Tokyo Kasei University
Recent publications
In order to investigate in detail the internal structure changes in virgin black human hair keratin fibers resulting from bleaching treatments, the structure of cross-sections at various depths of black human hair, which had been impossible to analyze due to high melanin granule content, was directly analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The gauche-gauche-gauche (GGG) content of the -SS- groups existing from the cuticle region to the center of cortex region of the virgin black human hair remarkably decreased, while the gauche-gauche-trans (GGT) and trans- gauche-trans (TGT) contents were not changed by performing the excessive bleaching treatment. In particular, it was found that not only the β-sheet and/or random coil content, but also the α-helix content existing throughout the cortex region of virgin black human hair decreased. In addition, the transmission electron microscope observation showed that the proteins in the cell membrane complex, the cuticle and cortex of the virgin black human hair were remarkably eluted by performing the excessive bleaching treatment. From these experiments, it can be concluded that the -SS- groups, which have a GGG conformation, decomposed and finally converted to cysteic acid, and the α-helix structure of some of the proteins existing in the keratin changed to the random coil structure, or was eluted from the cortex region, thereby leading to the change to the rough structure of the virgin black human hair after the excessive bleaching treatment.
Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to develop a Japanese version of the Hyperarousal Scale (HAS-J) and investigate its factor structure, reliability, and validity, as well as to calculate a cutoff score for the HAS-J and assess different levels of hyperarousal in insomnia patients and community dwellers. Methods We recruited 224 outpatients receiving insomnia treatment (56.3% women; mean age 51.7 ± 15.6 years) and 303 community dwellers aged 20 years or older (57.8% women; mean age 43.9 ± 15.2 years). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was performed to examine the factor structure of the HAS-J. Cronbach’s α and McDonald’s ω were then used to test internal consistency. To examine the scale’s validity, we determined correlations between the HAS-J and other indexes and compared HAS-J scores between insomnia patients and community dwellers. We also compared HAS-J scores between two community-dweller groups (normal and poor sleepers) and two insomnia patient groups (with and without alleviation after treatment). Results Following exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, a 20-item measure emerged comprising three factors: “Introspectiveness and Reactivity,” “Neuroticism,” and “Insomnia.” Confirmatory factor analysis showed a generally good fit for the model of the three-factor structure suggested by the exploratory factor analysis loadings (χ 2 (163) = 327.423, (p
Agaro-oligosaccharides (AOSs), even-numbered oligosaccharides prepared from agar, are applied to various food, including supplements, drinks, and jellies because of their biological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the AOS permeation in the gastrointestinal tract in vivo and in vitro . Agarobiose (Abi), agarotetraose (Ate), and agarohexaose (Ahe) were detected in rat plasma after oral administration of AOSs. The detection level of agarobiose in the plasma was higher than that of agarohexaose, which was consistent with the permeation study using Caco-2 cell monolayers. Further, the adenosine triphosphate inhibitor (sodium azide) or endocytosis inhibitor (colchicine) did not inhibit AOS permeation through Caco-2 cell monolayers. Conversely, AOS permeation enhanced upon treatment with cytochalasin B, a tight junction disrupter, suggesting that AOSs might have passed mainly through the tight junctions between the intestinal epithelial cells. These results indicate that AOSs, especially agarobiose, can be absorbed as an intact form via the gastrointestinal tract across the intestinal epithelium through the paracellular pathway.
The advantages of infrared and Raman spectroscopy are that they are non-destructive, requires no sample extraction or purification, and directly provide structural information of lipids, fatty acids, proteins etc. In particular, by using attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FT/IR, which is suitable to for surface characterization, oil- and protein-based soil components attached to the same surface of a wet-type artificially soiled fabric can be directly and separately quantified at the same time. In this article, a novel spectroscopic method for quantitative evaluation of detergency using the ATR-FT/IR method is reviewed with introducing some characterization results.
This is the third special issue of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (JAFC) based on the Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division (AGFD) technical program, at the 262nd American Chemical Society National Meeting. This was the first national meeting held in a hybrid format, both virtually and in-person in Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A., on August 22-26, 2021. The AGFD proudly hosted 12 symposia, including three award symposia. There were 34 sessions held in total, with 143 oral presentations and 49 poster presentations. This meeting was highly successful in terms of attendance, and technology issues experienced at the previous virtual meetings were successfully resolved.
