Some studies have shown that the betel nut Areca catechu L and "binahong" leaves Anredera cordifolia (Ten) Steenis have anti-parasite and wound healing properties. This study evaluated the effect of A. catechu nut and A. cordifolia leaves powder supplementation on faecal parasite number and type, histopathology of the intestine, caecum, associated organs, some serum biochemistry, and egg production of laying hens. Twenty-four 54-week-old ISA-brown laying hens from local layer farmers were assigned randomly into 4-treatment groups: 1) without supplementation (T0), 2) supplemented with 0.25% (T0.25%), 3) 0.5% (T0.5%), 4) 1.0% (T1.0%). We carried out the supplementation for 18 days by administering A. catechu nut powder for 3-days, and subsequently, A. cordifolia leaves powder for another 3-days for 3-rounds to control the parasite larvae. Faecal parasite count and type were enumerated at the beginning and end of treatment. Egg production was recorded daily during the 18 days experiment. Blood was sampled at the end of the experiment to determine serum albumin, globulin, and transaminases. The intestinal tract, liver, and spleen samples were collected at the end of the study for histopathological examination. Faecal Ascaridia galli in control hens increased by 87.5% after 18 days of the experiment, while A. catechu nut and A. cordifolia leaves powder supplementation prevented such an increase. Supplemented hens have a better reduction of Railentina cesticillus compared to control birds. Supplementation improved intestinal and other tissue histopathology, especially in the caecum (free of erosion), improving serum albumin and transaminases without affecting egg production.
Objective Doppler ultrasonography of the common carotid artery is used to infer stroke volume change and a wearable Doppler ultrasound has been designed to improve this workflow. Previously, in a human model of hemorrhage and resuscitation comprising approximately 50,000 cardiac cycles, we found a strong, linear correlation between changing stroke volume, and measures from the carotid Doppler signal, however, optimal Doppler thresholds for detecting a 10% stroke volume change were not reported. In this Research Note , we present these thresholds, their sensitivities, specificities and areas under their receiver operator curves (AUROC). Results Augmentation of carotid artery maximum velocity time integral and corrected flowtime by 18% and 4%, respectively, accurately captured 10% stroke volume rise. The sensitivity and specificity for these thresholds were identical at 89% and 100%. These data are similar to previous investigations in healthy volunteers monitored by the wearable ultrasound.
The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton–proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015–2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hard scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.
Background During embryogenesis lateral symmetry is broken, giving rise to Left/Right (L/R) breast tissues with distinct identity. L/R-sided breast tumors exhibit consistently-biased incidence, gene expression, and DNA methylation. We postulate that a differential L/R tumor-microenvironment crosstalk generates different tumorigenesis mechanisms. Methods We performed in-silico analyses on breast tumors of public datasets, developed xenografted tumors, and conditioned MDA-MB-231 cells with L/R mammary extracts. Results We found L/R differential DNA methylation involved in embryogenic and neuron-like functions. Focusing on ion-channels, we discovered significant L/R epigenetic and bioelectric differences. Specifically, L-sided cells presented increased methylation of hyperpolarizing ion channel genes and increased Ca ²⁺ concentration and depolarized membrane potential, compared to R-ones. Functional consequences were associated with increased proliferation in left tumors, assessed by KI67 expression and mitotic count. Conclusions Our findings reveal considerable L/R asymmetry in cancer processes, and suggest specific L/R epigenetic and bioelectric differences as future targets for cancer therapeutic approaches in the breast and many other paired organs.
The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has a broad physics programme ranging from precision measurements to direct searches for new particles and new interactions, requiring ever larger and ever more accurate datasets of simulated Monte Carlo events. Detector simulation with Geant4 is accurate but requires significant CPU resources. Over the past decade, ATLAS has developed and utilized tools that replace the most CPU-intensive component of the simulation—the calorimeter shower simulation—with faster simulation methods. Here, AtlFast3, the next generation of high-accuracy fast simulation in ATLAS, is introduced. AtlFast3 combines parameterized approaches with machine-learning techniques and is deployed to meet current and future computing challenges, and simulation needs of the ATLAS experiment. With highly accurate performance and significantly improved modelling of substructure within jets, AtlFast3 can simulate large numbers of events for a wide range of physics processes.
