Thompson Rivers University
  • Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada
Recent publications
The original version of the book was inadvertently published with an incorrect line inthe Abstract in Chapter 9 (Ethics, EdTech, and the Rise of Contract Cheating). This has now been rectified and the line has been removed. The chapter and book have been updated with the changes. The updated
Student success has multiple meanings; however, the quantitative bias prevalent in the northwest American and Western Canadian postsecondary education sector restricts how student success is defined and measured. Standardised measures of student success assume that the student experience is homogeneous and risk the implementation of policies and programmes based on insufficient information. Findings from several small student focus groups suggest that unless new evaluation approaches are adopted, it is unlikely postsecondary institutions will generate the knowledge and wisdom needed to serve the goals of a diverse array of students. This article presents findings from three small student focus groups (n = 14), in an attempt to understand how students themselves define student success and how it should be measured. The results contributed to the development of five principles for culturally responsive postsecondary performance measurement that include participatory, emergent and appreciative processes and qualitative evaluation methodologies.
The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of how co-creation, engagement, and participation work together to improve relationship quality within the context of co-creation in brand communities. The study uses a cross-sectional survey that was conducted among the members of various brand communities from Canada and the United States. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used to examine the strength, significance, and effect sizes of the relationships. The findings indicate that participation has a significant impact on brand community engagement and brand community relationship quality. Furthermore, responsible information behavior appears to be the most effective strategy to encourage participation and thereby increase engagement and relationship quality with the brand community. The results confirm previous researchers’ findings with regard to how to encourage participation and enhance relationship quality in the context of co-creation in brand communities. The study is unique in its ability to determine how these variables work together in order to achieve that goal, rather than studying their individual impacts on the construct. We are able to get a more augmented and strategic perspective on how to achieve the goals of engagement and enhanced relationship quality in brand communities.
A microwave-assisted digestion using only diluted nitric acid for the determination of 14 heavy metals including As, Cd, Hg, and Pb in cannabinoid-based food products using ICP-MS was developed and validated. Cannabinoid-based liquid beverage, powdered beverage, chocolate, and tea samples were digested using different nitric acid concentrations (20, 30, 40, 50, and 100% (v/v) HNO3) and evaluated for digestion efficiency using spike recovery studies. Spike recoveries for As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were all within 81–114% for all acid concentrations; hence, the use of 20% (v/v) HNO3 was selected in view of lower reagent consumption, lower dilution factors, and reduced spectral interferences associated with residual acidity. The developed method was further validated by detection limit, precision, and accuracy. Results showed that the proposed method was highly sensitive with detection limits within parts-per-trillion (ng L–1) levels. Notably, detection limits for Hg were within 2 to 10 ng L–1, making the proposed method comparable to other mercury detection methods. Furthermore, the recovery of majority of the metals analyzed is within 80–120% indicating good accuracy. Finally, the developed method was also applicable to samples with complex matrices such as chocolates. Therefore, it can potentially be used for routine analysis of heavy metals in cannabinoid-based products.
Let G be a simple graph with vertex set V(G) and edge set E(G). For x∈V(G), let NG(x)={y∈V(G)|xy∈E(G)} and NG(X)=⋃x∈XNG(x). For X⊆V(G), the number d(X)≔|X|−|NG(X)| is called difference of X and critical difference of G denoted by dc(G) is max{d(X)∣X⊆V(G)}. A set S⊆V(G) is a critical independent set if S is an independent set and d(S)=dc(G). Zhang (1990) proved that for every graph, there exists an independent set attaining the critical difference. Let Λ0(G) denote the family of all nonempty critical independent sets of G. If α(G)+μ(G)=|V(G)|, then G is called a König–Egerváry graph, where α(G) and μ(G) denote independence number and matching number of G, respectively. We define ker0(G) to be the intersection of all sets in Λ0(G) and core(G) to be the intersection of all maximum independent sets. In this paper, we characterize König–Egerváry graphs satisfying ker0(G)=core(G) in terms of Gallai–Edmonds Structure Theorem. As a corollary of this result, we solve an open problem posed by Jarden et al. (2018).