Objectives The 14-item Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory-short form assesses mindfulness, and enhanced mindfulness is beneficial for reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms. This study aims to develop a Japanese version of the measure (J-FMI) and examine its reliability and validity in a clinical population. Methods Patients (N = 340) with mainly depression and/or anxiety completed the J-FMI and a set of questionnaires to measure the five facets of trait mindfulness, anxiety, and depressive symptoms after attending a 2.5-h mindfulness training program. Results The exploratory factor analysis revealed that the J-FMI had two factors, with five items in the presence factor and nine in the acceptance factor. Internal consistency and reliability were high for the overall scale (α = .90, ω = .92), J-FMI presence (α = .80, ω = .80), and acceptance (α = .89, ω = .90) factors. In the correlation analyses, each J-FMI factor was significantly correlated with the five facets of trait mindfulness (r = .11 to .65) and anxiety and depressive symptoms (r = − .22 to − .61). There were no significant correlations between J-FMI presence and anxiety and depressive symptoms after acceptance was controlled (r = − .04 to − .05) in the partial correlation analyses. Conversely, significant correlations were noted between J-FMI acceptance and anxiety and depressive symptoms after presence was controlled (r = − .27 to − .53). Conclusions These findings demonstrate the J-FMI’s high internal consistency, reliability, and factorial validity and support its criterion, convergent, and discriminant validity in a clinical sample, thus confirming its high reliability and validity.
Background & Aims This study aimed to describe the association of healthy eating literacy (HEL) with energy, nutrients, and food consumption in young women who had normal and lean weight at a Japanese university, considering their resident status. Methods Cross-sectional data from the Ochanomizu Health Study were used in this study. Participants answered a self-administered, two-part, anonymous survey in 2018 and 2019. A total of 203 female undergraduate students with lean and normal body mass index (BMI) were included in the analysis. Single and stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine the association of HEL and resident status with healthy food consumption, such as vegetables, fish, and shellfish. The dependent variables were HEL and resident status, and the covariates were age, BMI, and the total metabolic equivalents. Results The median (25th and 75th percentiles) age, BMI, and total HEL score were 20 (19, 21) years, 20.2 (18.9, 21.3) kg/m ², and 18 (16, 20), respectively. Resident status and HEL were independently associated with vegetables, fish, and shellfish intake. Participants who had higher total HEL scores and lived in their family home consumed significantly more vegetables (β=0.17 and -0.34, p<0.05) and fish and shellfish (β=0.24, -0.28, p<0.001). Conclusion This study provides an insight into the association between HEL and dietary consumption in young women with normal and lean BMI.
Objectives The study aimed to explore the risk factors for the outcome of nutrition support teams (NSTs) for elderly patients. Previously identified risk factors lack general versatility owing to slightly subjective judgment standards; this study aimed to explore an objective and simple index of NST outcome and identify the risk factors for NST outcome. Subjects This retrospective observational study analyzed, 372 elderly patients enrolled in the NST between January 2014 and July 2018. We identified that the energy fill rate to total energy expenditure (%TEE) at the time of NST termination (post-%TEE) < 75.0% was the most valid index for the outcome in our previous study. The cutoff values of continuous variables at the time of NST enrollment (pre-) were set for post-%TEE < 75.0% using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated. Results From the multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis, pre-%TEE < 62.6% (HR: 1.96; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.29–2.99; p = 0.002), presence of pressure ulcers (HR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.02–2.98; p = 0.042), pre-prognostic nutritional index (PNI) < 32.7 (HR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.13–2.82; p = 0.014), and presence of pre-peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) (HR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.19–2.56; p = 0.005) were identified as independent risk factors for post-%TEE < 75.0%. Conclusion Post-%TEE < 75.0% was the objective and simple index for NST outcomes. Patients with low pre-%TEE, pressure ulcers, low pre-PNI, or pre-PPN require early nutritional intervention.
We identified a mushroom-derived protein, maistero-2 that specifically binds 3-hydroxy sterol including cholesterol (Chol). Maistero-2 bound lipid mixture in Chol-dependent manner with a binding threshold of around 30%. Changing lipid composition did not significantly affect the threshold concentration. EGFP-maistero-2 labeled cell surface and intracellular organelle Chol with higher sensitivity than that of well-established Chol probe, D4 fragment of perfringolysin O. EGFP-maistero-2 revealed increase of cell surface Chol during neurite outgrowth and heterogeneous Chol distribution between CD63-positive and LAMP1-positive late endosomes/lysosomes. The absence of strictly conserved Thr-Leu pair present in Chol-dependent cytolysins suggests a distinct Chol-binding mechanism for maistero-2.
