosized zeolite Y (MY0.15) was prepared with 0.15 M ratio of TPOAC. It is a 300 nm large aggregate made up of 50 nm zeolite nanocrystals. Besides that, it exhibits a uniform mesopore of 5.8 nm and an acidity of 1.73 mmol/g with a B/L ratio of 0.24. The deoxygenation performance of synthesized zeolites was evaluated through deoxygenation of triolein under H2-free condition at 380 °C for 2 h. The nanosized zeolite Y (MY0) showed a triolein conversion of 47.3% and hydrocarbon selectivity of 60.3%. The presence of uniform mesopore in MY0.15 has improved the conversion and hydrocarbon selectivity to 61.1% and 68.5%, respectively. In terms of initial rate, MY0.15 was 1.7 times faster than that of MY0. In addition, the MY0.15 showed good reusability by retaining 88% of its initial activity after four consecutive runs. Therefore, uniform hierarchical nanosized zeolite Y appears to be an effective catalyst in producing hydrocarbon-like biofuel via H2-free condition and other reactions involving bulky reactants.
Syngas production based on chemical looping reforming was experimentally studied using a fixed-bead reactor. The 15 wt% NiO/Al2O3 was used as the oxygen carrier. The reaction temperature was fixed as 800 °C. For reactant containing CH4 only, it was termed as chemical looping partial oxidation of methane (CL-POM). With five CL-POM cycles, no decay in oxygen carrier activity was found. A high H2/CO ratio resulted due to dominant H2 production reactions in the reduction stage. Carbon deposition on the oxygen carrier surface can be identified from the CO and CO2 formations in the oxidation stage. With CO2 added in the reactant in addition to CH4, this was referred to as the chemical looping dry reforming of methane (CL-DRM). Near theoretical amounts of H2 and CO yields were obtained. With both H2O and CO2 added in the reactant in addition to CH4, this was referred to as the chemical looping tri-reforming of methane (CL-TRM). Due to coupled steam reforming of methane (SRM), POM, and DRM, higher CH4 conversion, H2 and CO yields resulted compared with the CL-POM and CL-DRM cases. The average H2/CO ratio of 1.2 was obtained with reactant with molar ratio of CH4/CO2/H2O = 1/1/1.
Following the circular bioeconomy approach, this study shows the possibility of effective microalgal bioremediation of aquaculture wastewater integrated with the production of protein-rich biomass, which can be used as a feed additive. Screening was carried out among strains of Chlorella vulgaris BB-2, Parachlorella kessleri Bh-2 and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii C-124 with the aim of selecting the strain which is characterized by high indicators of growth in the fish farms wastewaters. Among these three strains, C. vulgaris BB-2 was selected due to its increased growth rate in aquaculture wastewater with ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate and phosphate removal. In addition, in the water when cultivating microalgae in it the coliform index and total microbial number decreased to 5 and 1.8 × 10³ colony-forming unit cm⁻³. Large-scale microalgae cultivation utilizing aquaculture wastewater gave biomass production of 43.5 mg L⁻¹ day⁻¹. The biochemical composition analysis of the aquaculture wastewater phycoremediation-derived biomass of C. vulgaris BB-2 revealed that the content of 57.0 ± 1.2% protein, 16 ± 1.2% lipid, and 11.4 ± 1.4% carbohydrate. The obtained data indicate that the lipid extract of microalgae C. vulgaris BB-2 contained saturated 30.7% and polyunsaturated fatty acids 69.3%. The main fraction of amino acids consisted of glutamic acid, lysine, aspartic acid and leucine. The utilization of 25% microalgal biomass as a feed additive in the diet of fish has shown a positive effect on the morpho-physiological and biochemical growth parameters and intestinal microflora of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Graphical abstract
Taiping Island (also known as Itu Aba Island) is located in the middle of one of the most politically controversial land strips in the South China Sea, thereby imposing a great obstacle for the exploration of marine biodiversity in this area. The goals of this study were to improve our knowledge gap of biodiversity of benthic marine algae (including both seaweeds and cyanobacteria) and to provide basic herbarium and molecular references on their communities. With 199 molecular sequences assisted for species identification, we found 19 orders, 40 families, 68 genera and 121 species in Taiping Island, including those belonging to 34 Chlorophyta species, 9 Ochrophyta species, 62 Rhodophyta species, and 16 cyanobacteria species. Among them, six genera, 14 species were new records for the South China Sea and more than 70% species were considered as new records for Taiping Island. There were also many taxa which may be considered as undescribed species new to science. In this fringing reef island, the species compositions were significantly different between two types of habitats separated by a reef crest. In the Reef Flat Zone, the most common species encountered included members of Caulerpa, Dictyota, Galaxaura and Halimeda. In the Reef Slope Zone, the most common species included members of Corallinales and Peyssonneliales. The nuisance coral-competing seaweeds (Galaxaura divaricata and Ramicrusta texitilis) and the cyanobacterium (Moorea bouillonii) were reported for the first time in Taiping Island. Our expanded DNA barcoding data in Taiping Island provides a greater understanding of the benthic marine algal biodiversity in the South China Sea.