Invasive plants such as spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) are particularly detrimental to fragile ecosystems like semi-arid grasslands in the interior British Columbia, impacting aboveground and belowground ecology. Physical removal of C. stoebe has been one of the most popular invasive species management strategies, but the impact of C. stoebe removal on soil has hardly been studied. Here, we examine the legacy effect of C. stoebe on soil elemental composition and ecosystem function following its removal in the Lac Du Bios Grasslands Protected Area, British Columbia. First, we selected 40 paired C. stoebe invaded and control (uninvaded) plots and removed all vegetation from these plots. We planted Festuca campestris seedlings in these plots and harvested and weighed the biomass after four months. Additionally, we quantified total carbon and nitrogen in soil. We observed that C. stoebe invaded plots had significantly lower F. campestris biomass. Moreover, the total carbon and nitrogen content, and carbon/nitrogen ratio were significantly lower in C. stoebe invaded plots. We further analyzed 12 common soil elements and found the elemental composition was significantly different in C. stoebe invaded plots compared to controls. We investigated the impact of elemental composition on soil ecosystem functions (such as total soil carbon, total soil nitrogen, and F. campestris productivity). Our analysis revealed significant relationships amongst the elemental composition and total soil carbon and nitrogen, and F. campestris productivity. The results indicate that C. stoebe exerts a legacy effect by altering the soil elemental composition that may subsequently impacts soil ecosystem functions such as plant productivity and total carbon and nitrogen content.
This qualitative case study focused on the pre-participation phase of a three-year trial-run of a coteaching model for clinical practice within a teacher education program in western Canada. In this two-day workshop, teacher candidates, teacher mentors and faculty mentors worked in inter-professional groups on novel activities to discuss potential advantages and challenges. They identified five key issues necessary for the success of coteaching in their local context: Time, Building Relationships, Communication, Students See Teachers as Equal Partners, Engagement and Active Contribution. This pre-participation phase provided crucial support for upcoming coteaching by allowing concerns to be voiced and breaking down hierarchies.
Understanding the environmental, demographic, and anthropogenic factors driving the population dynamics of endangered species is critical to effective conservation. Habitat loss, fragmentation, and trapping all have been linked to declines in the endangered population of fishers Pekania pennanti in central British Columbia (BC), Canada, hereafter referred to as the Columbian population. Although the commercial trapping season for fishers has recently been closed in central BC, the animals are still taken in traps legally set for other furbearer species, and with this continuing source of mortality, the sustainability of this vulnerable population remains unclear. We constructed population viability models in the program Vortex to evaluate the specific impacts that trapping mortality would have on Columbian fisher population persistence under different trapping scenarios. Our modeling predicted that current mortality sources, including deaths in traps set for other species, will cause the population to disappear within 11 yr. When fur harvest mortality was removed from our modeling, the Columbian population appeared unlikely to persist beyond 37 yr. Our analysis provides evidence that along with the continued trapping closure for fishers in central BC, it is likely necessary to modify trapping regulations and methods (including restricting the use of kill traps) for other furbearers within Columbian fisher range to sufficiently reduce mortality from bycatch and help to avoid extirpation of the population in the near future. Additionally, identifying areas where fishers are actively breeding and protecting these habitats from further disturbances will be needed to increase survival and reproductive rates to levels high enough to reverse population declines over the longer term.
The United Kingdom (UK) construction industry is world renowned for its volatile boom and bust cycle, its inefficiencies, heavy environmental impact and recurring budget and programme overruns. The Construction 2025 Strategy was published by the UK Government and industry leaders with a vision of changing the industry for the better using four key targets i.e., reduction in construction projects duration, operational cost, level of greenhouse gas emissions, and import/export trade gap. This paper investigates whether a greater uptake in modern methods of construction (MMC) could help us achieve these targets. Key insights and findings from the existing literature on MMCs cost, time, greenhouse gas emissions and trade factors were analysed with strong indications of MMCs benefit to the targets. By using snowball sampling a quantitative survey was conducted on 134 professional working in the Architectural, Engineering and Construction sectors of UK with 23 questions on the four key targets. Cronbach’s Alpha and Pearson correlation analysis techniques were employed in conjunction with factor ranking to determine the internal validity, factor links and most important factors. The results showed that the majority of respondents believed that MMC could help us achieve the construction 2025 targets, with a similarity index ranking revealing that MMC would be of the most benefit to the greenhouse gas emissions and trade targets, however, all factors ranked tightly together. This body of research will benefit the UK Government, construction associations and industrial key stakeholders in their pursuit of reaching the reduction targets, and with only three years until the deadline, there is a strong chance they will promote MMC in the industry.