There are increasing reports demonstrating high bioavailability of 4-hydroxyproline (4Hyp)-containing oligopeptides after oral ingestion of collagen hydrolysate and their bioactivity. In contrast, no study investigates the fate of another collagen-specific but minor amino acid, 3Hyp. Here, we identified Gly-3Hyp-4Hyp tripeptide in human blood at high concentrations, comparable to other 4Hyp-containing oligopeptides, after ingesting porcine skin collagen hydrolysate. Additionally, Gly-3Hyp-4Hyp uniquely maintained the maximum concentration until 4 h after the ingestion due to its exceptionally high resistance to peptidase/protease demonstrated by incubation with mouse plasma. In mice, oral administration of collagen hydrolysate prepared from bovine tendon, which contains a higher amount of 3Hyp, further increased blood Gly-3Hyp-4Hyp levels compared to that from bovine skin. Furthermore, Gly-3Hyp-4Hyp showed chemotactic activity on skin fibroblasts and promoted osteoblast differentiation. These results highlight the specific nature of the Gly-3Hyp-4Hyp tripeptide and its potential for health promotion and disease treatment.
BackgroundCOVID-19-related anxiety, sleep problems, and loneliness may be risk factors for school refusal in children and adolescents. However, few studies have examined the mechanisms by which these risk factors cause school refusal. This study examined the process by which COVID-19-related anxiety, sleep problems, and loneliness cause school refusal, using structural equation modeling.Methods In this cross-sectional questionnaire-based study, 256 (109 male, 147 female, mean age: 15.37 ± 0.48 years) senior high school students were asked to complete the Stress and Anxiety associated with Viral Epidemics-6 questionnaire to assess COVID-19-related anxiety, the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), Sleep Debt Index (SDI), and chronotype (MSFsc) to assess sleep problems, the Three-Item Loneliness Scale (TILS) to assess loneliness, and Feelings of School-Avoidance Scale (FSAS) to assess school refusal.ResultsStructural equation modeling showed that sleep problems affected loneliness (β = 0.52) and feelings of school refusal (β = 0.37), and that loneliness affected feelings of school refusal (β = 0.47). There was no significant pathway of COVID-19-related anxiety on sleep problems, loneliness, or feelings of school refusal. The indirect effect of sleep problems on feelings of school refusal through loneliness was significant. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that AIS (β = 0.30) and SDI (β = 0.13) scores were associated with TILS, and AIS (β = 0.26) and MSFsc (β = −0.14) scores were associated with FSAS scores.Conclusion The findings of this study showed that sleep problems affected feelings of school refusal via both direct and indirect pathways through the exacerbation of loneliness. To prevent school refusal in adolescents, addressing the indirect pathway via loneliness could be effective in improving insomnia and sleep debt, while addressing the direct pathway could be effective in improving insomnia and chronotype.
Motor coordination abilities are related to cognitive abilities and academic achievement in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the similarities and differences of these relationships in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) have not been explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between motor coordination abilities, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement in Japanese children with ASD and AD/HD. Participants included 20 children with ASD, 20 children with AD/HD, and 20 typically developing children, matched for age and gender. Their motor coordination abilities were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2). Furthermore, cognitive ability and academic achievement were assessed with the Kauffman Assessment Battery for Children-II (K-ABCII). Results demonstrated that the MABC-2 Total score significantly correlated with the K-ABCII Simultaneous processing, Planning, Total cognitive ability, Writing and Arithmetic scores in children with ASD. However, in children with AD/HD, there was no significant correlation between MABC-2 and K-ABCII subscale scores. The results of this study indicated that the relationship between motor coordination ability, cognitive ability, and academic achievement differs between ASD and AD/HD. This difference might indicate the non-similarity of neurological characteristics and encourage consideration for an approach that accommodates the features of neurodevelopmental disorders in children.
