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- SourceAvailable from: Jillian Yeow[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Intermediation in innovation serves to establish or improve the link between different actors with complementary skill sets or interests in order to support the generation and diffusion of innovation. This article conceptualises and analyses intermediation between supply and demand using the example of public procurement of innovation. It defines specific intermediation needs and functions in different procurement situations and outlines the pre-condition for effective intermediation. The paper combines and contributes to the growing literature on innovation intermediation and public procurement of innovation.
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ABSTRACT: High-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems using Voltage-Source Converters (VSC) are widely recognized as offering significant potential for long distance high power delivery, particularly for offshore wind farm connections. One of the barriers for the development of multi-terminal HVDC systems is the lack of technologies which enable direct fault isolation. This paper will investigate DC fault current limiting technology to reduce fault currents to acceptable levels allowing DC circuit breakers to operate quickly and reliably. Superconducting fault current limiters (SFCL) are a promising candidate, satisfying most of the ideal fault current limitation requirements. This paper shows the potential for reducing the fault current to more acceptable levels using SFCLs in VSC-HVDC systems. A summary of the advantages and disadvantages of resistive and inductive SFCLs is also given. An SFCL limits DC fault current very effectively, reducing the fault current the HVDC circuit breaker would have to interrupt. The paper includes a detailed analysis of resistive and inductive SFCLs including aspects of practical design for use in commercial VSC-HVDC systems. Finally, key issues such as cryogenic cooling and superconducting material costs are highlighted.
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ABSTRACT: Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC) are presently the converter topology of choice for Voltage Source Converter High Voltage DC (VSC-HVDC) transmission schemes due to their very high efficiency. Accurate models of these complex MMC-HVDC systems are therefore required for research and development. There are numerous publications in this area; however these publications tend to focus on a particular component within the scheme, rather than the overall system. A key objective of this paper is to act as a guide for modelling MMC-HVDC systems by giving an overview of the process for developing a typical Multi-terminal (MT) MMC-HVDC (MTDC) model. The MTDC model developed in this paper is then employed to show the effect that selected MT control strategies can have on the MMC's arm currents.
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