To identify barriers and facilitators to nursing care of individuals with developmental disabilities (DDs). Individuals with DDs experience health disparities. Nurses, although well positioned to provide optimal care to this population, face challenges. Narrative review of extant published peer‐reviewed literature. Electronic databases, ProQuest and EBSCO, were searched for studies published in English between 2000 and 2019. Three reviewers reviewed abstracts and completed data extraction. Knowledge synthesis was completed by evaluating the 17 selected studies. Emerging themes were: (1) barriers and challenges to nursing interventions; (2) facilitators to nursing care; and (3) recommendations for nursing education, policy and practice. Nursing has the potential to be a key partner in supporting the health of people with DDs. There is a need for specific education and training, so nurses are better equipped to provide care for people with DDs.
The elaborate ornamental plumage displayed by birds has largely been attributed to sexual selection, whereby the greater success of ornamented males in attaining mates drives a rapid elaboration of those ornaments. Indeed, plumage elaboration tends to be greatest in species with a high variance in reproductive success such as polygynous mating systems. Even among socially monogamous species, many males are extremely colourful. In their now-classic study, Møller and Birkhead (1994) suggested that increased variance in reproductive success afforded by extra-pair paternity should intensify sexual selection pressure and thus an elaboration of male plumage and sexual dichromatism, but the relatively few measures of extra-pair paternity at the time prevented a rigorous test of this hypothesis. In the nearly three decades since that paper’s publication, hundreds of studies have been published on rates of extra-pair paternity and more objective measures of plumage colouration have been developed, allowing for a large-scale comparative test of Møller and Birkhead’s (1994) hypothesis. Using an analysis of 186 socially monogamous passerine species with estimates of extra-pair paternity, our phylogenetically controlled analysis confirms Møller and Birkhead’s (1994) early work, demonstrating that rates of extra-pair paternity are positively associated with male, but not female, colouration and with the extent of sexual dichromatism. Plumage evolution is complex and multifaceted, driven by phylogenetic, ecological, and social factors, but our analysis confirms a key role of extra-pair mate choice in driving the evolution of ornamental traits.
Research suggests that when dealing with personal setbacks, secondary control (SC) adjustment and acceptance beliefs can foster psychological wellbeing. However, little research has examined these beliefs, in combination, and how they impact students in their academic development. We conducted secondary analysis using an eight-month longitudinal study design over a two-semester introductory course on a sample of university students (n = 237; 64% female; Mage = 19 years old). Multiple regression analyses assessed whether the students’ Semester 1 adjustment and acceptance SC beliefs influenced Semester 2 learning-related emotions, perceived stress, and perceived course success, and whether Adjustment x Acceptance interactions emerged involving these outcomes. Adjustment beliefs promoted learning-related positive emotions (hope, pride), perceived course success, and reduced perceived stress; acceptance predicted higher shame and perceived stress. Students’ adjustment predicted lower helplessness for students with high acceptance beliefs. These findings are discussed in light of the role that SC beliefs might play in curbing psychological distress reported by students on postsecondary campuses.
The leading journals in the history of sport publish book reviews which are a longstanding and visible feature of the discipline. Indeed, some journals allocate almost as much space to reviews as to scholarly articles. In this article I analyze and evaluate the contributions that book reviews make to the production of knowledge and to building disciplinary and social cohesiveness in the field. Following Pierre Bourdieu, I argue that book reviews play important roles in communities of professional scholars and the way that members position themselves and engage with, relate to, and judge one another. I illustrate this with a case study of 271 book reviews published in Sporting Traditions (the official journal of the Australian Society for Sports History) between 1984 and 1995. The case study yields two particularly relevant conclusions. First, the level of historiographical analysis presented in book reviews is typically minimal with rigorous, detailed and perceptive analyses uncommon. Second, most reviewers adopt mitigating strategies to temper or dilute their criticisms.
Across three experiments, we examined the impact of both corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate social irresponsibility (CSIR) on consumer taste evaluations. The current research demonstrates that CSIR information consistently negatively impacts perceptions of taste across both hedonic and utilitarian food products. Specifically, it translates to perceptions of inferior taste in food products, an effect mediated by both guilt and quality perceptions. Notably, the majority of CSR research focuses on attitudes toward the firm versus actual product experiences. Accordingly, firms should consider how information related to CSR/CSIR can impact not only attitudes toward the firm but the consumption experiences with specific products. En se basant sur trois expériences, les auteurs de la présente étude examinent l'impact de la responsabilité sociale des entreprises (RSE) et de l'irresponsabilité sociale des entreprises (IRSE) sur les évaluations du goût des consommateurs. Les résultats montrent que les informations relatives à la RSE ont un impact négatif constant sur la perception du goût des produits alimentaires, que ces derniers soient hédoniques ou utilitaires. Plus précisément, la perception se traduit par des impressions de goût inférieur dans les produits alimentaires, un effet que modèrent les perceptions de culpabilité et de qualité. Il convient de noter que la majorité des recherches sur la RSE portent essentiellement sur les attitudes à l’égard de l'entreprise et non sur les expériences réelles liées au produit. Par conséquent, les entreprises ont intérêt à tenir compte de la manière dont les informations relatives à la RSE/IRSE sont susceptibles d'influer non seulement sur les attitudes envers l'entreprise, mais aussi sur les expériences de consommation liées à des produits particuliers.