Rhythmic passive movements are often used during rehabilitation to improve physical functions. Previous studies have explored oscillatory activities in the sensorimotor cortex during active movements; however, the relationship between movement rhythms and oscillatory activities during passive movements has not been substantially tested. Therefore, we aimed to quantitatively identify changes in cortical oscillations during rhythmic passive movements. Twenty healthy young adults participated in our study. We placed electroencephalography electrodes over a nine-position grid; the center was oriented on the transcranial magnetic stimulation hotspot of the biceps brachii muscle. Passive movements included elbow flexion and extension; the participants were instructed to perform rhythmic elbow flexion and extension in response to the blinking of 0.67 Hz light-emitting diode lamps. The coherence between high-beta and low-gamma oscillations near the hotspot of the biceps brachii muscle and passive movement rhythms was higher than that between alpha oscillation and passive movement rhythm. These results imply that alpha, beta, and gamma oscillations of the primary motor cortex are differently related to passive movement rhythm.
Background: The Parental Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (PAAQ) is a scale for evaluating a caregiver’s experiential avoidance. The Japanese version of the PAAQ (PAAQ-J) was developed by Mizusaki & Sato who highlighted the necessity to reexamine the number of the items of the PAAQ-J and its factor structure. Therefore, to appropriately evaluate the reliability and validity of PAAQ-J as formulated by Mizusaki & Sato, we conducted a survey targeting a larger-scale sample of infants and their parents. Methods: This study examines the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Parental Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (PAAQ-J) among 2,000 mothers of infants aged 0–3, and evaluates their scores for the PAAQ-J, the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Resluts: We conducted an exploratory factor analysis, further creating a PAAQ-J comprising 12 items and three factors ( α = 0.80): Inaction-Behavior (Inaction-B), Inaction-Cognition (Inaction-C), and Unwillingness, with α of 0.84, 0.72 and 0.68, respectively. As in the original edition, the Confirmatory Factor Analysis results of the two-factor models show poor goodness of fit. The test re-test reliability examination results showed that the Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was 0.49, with 95% CI between 0.44 and 0.54. The correlation coefficient ( r) of PAAQ-J was 0.57, 0.32 and 0.33 with AAQ-II, and depressive and anxiety symptoms in the HADS respectively. Discussion: Thus, PAAQ-J’s validity to adequately evaluate an individual’s avoidance of experiences vis-à-vis childcare, as well as their psychological flexibility, was proven. Since the original version of the PAAQ was for 6-18-year-old children with anxiety symptoms, it is necessary to examine its reliability and validity not only for infants and toddlers but also for parents of older children and adolescents in the future.
In this study, the changes of flavor profile, the succession rules of active microorganisms and their correlation were analyzed during the fermentation process of industrial Sichuan radish paocai, in order to further explore the composition of ingredients that constitute the unique flavor characteristics of industrial Sichuan radish paocai, and the microorganisms and enzymes that may contribution to it. To this end, molecular sensory, high performance liquid chromatography and metatranscriptomics were employed to identify the aroma-active compounds, non-volatile compounds and active microorganisms during the 197-day fermentation process of industrial Sichuan radish paocai, respectively. Twenty aroma-active compounds were identified, of which 12 compounds had odor activity values ≥ 1, and some off-flavor compounds were significantly lower than those of fresh radish. After 100 days of fermentation, aroma-active compounds began to accumulate extensively with the dominant active microorganisms transforming from fungi to bacteria. Among the potential formation pathways of 14 aroma-active compounds, most of which were dominated by Lactobacillus and Debaryomyces, and were contributed by other microorganisms mainly belong to Lactobacillales, Saccharomycetales and Bacillales. This study provides new insights into the flavor formation and microbial metabolic roles of industrialized paocai, as well as valuable references for screening and isolation of functional strains, expression and characterization of flavor enzymes.
Background: The prevalence of delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD) is known to increase in the younger generation. However, the prevalence of this disorder in Asia, particularly Japan, has not yet been elucidated. Furthermore, the impact of DSWPD morbidity on daytime functioning and factors associated with the presence of the disorder remain unclear. Methods: A web-based survey was conducted among youth aged 15–30 years. In total, 7,810 individuals completed the questionnaire. The questionnaire included items on sociodemographic variables as well as the Japanese version of the Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry self-report (J-BRIAN-SR), which assesses the presence/absence of DSWPD, sleep behaviors and possibly related lifestyle variables, productivity loss (WHO Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ)), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The presence of DSWPD was defined by a J-BRIAN-SR score greater than or equal to 40 points and days of absence greater than or equal to four days per month. After comparing these variables between participants with and without possible DSWPD, the factors associated with the possibility of DSWPD were examined using logistic regression analysis, with sociodemographic and lifestyle variables as independent variables. Results: The overall prevalence of possible DSWPDs was 4.3%. Compared with participants without DSWPD, those with possible DSPWD presented significantly worse HPQ and HRQOL scores. The presence of possible DSWPD was positively associated with the presence of currently treated diseases, length of nighttime liquid crystal display (LCD) viewing, and high school/university students. It was negatively associated with habitual exercise. Conclusion: The prevalence of possible DSWPD seemed to be compatible with that in Western countries, and individuals possibly affected by the disorder were thought to have deteriorated daytime functioning. In addition, lifestyle specific to youth, such as long-term LCD viewing at night and relatively loose social constraints, could be associated with the presence of DSWPD in this generation.
