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ABSTRACT: Recently, there has been a growing demand for large-scale computing in various fields. A binary hypercube has been used as an interconnection network topology in parallel computers for large-scale computing. However, the hypercube has a limitation that the degree, that is, the number of links for each node augments rapidly according to the increase in the number of total nodes. This limitation has been complemented in a dual-cube. In this paper, we propose a fault-tolerant routing algorithm in a dual-cube based on routing probabilities. The routing probability is developed as limited global information for routing ability of a node in a hypercube for an arbitrary node located at a specific distance. Unlike other previous researches that use limited global information in each cluster on fault tolerant routing in a dual-cube, our routing algorithm applies limited global information for an overall dual-cube. Each node selects a neighbor node to forward the message to the destination node by considering routing probabilities of its neighbor nodes. The results of a computer experiment show better performance of our algorithm.
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ABSTRACT: Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (in particular at metabolism) may result in fatal adverse effects in some cases. This basic information, therefore, is needed for drug therapy even in veterinary medicine; as multidrug therapy is not rare in canines and felines. The aim of this review was focused on possible drug-drug interactions in dogs and cats. The interaction includes enzyme induction by phenobarbital, enzyme inhibition by ketoconazole and fluoroquinolones, and down-regulation of enzymes by dexamethasone. A final conclusion based upon the available literatures and author’s experience is given at the end of the review.
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ABSTRACT: Closure of PDA can be associated with echocardiographic changes including deterioration of LV systolic function. Although PDA is commonly encountered in dogs, few comprehensive reports of echocardiographic changes in dogs with PDA closure are available. To evaluate the short-term echocardiographic changes observed after PDA closure in dogs using strain analysis. Seventeen client-owned dogs with left-to-right PDA. Echocardiographic evaluations, including standard echocardiography and two-dimensional tissue tracking (2DTT), were performed before and within 3 days of PDA closure. Preclosure examination showed LV and left atrial dilatation indicating volume overload as a result of PDA. Closure of PDA resulted in significant reduction of LVIDd (<.0001) and LA/Ao (0.01) without change in LVIDs, suggestive of decreased preload. Postclosure LV systolic dysfunction was observed with significant decreased in FS (<.0001) and strain values (P = .0039 for radial strains, P = .0005 for circumferential strains). Additionally, significant LV dyssynchrony (P = .0162) was observed after closure of PDA. Closure of PDA resulted in decreased preload as a result of alleviation of LV volume overload, which in turn caused transient deterioration of LV systolic function. Additionally, this study demonstrated that strain analysis is load dependent. Therefore, care should be taken when interpreting strain measurements as an indicator of LV systolic function. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
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