Objective In sub-Saharan Africa, 45% of the rural population uses boreholes (BHs). Despite recent gains in improved water access and coverage, parallel use of unimproved sources persists. Periodic infrastructure disrepair contributes to non-exclusive use of BHs. Our study describes functionality of BHs in 2014, 2015, and 2016 in 15 rural towns in the Eastern Region of Ghana sourced from three groundwater quality clusters (high iron, high salinity, and control). We also assess factors affecting cross-sectional and longitudinal functionality using logistic regression. Results BH functionality rates ranged between 81 and 87% and were similar across groundwater quality clusters. Of 51 BHs assessed in all three years, 34 (67%) were consistently functional and only 3 (6%) were consistently broken. There was a shift toward proactive payment for water over the course of the study in the control and high-salinity clusters. Payment mechanism, population served, presence of nearby alternative water sources, and groundwater quality cluster were not significant predictors of cross-sectional or longitudinal BH functionality. However, even in the high iron cluster, where water quality is poor and no structured payment mechanism for water exists, BHs are maintained, showing that they are important community resources.
Background Diagnosis of dental caries and identification of patients with dental caries is the biggest challenge in dentistry. For this diagnostic accuracy, several methods are studied. The present study attempts to re-study the published data in the last 50 years, between 1960 and 2020. Main body Based on designed keywords, we made a thorough search of 4 different databases and found 3887 articles after removing the duplicate. The included database was PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, and Cochrane library. On keen screening of the articles, we included 19 articles in the review. All the articles were analyzed based on the Cochrane risk assessment method. Maximum studies of up to 80% of caries management are based on children from 1 to 10 years of age. About 47% of articles were found based on reported use of drugs against dental caries, whereas 52.6% of articles were based on the behavioral and socio-demographic study of the mother and caretakers. We found that attentive parents and caretakers of the children can help in reducing the prevention of caries. Frese et al. (Sci Rep. 8(1):16991, 2018. 10.1038/s41598-018-34777-x ), Liu et al. (PLoS ONE 8(11):e78723, 2013. 10.1371/journal.pone.0078723 ), and Innes et al. J Dent Res 99(1):36–43, 2020. 10.1177/0022034519888882 ) were the studied articles with high quality and low bias risk. These methods were based on the use of stannous fluoride for dental caries, the study of the effect of smoking on older adults, by checking the anxiety level of the participants. Short conclusions Tooth decay is a common condition in the general population and affects mostly children. The method with high accuracy and low risk can be recommended for routine treatment.
Background and objective To examine the relationship between gene expression profile class and tumor thickness reduction as measured by ultrasonography in response to plaque brachytherapy using a single-center, retrospective cohort study. Methods A total of 15 patients with choroidal melanoma who underwent biopsy for gene expression profiling and were treated with plaque brachytherapy from a single institution from 12/8/14 through 12/19/19 were retrospectively reviewed for clinical characteristics and rate of tumor regression. Ultrasonographic B-scan tumor height was recorded just prior to plaque placement and following plaque removal in the patient’s chart to assess percent reduction in tumor thickness from baseline. Results A total of 15 patients met inclusion criteria and were analyzed in this study. Minimum follow-up was 6 months after plaque removal. The percent regression in tumor thickness from baseline as measured by ultrasonography was greater for class 2 tumors than for class 1 tumors at 12-month follow up after treatment, and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.012). There was no statistical significance in reduction at 3 months (P = 0.46) and 9 months (P = 0.10) after plaque brachytherapy. Although not statistically significant, class 2 tumors appeared to regress more rapidly than class 1 tumors in response to radiation. Conclusions In this study, class 2 choroidal melanoma tumors show a more rapid anatomic response to treatment than class 1 tumors at 12 months post plaque brachytherapy.
Introduction Global surgery efforts have significantly expanded in the last decade. While an increasing number of general surgery residents are incorporating global surgery experiences and research into their training, few resources are available for residency applicants to evaluate opportunities at programs to which they are applying. Materials and methods A 17-question survey of all general surgery residency program directors (PDs) was conducted by the Global Surgery Student Alliance through emails to the Association of Program Directors in Surgery listserv. PDs indicated if they wished to remain anonymous or include program information in an upcoming online database. Results Two hundred fifty eight general surgery PDs were emailed the survey and 45 (17%) responses were recorded. Twenty eight (62%) programs offered formal global surgery experiences for residents, including clinical rotations, research, and advocacy opportunities. Thirty one (69%) programs were developing a global health center. Forty two (93%) respondents indicated that global surgery education was an important aspect of surgical training. Barriers to global surgery participation included a lack of funding, time constraints, low faculty participation, and minimal institutional interest. Conclusions While most respondents felt that global surgery was important, less than two-thirds offered formal experiences. Despite the significant increase in public awareness and participation in global surgery, these numbers remain low. While this study is limited by a 17% response rate, it demonstrates that more efforts are needed to bolster training, research, and advocacy opportunities for surgical trainees and promote a global perspective on healthcare.
