Towson University
  • Towson, United States
Recent publications
The endomembrane system, functioning in secretion, performs many roles relating to eukaryotic cellphysiological processes and the Golgi apparatus is the central organelle in this system. An essentialassociated Golgi component is the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex, maintaining correctGolgi structure and function during retrograde trafficking. In animals, naturally occurring cogmutants provide a window into understanding it’s function(s). Eliminating even one COGcomponent impairs its function. In animals, COG mutations lead to severe cell biological anddevelopmental defects and death while far less is understood in plants which is changing. Theplant genetic model Arabidopsis thaliana COG complex functions in growth, cell expansion andother processes, involving direct interactions with other secretion system components includingthe exocyst, soluble N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptor (SNARE), andthe microtubule cytoskeleton. Recent experiments have identified a defense role for the COGcomplex in plants, the focus of this review.
This study empirically examines the impact of geographic customer diversification on inventory efficiency and proposes a customer-country diversification strategy as a central element of U.S. manufacturing firms’ effort to transform their global supply chains in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic. Using industry-level data during the pre-pandemic period (2003-2018) and the COVID-19 pandemic, this study finds that a geographically diversified customer base significantly reduced inventory efficiency during the pre-pandemic period, but increased inventory efficiency during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our finding suggests that U.S. manufacturing firms may be able to reduce negative impacts on inventory in a global pandemic and achieve greater inventory efficiency if they can target global customer bases with demand characteristics less correlated with U.S. domestic demand.
In a competitive market, a profit-maximizing producer's total revenue is determined both by the quantity of output she chooses to produce and by the price at which she can sell that output. Of these two variables, only output is in part or wholly within the producer's control, price being entirely determined by market forces. Given that, it is puzzling that the literature studying the effects of providing insurance to producers in low- and middle-income countries has ignored price risk entirely, focusing instead on insuring output. We run an artefactual lab-in-the-field experiment in Peru to look at the effects of insurance against output price risk on production. We randomize the order of three games: (i) a baseline game in which price risk is introduced at random, (ii) the baseline game to which we add mandatory insurance against price risk sold at an actuarially fair premium, and (iii) the baseline game to which we add voluntary insurance against price risk sold at the actuarially fair premium, but for which we offer a random 0-, 50- or 100% discount to exogenize take-up. Our results show that, on average, (i) price risk does not significantly change production relative to price certainty and (ii) neither does the provision of compulsory insurance against price risk, but the introduction of voluntary price risk (iii) causes the average producer on the market to produce more in situations of price risk than in situations of price certainty, and (iv) causes the average producer on the market to produce more in situations of price certainty than in cases where there is no insurance or where insurance is mandatory. When looking only at situations where there is price risk, (v) this is due almost entirely to the insurance rather than to selection into purchasing the insurance. Our findings further suggest that (vi) even in the absence of the discount, the insurance against price risk would have a large (i.e., 70%) take-up rate.
Cannabis is the most commonly used federally illicit drug among pregnant women in the United States, and the prevalence and frequency of prenatal cannabis use are increasing. The preconception period - typically thought of as the 3-12 months immediately preceding pregnancy - is a distinct and critical period for women's health that has often been overlooked when examining prenatal cannabis use. Given that substance use behaviors typically develop before pregnancy, and risk factors associated with prenatal cannabis use are often present prior to conception, preventive approaches to addressing prenatal cannabis use would benefit from focusing on women who use cannabis prior to pregnancy. In order to ensure preconception cannabis use is brought to the forefront of cannabis prevention efforts, we recommend additional research, patient education, and clinician training focused on preconception cannabis use.
Hurricanes, or Tropical Cyclones (TC), are dangerous, natural phenomena that can wreak major havoc to human lives, properties, and can last from a couple of hours to a couple of days. Studies have been conducted to analyze TCs and make predictions in order to help people make further preparations such as estimating intensity and tracking the storm center. An emerging perspective of these studies is to leverage powerful data mining tools. However, not many data mining techniques are adopted for TC genesis prediction. The main reason for the shortage in this research direction is the lack of data, especially for the data prior to TC genesis. In this paper, we aim to address the aforementioned issue and propose a multi-model multi-task learning system for TC genesis prediction. We consider TC genesis as a time series problem and incorporate data from different tasks (i.e., tracking) by combining ensemble and multitask learning. By doing this, our system is capable of generating a versatile feature space. Extensive experiments over real-world datasets demonstrate that our approach outperforms regular single-task learning models and results in high efficacy and efficiency on performance.KeywordsHurricane genesisMulti-task learningLSTMSpatio-temporal data mining
Data with label noise is one of the various problems that negatively affect deep learning performance. Manual correction of noisy labels is the most reliable solution but processing huge amounts of data is difficult. In addition, sound objects are more complicated to distinguish just by listening alone. To solve this problem, we proposed a label correction method using self-organizing map (SOM), which basically proposes three methods. In addition, one of our methods was supplemented, and further experiments were conducted to find the optimal setting for the modified method. The experiment is conducted with a freesound dataset Kaggle 2018 (FSDK 2018), and the method is evaluated by environmental sound classification using a densely connected network (DenseNet). In addition, several observations are achieved based on the experimental results.KeywordsData preprocessingSound dataLabel noiseSelf-organizing mapLabel correction
Software developers are most effective when handed with a set of consistent and self-contained use cases. This will reduce the lengthy discussion and expensive rework later during the design, implementation, and testing phase. Moreover, well-written use cases can be reused in future projects. However, writing high-quality use cases is a difficult and time-consuming task. Inspired by the success of various coding style guides, we developed a use case writing style guide and a small set of use case templates to slightly constrain the way a use case is written. This style guide will help reduce excessive personal idiosyncrasy in use case writing and give a uniform appearance to the use case written by different requirements engineers so that it is much easier to understand a large set of use cases. Instead of overly restricting the use case writing process, the purpose of this style guide is to find a balance between readability and creativity. The style guide and templates were applied to an actual software project. The results of this case study show qualitative improvements compared with an unconstrained use case writing approach.
