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ABSTRACT: This study aims to find out if there is an effect of banking automation on the size of disguised unemployment and structural disguised unemployment in Syrian banks. The sample of study is stratified cluster and it consisted of (191) officials. The study concluded the following: -There is an effect of banking automation in Syria on disguised unemployment appearing at the size increase of this unemployment as much as about 17% of full time clocks. - There were significant differences in the size of disguised unemployment due to the sector's type that the bank belongs to, and this size was bigger in the governmental banks. -There is an effect of banking automation in Syria as structural disguised unemployment appears at being 12% of Syrian Banks. Officials never had convenient qualification to deal with automating system and about 45% of them have rather convenient qualification to deal with this system. Therefore, we found that there is a part of technological disguised unemployment in Syrian banks due to those unqualification officials. - There were significant differences in the size of worker's training due to the sector's type that the bank belongs to, and this size was bigger in the private banks.
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ABSTRACT: The burden of chronic respiratory disease (CRD) is alarming. International studies suggest that women with CRD are undersurveyed and underdiagnosed by physicians worldwide. It is unclear what the prevalence of CRD is in the general population of Syria, particularly among women, since there has never been a survey on CRD in this nation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of different patterns of smoking on CRD in women. We extracted data on smoking patterns and outcome in women from the Global Alliance Against Chronic Respiratory Diseases survey. Using spirometric measurements before and after the use of inhaled bronchodilators, we tracked the frequency of CRD in females active and passive narghile or cigarette smokers presenting to primary care. We administered the questionnaire to 788 randomly selected females seen during 1 week in the fiscal year 2009-2010 in 22 primary care centers in six different regions of Syria. Inclusion criteria were age >6 years, presenting for any medical complaint. In this cross-sectional study, three groups of female subjects were evaluated: active smokers of cigarettes, active smokers of narghiles, and passive smokers of either cigarettes or narghiles. These three groups were compared to a control group of female subjects not exposed to active or passive smoking. Exposure to active cigarette smoke but not narghile smoke was associated with doctor-diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, neither cigarette nor narghile active smoking was associated with increased incidence of spirometrically diagnosed COPD. Paradoxically, exposure to passive smoking of either cigarettes or narghiles resulted in association with airway obstruction, defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) < 70% according to the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria; association with FEV1 < 80% predicted, evidencing moderate to severe GOLD spirometric grade, and doctor-diagnosed COPD. Physicians tend to underdiagnose COPD in women who present to primary care clinics. Whereas around 15% of enrolled women had evidence of COPD with FEV1/FVC < 70% after bronchodilators, only 4.8% were physician-diagnosed. Asthma did not appear to be a significant spirometric finding in these female subjects, although around 11% had physician-diagnosed asthma. One limitation is FEV1/FVC < 70% could have also resulted from uncontrolled asthma. The same limitation has been reported by the Proyecto Latinoamericano de Investigacion en Obstruccion Pulmonar (PLATINO) study. Contrary to popular belief in developing countries, women exposed to tobacco smoke, whether active or passive, and whether by cigarettes or narghiles, like men are at increased risk for the development of COPD, although cultural habits and taboos may decrease the risk of active smoking in some women. These findings will be considered for country and region strategy for noncommunicable diseases, to overcome underdiagnosis of CRD in women, fight widespread female cigarette and narghile smoking, and promote behavioral research in this field.
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ABSTRACT: : BRAF mutation has been linked to the development of melanocytic tumors in homogeneous Caucasian cohorts. The role of solar UV radiation (UVR) in BRAF mutation status is poorly understood. We studied the epidemiology of BRAF mutation across a spectrum of melanocytic neoplasms in populations with differing UVR rates. Extended testing for 9 mutation types was attempted on 600 melanocytic neoplasms including banal nevi (n = 225), dysplastic nevi (n = 113), primary (n = 172), and metastatic melanomas (n = 90). Specimens were collected from 4 countries with increasing UVR rates (in kJ/m/yr): Syria (n = 45; UVR = 93.5), Lebanon (n = 225; UVR = 110), Pakistan (n = 122; UVR = 128), and Saudi Arabia (n = 208; UVR = 139). UVR was estimated from 21-year averages from The National Center for Atmospheric Research database. The overall BRAF mutation rate was 49% (268 of 545) and differed significantly by the geographic location [34% Pakistan, 49% Lebanon, 67% Syria, and 54% Saudi Arabia; P = 0.001], neoplasm type (P < 0.001), and anatomical location (P < 0.001) but not with age (P = 0.07) and gender (P = 1.0). V600E was the predominant mutation type, found in 96.3% of the cases. Incidence of melanoma was significantly greater in BRAF-negative (39%) versus BRAF-positive (17%) groups. For BRAF-positive cases, less severe lesions were systematically more frequent (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that BRAF mutation is predicted by neoplasm type, anatomical site, and geographic location. In our Near East cohort, BRAF mutation rates varied by geographic location but not based on UVR. BRAF-positive status was associated with less severe lesions.
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