Carbohydrates hold potential for the future of therapeutic development due to their important role in essential biological processes. However, it is still challenging to produce homogenous materials, especially for non-mammalian sugars that are considered rare. Recent developments in this field have focused on catalytic methods, including organometallic and organocatalytic approaches to regioselective functionalization. Many approaches to glycosylations also utilize catalysts, increasingly in combination with photoredox conditions, to achieve stereoselectivity. Additionally, there have been significant advancements in the automation of glycosylation to synthesize oligosaccharides in less time and with fewer manually conducted steps by the user.
Many viruses induce shutoff of host gene expression (host shutoff) as a strategy to take over cellular machinery and evade host immunity. Without host shutoff activity, these viruses generally replicate poorly in vivo, attesting to the importance of this antiviral strategy. In this review, we discuss one particularly advantageous way for viruses to induce host shutoff: triggering widespread host messenger RNA (mRNA) decay. Viruses can trigger increased mRNA destruction either directly, by encoding RNA cleaving or decapping enzymes, or indirectly, by activating cellular RNA degradation pathways. We review what is known about the mechanism of action of several viral RNA degradation factors. We then discuss the consequences of widespread RNA degradation on host gene expression and on the mechanisms of immune evasion, highlighting open questions. Answering these questions is critical to understanding how viral RNA degradation factors regulate host gene expression and how this process helps viruses evade host responses and replicate. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Virology, Volume 9 is September 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Background Polysubstance use is common among people who use drugs, including the co-use of stimulants and opioids. Research suggests the practice of simultaneous co-injection of methamphetamines and opioids, often referred to as “goofballs”, is increasing. As a relatively unique drug use practice, little qualitative research currently exists on goofball injecting. This study explores the practice and embodied experiences of goofball injecting. Methods This article draws on in-depth interviews conducted across two qualitative studies undertaken in Vancouver, Canada's Downtown Eastside neighbourhood examining changing dynamics in relation to stimulant use and experiences with an overdose prevention site-based safer supply intervention, respectively. Interviews containing discussions of goofball use (n=29) were extracted from each study and merged into a single qualitative dataset. Data were analysed thematically and focused on the practices and embodied experiences of goofball injection. Results Our analysis uncovered how goofball injection represented a complex drug use practice driven by the desire to achieve particular embodied experiences not attainable by using either drug individually. We identified three distinct practices of goofball use: 1) to alter or enhance the effects of opioids; 2) to alter or enhance the effects of methamphetamines; and 3) to balance out the effects of both drugs. Conclusion Our study fills an important gap in the polysubstance use literature specifically exploring the co-injection of methamphetamines and opioids. Our findings highlight the need to implement and expand interventions and services attentive to polysubstance use and the role of pleasure in drug taking practices, including expanding non-medicalized opioid and stimulant safer supply initiatives across North America.
Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) has a long history in the clinical sciences as a complementary therapy for treating disorders such as insomnia, depression, and anxiety. Research suggests that CES may also prove valuable for altering physiology and behavior in healthy, non-clinical samples, though data are equivocal and show a high risk of bias. The present study used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design to examine the effects of CES on emotional, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral responses to acute stress. Healthy male participants visited the laboratory for two sessions, one involving active CES administration (20 min at 100 µA and 0.5 Hz) and one involving sham, inactive CES. During each session, participants were placed under stress (threat of torso shock) while performing challenging cognitive tests, and we measured emotional, biochemical (alpha amylase, cortisol), physiological (heart rate, respiration rate, heart rate variability, pupil diameter), and cognitive behavioral (memory, decision-making, spatial orienting) responses. Outcome metrics were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and planned comparisons. The stress induction reliably modulated measures of sympathetic adrenal medullary (SAM) activity but not hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Active versus placebo CES did not significantly influence any emotional, biochemical, or physiological outcome measure. Active CES did, however, selectively increase performance on a recognition memory test and degrade performance on a perceptual decision-making test. Overall, we find no compelling evidence that CES reliably modulates the nervous system’s immediate response to acute stress, suggesting its limited utility for sustaining performance in high-stakes domains involving stress exposure.
Examination failure rate is high in veterinary anatomy in Brazilian universities. We report here our active learning experience in which students recorded video reports on veterinary anatomical specimens of locomotor apparatus to support classic learning. Eighteen students were divided into 2 groups, case group (V3) and control (E). Case group students individually recorded video reports of prosected specimens weekly. Acceptance and efficacy of the strategy were assessed with a Likert scale anonymous questionnaire and students' scores in theoretical exams. The method was highly accepted and the performance test proved that recording videos is an effective strategy for active learning in anatomy.
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