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    ABSTRACT: Analysis of the cardiovascular system represents a classical problem in which the solid and fluid phases interact intimately, and so is a rich field of application for state-of-the-art fluid-solid interaction (FSI) analyses. In this paper, we focus on the human aorta. Solution of the full FSI problem requires knowledge of the material properties of the wall and information on vessel support. We show that variation of distensibility along the aorta can be obtained from four-dimensional image data using image registration. If pressure data at one point in the vessel are available, these can be converted to absolute values. Alternatively, values of pulse wave velocity along the vessel can be obtained. The quality of the extracted data is improved by the incorporation into the registration of a regularisation term based on the one-dimensional wave equation. The method has been validated using simulated data. For idealised vessels, the accuracy with which the distensibility and wave velocity can be extracted is high (1%-2%). The method is applied to six clinical datasets from patients with mild coarctation, for which it is shown that wave velocity along the aorta is relatively constant. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of the antiplatelet effect of low-dose aspirin led to the hugely successful strategy of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Increasing the dose of aspirin beyond 75-100 mg has never been shown to offer additional efficacy in ACS patients but could possibly increase the risk of bleeding. In the Platelet Inhibition and Patients Outcome (PLATO) study, higher doses of aspirin appeared to neutralise the additional benefit of the potent P2Y12 inhibitor ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel (Circulation 124: 544-554, 2011). However, higher doses of aspirin have not been shown to have an adverse interaction with the potent P2Y12 inhibition provided by prasugrel and double-dose clopidogrel (Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2013, in press; N Engl J Med 363: 930-942, 2010). This potentially suggests that the mechanism for this interaction is not related to the inhibition of platelet P2Y12 receptors or could simply be a chance finding.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
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    ABSTRACT: Cell- and tissue-based therapies are innovative strategies to repair and regenerate injured hearts. Despite major advances achieved in optimising these strategies in terms of cell source and delivery method, the clinical outcome of cell-based therapy remains unsatisfactory. The non-genetic approach of ischemic/hypoxic preconditioning to enhance cell- and tissue-based therapies has received much attention in recent years due to its non-invasive drug-free application. Here we discuss the current development of hypoxic/ischemic preconditioning to enhance stem cell-based cardiac repair and regeneration.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics
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