Over the last decade, policymakers have been experimenting with competency-based education, an instructional reform that relies on flexible pacing to enable students to achieve content mastery at their own pace. In this paper, we draw on mixed-methods data from teacher surveys and interviews to examine the use of flexible instructional pacing in five Michigan school districts implementing competency-based education. While implementing flexible pacing was challenging for all five districts, we identified several promising practices that facilitated flexible pacing in their districts. These included the adoption of school-wide interventions and the ability of teachers to share students across classrooms. These practices resulted from explicit prioritization of flexible pacing in some districts, whereas in others, they occurred somewhat by happenstance. In all cases, structural challenges (e.g., the division of time and space and the allocation of students to individual classrooms) inherent in “the grammar of schooling” impeded some or all efforts to implement flexible pacing. It will be essential to tackle these structural challenges to flexible pacing in future efforts to implement competency-based education reforms.
Introduction Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is common and disabling. Different versions of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) have been tested, but no treatment works for everyone. Therefore, researchers have attempted approaches to enhance CBT. Areas covered The current narrative review examines meta-analyses and individual trials of CBT-based treatments for GAD. We focus on CBT and its cognitive and behavioral components as well as efforts to enhance CBT and its dissemination and generalizability. Enhancement efforts included interpersonal and emotional processing therapy, mindfulness-based CBT, emotion regulation therapy, intolerance of uncertainty therapy, the unified protocol, metacognitive therapy, motivational interviewing, and contrast avoidance targeted treatment. Emerging strategies to enhance dissemination have focused on technologically based treatments. Attempts at generalizability have included examination of efficacy within diverse racial and ethnic groups. Expert opinion We conclude that CBT is efficacious, and a number of enhancement efforts have shown some promise in improving upon CBT in single trials. However, more research is needed, particularly efforts to determine which enhancements work best for which individuals and what are the mechanisms of change. Furthermore, few technological interventions have been compared to active treatments. Finally, much more attention needs to be paid to ethnic and racial diversity in randomized controlled trials.
The objective of this study was to explore the Board of a youth soccer club’s decisions and actions as it transitioned from a small community club to the biggest soccer club in a metropolitan area in the United States. The study was designed as a case study using observations, interviews, document analysis as its primary method. Using an institutional logics perspective, this study examines how board members’ social identities and goals were not always congruent with each other, and explains why the organisation was unable to make any meaningful changes and instead most often reproduced prevailing institutional logics. We argue this case serve as an example of embedded agency. The consequence was a dysfunctional board that was unable to further develop sport programs and services. More studies are needed to further problematise how community clubs navigate the new youth sport landscape from a leadership and government perspective and help navigate positive change.
This article examines the relationship between senators' personal religious affiliations and their roll-call voting record on organized labor's policy agenda. While an impressive body of literature now demonstrates clear connections between religion and representation in the U.S. Congress, fewer studies have linked religion to issues outside of the realm of cultural and moral policy. Based on a data set spanning 1980 through 2020, our findings show that evangelical Protestants are significantly the most opposed to organized labor's legislative agenda, while Jewish senators are the most supportive. Other religions fall in between, depending on the decade. The findings imply that the reach of religion in Congress may run even deeper than is commonly understood. It extends beyond the culture wars to one of the most salient issue cleavages in the modern history of the American politics.
This study compared levels of concern, spending, and use of external support by working status among older adults in the U.S. during the COVID-19 pandemic. It assessed whether work influences these variables related to wellness. Data from 2489 older adults from the 2020 U.S. Health and Retirement Study were analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression. Older adults who worked had lower concerns about the pandemic (β = −0.28, p = 0.048), were less likely to increase their spending (OR = 0.74, p = 0.041), and were less likely to use external support (OR = 0.50, p < 0.001). Use of external support increased with age (OR = 1.04, p < 0.001) and increased spending (OR = 1.32, p = 0.019). Married older adults were less likely to increase spending (OR = 0.75, p = 0.007) and had lower concerns toward COVID-19 (β = −0.28, p = 0.011). Higher levels of concern were reported among women (β = 0.31, p = 0.005) and participants who had friends or family members diagnosed with COVID-19 (β = 0.51, p < 0.001). Women were more likely to use support (OR = 1.80, p < 0.001). Work appears to bolster older adult wellness outcomes.