Due to the massive amount of data being generated on the platform, Twitter has been the subject of numerous sentiment analysis studies. Such social network services generate massive unstructured data streams which make working with them very challenging. The aim of this study is to reliably analyze the sentiment of trending tweets in the Twitter API data stream using a combination of different algorithms to achieve a consensus. The methods we implemented include Support-Vector Machine, Naive Bayes, Textblob, and Lexicon Approach. The hypothesis is that using these methods together would enable us to get more accurate results. Using a labeled dataset to test our model, the results show that the combination of these four algorithms all together performed best with an overall accuracy of 68.29%. We conclude that our combination method of analysis is suitable and fast enough for our data stream and also accurate for analyzing sentiment.
This present research thrives to design a waste converter reactor plant (WCRP) with which waste from various sources subjected to combustion and distillation process will generate bio-fuels, solid minerals and petrochemical feed stocks for further applications. Material and energy balance principles were applied in hands with some principles of thermodynamics, mathematics and kinetics. Volume and functional parameters such as length, space time and space velocity, diameter and length of the stirrer and also heat generated per unit volume and temperature of the WCRP were considered in the design process. Simulation of the design models and results were obtained using MATrix LABoratory (MATLAB-Simulink) and other data analyses simulators. Reactor performance equations for the reactor and major equipment were developed from first principle by the application of the principles of conservation of mass and energy. Dimensional and functional parameters of the waste converter reactor plant (WCRP) was also calculated. The results obtained for the dimensional and functional parameters at fractional conversion of 90% are: volume = 1.8m ³ , length = 1.0m, space time = 16.6hrs, space velocity = 0.06hr ⁻¹ , heat load = 5.55*10 ⁵ J.
To assess wildfire risk linked to lightning-caused wildfires, the present study tests the spatial and temporal scale distribution variability of lightning fires in western Canada between 1981 and 2018. We examined clustering, trends, the distances between clusters, and the fire season. For this study, the nearest neighbors, K-function, Moran’s I, Mann-Kendall and the Getis-ord Gi* statistics were used. These statistics were visualized by a Space Time Cube model with a hexagon grid. Lightning-ignited wildfires cluster spatially up to 270 km with an observed overall non-significant decreasing trend for number of fires. Overall, Northeastern Alberta, central Saskatchewan and southeastern British Columbia show clustering of lightning fires. In June, there is significant clustering in northwestern and eastern Alberta, while in July fires cluster in northeastern Alberta and in southeastern British Columbia. In August, fire clusters occurred only in southeastern and south-central British Columbia. These results highlight regions that are experiencing persistent lightning fire clustering activity. This provides a focal point to assess wildfire risk to communities and values at risk, while informing local and regional management agencies in preparedness, resource capacity management and detection. Additionally, it provides a baseline for future research into biophysical modeling of wildfire initiations.
Athletes have long been activists, but the historical presentation and understanding of that activism is complex, constantly shifting, and wrought with contradictions and paradoxes. In this article, I call attention to facts and narratives around social justice, including how kinesiology and its subdisciplines embrace and afford opportunities to women and racial and ethnic minorities and casts them in their visions for the future. Neither raw statistics of (under- or over-) representation nor promises of a brighter future are likely to have any impact or contribute to understanding until they are presented in coherent narratives that include, or are preferably created by, affected voices. Only when kinesiology is producing a critical volume of these narratives can it truly claim to be contributing to social justice.
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2,793 members
Mark Rakobowchuk
  • Department of Biology
Bala Nikku
  • Department of Social Work
Anne Marie Lavack
  • Department of Marketing, International Business and Entrepreneurship
Panagiotis Tsigaris
  • Department of Economics
Mike Flannigan
  • Department of Natural Resource Science
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900 McGill Road, V2C 0C8, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada
Head of institution
Brett Fairbairn
Website
www.tru.ca