107
341.51
3.19
536

Recent PublicationsView all

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To understand why cross-species infection of prion disease often results in inefficient transmission and reduced protein conversion, most research has focused on defining the effect of variations in PrP primary structures, including sequence compatibility of substrate and seed. By contrast, little research has been aimed at investigating structural differences between different variants of PrP(C) and secondary structural requirements for efficient conversion. This is despite a clear role for molecular chaperones in formation of prions in non-mammalian systems, indicating the importance of secondary/tertiary structure during the conversion process. Recent data from our laboratory on the cellular location of disease-specific prion cofactors supports the critical role of specific secondary structural motifs and the stability of these motifs in determining the efficiency of disease-specific prion protein conversion. In this paper we summarize our recent results and build on the hypothesis previously suggested by Wuthrich and colleagues, that stability of certain regions of the prion protein is crucial for protein conversion to abnormal isoforms in vivo. It is suggested that one role for molecular cofactors in the conversion process is to stabilize PrP(C) structure in a form that is amenable for conversion to PrP(Sc).
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Prion
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1) controls the proliferation and differentiation of cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system. CSF1, alongside a second ligand, interleukin-34 (IL-34), acts by binding to a cell surface receptor (CSF1R). We previously cloned and expressed pig CSF1 and IL-34. Here we produced a pig CSF1R-Ig+pFUSE Fc fusion protein and used it as an immunogen to produce three monoclonal antibodies (ROS8G11, ROS3A5 and ROS3B10) targeted against porcine CSF1R. Specific binding of each monoclonal antibody was confirmed by ELISA, western blot, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. The antibodies did not block CSF1 signalling. The surface expression of CSF1R in pig peripheral blood was restricted to CD14-positive monocytes and was also detected on lung macrophages. These antibodies provided an opportunity to investigate the increase of available CSF1R during pig BMDM differentiation. The new monoclonal antibodies provide useful reagents to support the study of monocyte and macrophage biology in the pig.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Developmental & Comparative Immunology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The human body consists of innumerable multifaceted environments that predispose colonization by a number of distinct microbial communities, which play fundamental roles in human health and disease. In addition to community surveys and shotgun metagenomes that seek to explore the composition and diversity of these microbiomes, there are significant efforts to sequence reference microbial genomes from many body sites of healthy adults. To illustrate the utility of reference genomes when studying more complex metagenomes, we present a reference-based analysis of sequence reads generated from 55 shotgun metagenomes, selected from 5 major body sites, including 16 sub-sites. Interestingly, between 13% and 92% (62.3% average) of these shotgun reads were aligned to a then-complete list of 2780 reference genomes, including 1583 references for the human microbiome. However, no reference genome was universally found in all body sites. For any given metagenome, the body site-specific reference genomes, derived from the same body site as the sample, accounted for an average of 58.8% of the mapped reads. While different body sites did differ in abundant genera, proximal or symmetrical body sites were found to be most similar to one another. The extent of variation observed, both between individuals sampled within the same microenvironment, or at the same site within the same individual over time, calls into question comparative studies across individuals even if sampled at the same body site. This study illustrates the high utility of reference genomes and the need for further site-specific reference microbial genome sequencing, even within the already well-sampled human microbiome.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · PLoS ONE
Information provided on this web page is aggregated encyclopedic and bibliographical information relating to the named institution. Information provided is not approved by the institution itself. The institution’s logo (and/or other graphical identification, such as a coat of arms) is used only to identify the institution in a nominal way. Under certain jurisdictions it may be property of the institution.