Corporate probability of default (PD) prediction is vitally important for risk management and asset pricing. In search of accurate PD prediction, we propose a flexible yet easy-to-interpret default-prediction single-index hazard model (DSI). By applying it to a comprehensive U.S. corporate bankruptcy database we constructed, we discover an interesting V-shaped relationship, indicating a violation of the common linear hazard specification. Most importantly, the single-index hazard model passes the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit calibration test while neither does a state-of-the-art linear hazard model in finance nor a parametric class of Box-Cox transformation survival models. In an economic value analysis, we find that this may translate to as much as three times of profit compared to the linear hazard model. In model estimation, we adopt a penalized-spline approximation for the unknown function and propose an efficient algorithm. With a diverging number of spline knots, we establish consistency and asymptotic theories for the penalized-spline likelihood estimators. Furthermore, we reexamine the distress risk anomaly, that is, higher financially distressed stocks deliver anomalously lower excess returns. Based on the PDs from the proposed single-index hazard model, we find that the distress risk anomaly has weakened or even disappeared during the extended period.
When it comes to teaching social and affective outcomes pertaining to health and physical activity within Physical Education (PE) settings, such learning historically has been observed as manifesting itself as hoped-for-by-products rather than intentionally-taught-for curricular outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore understandings and experiences of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) and Meaningful Physical Education (MPE) utilizing democratic and reflective pedagogies. A qualitative case study design was implemented in an alternative high school setting in the USA across 10 months. Participants included the Teacher–Researcher (TR), one Physical Education (PE) teacher, a critical friend, two teaching assistants, and 16 ninth-grade alternative high school students aged 14–15 (eight girls/eight boys). Methods involved a TR journal, post–lesson teaching reflections, interviews, and focus groups, with inductive and deductive analysis applied. The following themes were constructed: It really made you think; making movement meaningful; being a better classmate; and doing things differently. Results demonstrate how utilizing democratic and reflective approaches grounded in social constructivist learning theory innovatively promoted SEL and MPE. It allowed students to reflect, interrogate and discuss how movement experiences inside and outside of PE influenced their pursuit of a physically active life. Participants articulated experiencing a more inclusive learning experience that challenged the purpose and subject matter of previous PE and physical activity. Teaching for SEL and MPE using common language and terminology around pre–identified and defined competencies, skills, and features drawn from these conceptual frameworks as demonstrated here, can help contribute to more concrete and uniform learning experiences within and across settings. Doing so led participants to demonstrate more holistic and broader understandings of what constituted participation in PE and physical activity, as well as how to promote and participate in meaningful movement and physical activity within and outside of school to promote healthy living. We call for further embedding of democratic and reflective pedagogies in PE teacher education and professional development that provides teachers and students with the opportunity to do so going forward.
Background: Vestibular migraine (VM) is one of the common causes of episodic dizziness, but it is underdiagnosed and poorly understood. Previous research suggests that otolith reflex pathway performance is often impaired in this patient group, leading to altered perception of roll plane stimuli. Clinically, this perception can be measured with subjective visual vertical (SVV) testing. Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare static SVV performance (absolute mean SVV tilt, variance) in a cohort of patients diagnosed with VM to results obtained from clinically derived normative data. Study design: Retrospective case review. Study sample: Ninety-four consecutive patients between 18 and 65 years of age diagnosed with VM were included in this comparison to clinically derived normative data. Data collection and analysis: Retrospective chart review was completed. Demographic data, symptom report, and vestibular laboratory results were documented. SVV performance was documented in terms of absolute mean SVV tilt and response variance. Results: Abnormal mean SVV tilt was described in 54% (n = 51) of patients with VM. Including abnormal response variance increased those identified with abnormal presentation to 67% (n = 63). Laboratory findings were insignificant for semicircular canal function, but of those with abnormal ocular vestibular myogenic potential results (n = 30), 77% (n = 23) demonstrated both abnormal SVV and utriculo-ocular reflex performance. There were no associations noted for SVV performance and demographic or other self-report variables. Conclusion: Absolute mean SVV tilt and response variance are often abnormal in patients diagnosed with VM. These findings support theories suggesting atypical intralabyrinthine integration within the vestibular nuclei and cerebellar nodular pathways.
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Michael Salcman
  • Osher Institute
Gary Pennington
  • Department of Physics, Astronomy and Geosciences
Christopher J Salice
  • Environmental Science and Studies
Elizabeth C Katz
  • Department of Psychology
Bethany L Brand
  • Department of Psychology
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