Purpose We conducted an exploratory study to identify risk factors of dropout in an 8-week e-mail-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (REFRESH) to improve sleep among university students with insomnia symptoms. Methods University and graduate students in Hong Kong and Korea who scored higher than 10 on the Insomnia Severity Index participated in REFRESH. Results Of 158 participants from Hong Kong (n = 43) and Korea (n = 115), 90 (57%) did not complete all 7 sessions, while 52 of 90 (57.8%) dropped out prior to the fourth session. ROC analysis was conducted on the entire sample of 158 participants with intervention completion vs. dropout (non-completion) as the outcome variable. Predictors of dropout were wake time after sleep onset (WASO) < 7.1 min on the weekly sleep diary and expectations for sleep (a subscale of dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep; DBAS) < 18 at baseline. Conclusions These findings indicate that shorter WASO and less expectations for sleep at baseline were associated with risk of dropout from e-mail delivered self-help CBT-I-based intervention. Our results highlight the importance of identifying and tailoring treatment formats to students based on their presenting sleep characteristics.
This study examined whether cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia (CBT-I) improved insomnia severity, by changing sleep-related mediating factors. It also examined whether an improvement in insomnia led to enhanced mental health. This study was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of e-mail-delivered CBT-I for young adults with insomnia. The participants were randomized to either CBT-I or self-monitoring. The mental health-related measures were depression, anxiety, and stress. The sleep-related mediating factors were sleep hygiene practices, dysfunctional beliefs, sleep reactivity, and pre-sleep arousal. A total of 41 participants, who completed all the sessions (71% females; mean age 19.71 ± 1.98 years), were included in the analysis. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that 53% of the variance in the improvements in insomnia severity was explained by the treatment group (β = −0.53; ΔR2 = 0.25; p < 0.01) and the changes in sleep reactivity (β = 0.39; ΔR2 = 0.28; p < 0.05). Moreover, the mediation analysis showed that the reductions in depression and stress were explained by the changes in insomnia severity; however, anxiety symptoms were not reduced. CBT-I for young adults suggested that sleep reactivity is a significant mediator that reduces insomnia severity, and that the alleviation and prevention of depression and stress would occur with the improvement in insomnia.
[Purpose] We aimed to identify the relationship among trunk control, activities of daily living, and upper extremity function during the first week after stroke in patients with acute cerebral infarction. [Participants and Methods] Ninety-five patients with first cerebral infarction were included. Trunk control was assessed using the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke. Additionally, activities of daily living were evaluated using the Functional Independence Measure, and upper extremity function was assessed using the upper extremity component of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment. Correlation analysis was performed to examine the relationships among these three measures. Furthermore, stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to investigate the factors affecting activities of daily living. [Results] The total score and two subcategories of the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke were significantly correlated with the Functional Independence Measure motor values. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed age and the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke as factors influencing the Functional Independence Measure. Moreover, the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke and upper extremity component of Fugl-Meyer Assessment showed a high correlation. [Conclusion] The trunk control ability assessed using the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke is strongly correlated with activities of daily living estimated using the Functional Independence Measure in the first week after stroke in patients with acute cerebral infarction. The upper extremity component of Fugl-Meyer Assessment was not identified as a factor affecting the Functional Independence Measure.
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72 members
Isa Okajima
  • Department of Psychological Counseling
Takayuki Matsuki
  • Department of Environmental Science and Education
Tsutomu Iwata
  • Department of Education for Childcare
Junji Ohnishi
  • Department of Food and Nutrition
Fumihiro Fujimori
  • Department of Environmental Science and Education