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a febrile coronary vasculitis that affects younger children and includes complications such as coronary artery aneurysm. KD diagnoses are diagnosed based on clinical presentations, a process that still poses a challenge for front-line physicians. In the current study, we developed a novel predictor using the hemoglobin-for-age z-score (HbZ) and plasma hepcidin to differentiate Kawasaki disease (KD) from febrile children (FC). There were 104 FC and 115 KD subjects (89 typical KD; 26 incomplete KD) for this study, and data were collected on the biological parameters of hemoglobin and plasma hepcidin levels. A receiver operating characteristic curve (auROC), multiple logistics regression, and support vector machine analysis were all adopted to develop our prediction condition. We obtained both predictors, HbZ and plasma hepcidin, for distinguishing KD and FC. The auROC of the multivariate logistic regression of both parameters for FC and KD was 0.959 (95% confidence interval = 0.937–0.981), and the sensitivity and specificity were 85.2% and 95.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the auROC for FC and incomplete KD was 0.981, and the sensitivity and specificity were 92.3% and 95.2%, respectively. We further developed a model of support vector machine (SVM) classification with 83.3% sensitivity and 88.0% specificity in the training set, and the blind cohort performed well (78.4% sensitivity and 100% specificity). All data showed that sensitivity and specificity were 81.7% and 91.3%, respectively, by SVM. Overall, our findings demonstrate a novel predictor using a combination of HbZ and plasma hepcidin with a better discriminatory ability for differentiating from WBC and CRP between children with KD and other FC. Using this predictor can assist front-line physicians to recognize and then provide early treatment for KD.
Green remediation is essential in the current practice of water resources management. In this study, a series of ozone β-cyclodextrin (O3-βCD) inclusion complexes were prepared under a selected range of different ozone concentrations, β-CD concentrations, and solution pHs to test their ozone release rates and efficiencies in the treatment of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in water. The main objectives of this study are to characterize the O3-βCD system, mathematically model its ozone release rate, and test its capability in the degradation of pollutants. From the results, it was found that by defining a set of dimensionless parameters, including β-CD to ozone molar ratio and various degrees of ozone saturation, the steady-state conditions in the O3-βCD system can be represented by a newly developed dimensionless plot. In an optimal condition, the dissolved ozone release rate of 6.8 × 10−5 mM/min can be achieved in the O3-βCD system. A mathematical model was successfully developed to estimate the ozone release rate. In the TPH removal experiments, the effects of β-CD to ozone molar ratio and ozone dosage on the removal efficiency were rigorously examined. Overall, an optimal TPH removal of nearly 90% can be achieved in the treatment of 50 mg/L of TPH in water using this inclusion complex reagent.
Whether low-dose phthalate exposure triggers asthma among children, and its underlying mechanisms, remain debatable. Here, we evaluated the individual and mixed effects of low-dose phthalate exposure on children with asthma and five (oxidative/nitrosative stress/lipid peroxidation) mechanistic biomarkers—8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-nitroguanine (8-NO2Gua), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA), 8-isoprostaglandin F2α (8-isoPF2α), and malondialdehyde (MDA)—using a propensity score–matched case–control study (case vs. control = 41 vs. 111). The median monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) concentrations in the case group were significantly higher than those in the control group (3.94 vs. 2.52 ng/mL, p = 0.02), indicating that dust could be an important source. After adjustment for confounders, the associations of high monomethyl phthalate (MMP) (75th percentile) with 8-NO2Gua (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–6.92) and 8-isoPF2α (aOR: 4.04, 95% CI: 1.51–10.8) and the associations of mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP) with 8-isoPF2α (aOR: 2.96, 95% CI: 1.13–7.79) were observed. Weighted quantile sum regression revealed that MBzP contributed more than half of the association (56.8%), followed by MiBP (26.6%) and mono-iso-nonyl phthalate (MiNP) (8.77%). Our findings supported the adjuvant effect of phthalates in enhancing the immune system response.
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Chang-Chi Hsieh
  • Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Chao-Tung Yang
  • Department of Computer Science
Tsung-Wu Lin
  • Department of Chemistry
Fang-Yie Leu
  • Computer Science Department
Wen-Dee Chiang
  • Department of Food Science
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