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    ABSTRACT: The interleukin-1 gene cluster occupies a 360 kb region of chromosome 2q13 and contains nine homologous genes. These include agonists and antagonists of the parallel IL-1 and IL-36 systems, and IL1F7, the gene encoding IL-37. As the genes of the cluster are structurally and functionally related and have similar mRNA kinetics, we have sought evidence for gene induction-specific looping of chromatin in the IL-1 cluster by chromatin conformation capture (3C). We show here that IL1A, IL1B and IL1F7 regulatory regions come in close proximity in LPS stimulated cells but not in resting human monocytes. This suggests that IL1A, IL1B and IL1F7 are likely transcribed by the same transcription factory. One cardinal function of transcriptional Locus Control Region (LCR) is bringing map-distant activated genes into close physical proximity within the transcription factory. Our data show distant intergenic DNA segments are also in close proximity to the regulatory regions of the three genes. This may indicate that they are co-regulated and raise the possibility of a LCR within the cluster.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Cytokine
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    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · The Journal of infection
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    ABSTRACT: The activation of the complement cascade, a cornerstone of the innate immune response, produces a number of small (74-77 amino acid) fragments, originally termed anaphylatoxins, that are potent chemoattractants and secretagogues that act on a wide variety of cell types. These fragments, C5a, C4a, and C3a, participate at all levels of the immune response and are also involved in other processes such as neural development and organ regeneration. Their primary function, however, is in inflammation, so they are important targets for the development of anti-inflammatory therapies. Only three receptors for complement peptides have been found, but there are no satisfactory antagonists as yet, despite intensive investigation. In humans, there is a single receptor for C3a (C3a receptor), no known receptor for C4a, and two receptors for C5a (C5a(1) receptor and C5a(2) receptor). The most recently characterized receptor, the C5a(2) receptor (previously known as C5L2 or GPR77), has been regarded as a passive binding protein, but signaling activities are now ascribed to it, so we propose that it be formally identified as a receptor and be given a name to reflect this. Here, we describe the complex biology of the complement peptides, introduce a new suggested nomenclature, and review our current knowledge of receptor pharmacology.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Pharmacological reviews
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